Property rights are essential for ensuring that natural resource assets, including land, water, and minerals, are used and maintained properly. Such rights can be designed and enforced formally by governments and courts as well as informally by customary authorities and through tradition. The Program examines how various institutional arrangements affect the distribution of wealth as well as incentives for investment and long-term security. Specific attention is directed at identifying effective ways to strengthen women’s property rights and to reduce the gender gap in assets. This includes both direct property rights interventions (e.g., legal empowerment programs) as well as indirect effects of agricultural development programs on the distribution of assets.