An analysis of trends and future prospects for root and tuber crops (R&T) shows that these crops will continue to contribute to the global food system in multiple ways in the decades ahead. Many of the developing world’s poorest and most undernourished households depend on R&T as a significant, if not the principal, source of food, nutrition, and cash income. Governments, research organizations, development agencies - in developed and developing countries - can build on the existing momentum with investments and policies to enable R&T to meet their expected potential. Growth rates in R&T production will continue to be highly differentiated, with production itself increasingly segmented by commodity and continent. Most of the additional potato production in developing countries up to 2020 will take place in China and India. In Sub-Saharan Africa, sweet potato and yam production will experience substantial growth over the next few decades, whereas sweet potato production will continue to be strong in several parts of China to cater to the rapidly growing demands for animal feed in the country.