• Project Papers and Notes
    This brief presents the results of a study of fertilizer supply to investigate supply-side constraints for fertilizer use by smallholder famers in Mozambique in which the government is implicated. The government actions that could constrain the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    To understand how different sectors in an economy interact with each other, economywide analyses, such as the computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, are often required. The database of a CGE model is usually the Social Accounting Matrix ...
  • Report
    This paper documents a Malawian Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) for the year 2007. The SAM is based on newly estimated supply-use tables, national accounts, government budgets, and balance of payments. The SAM reconciles these data using ...
  • Report
    This paper documents a Ugandan Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) for the year 2007. The SAM is based on newly estimated supply-use tables, national accounts, government budgets, and balance of payments. The SAM reconciles these data using ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The regulatory approval of genetically modified crops in the field initially requires small, restricted experimental trials known as confined field trials. These small scale experiments provide researchers with important information on ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study explores consumer acceptance and valuation of a genetically modified (GM) staple food crop in a developing country prior to its commercialization. We focus on the hypothetical introduction of a disease-resistant GM banana variety in ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This report has been defined in accordance with the initial terms of reference. I first tried to develop a vision of the long-term census and survey system through interviews held with diverse stakeholders. I thus identified the clients and their ...
  • Books and Monographs
    Several Sub-Saharan African nations have experienced increased economic growth and political stability in recent years compared with the stagnation and turmoil of previous decades. Ghana is one of the biggest success stories of the region; the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper presents a model of the Malawi maize commodity market that is developed for use as a policy analysis tool. The model captures national and local maize market dynamics and the linkages existing within the maize market in the country. ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Malnutrition rates among children 0 to 36 months and women of reproductive age in Nigeria are high and vary significantly across rural-urban locations, geopolitical zones, and agro-ecological zones, thereby constituting a significant public ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Malnutrition rates among children 0-36 months and women of reproductive age in Nigeria are high and vary significantly across rural-urban locations, geopolitical regions, and agroecological zones, constituting a significant public health ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Micronutrient deficiency is a widespread health problem in the developing world. Most efforts to combat this issue have focused on providing vitamin and mineral supplements to vulnerable population groups and/or fortifying foods through ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper reviews existing microeconomic empirical literature on gender differences in use, access, and adoption of nonland agricultural inputs in developing countries. This review focuses on four key areas: (1) technological resources, (2) ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Low fertilizer use is one of the many reasons for low agricultural productivity in Nigeria. Fertilizer use estimated at 13 kg/ha in 2009 by the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (FMARD), is far lower than the 200 kg/ha ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This study links smallholder livestock production data from the Agricultural Census (2001/02) and annual CSA agricultural sam-ple survey with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data on land cover, city population, and road networks in order to ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agriculture is the backbone of the Ghanaian economy. It plays an important role in the socioeconomic development of Ghana as it contributes to ensuring food security, provides raw materials for local industries, generates foreign exchange, and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Access to sufficient food and nutrients is essential for household welfare, as well as for accomplishing other development objectives. Households with insufficient access to food often face other challenges related to food insecurity including ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper considers vulnerability reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) from a more aggregated macro viewpoint. We focus on risk related to agriculture, since vulnerability and agriculture are intimately linked in SSA due to the location of the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Ghana has made considerable progress over the last 20 years in sustaining economic growth and reducing poverty. The Government of Ghana has declared its new development goal of reaching middle-income status by 2015. Achieving this goal will ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper describes how governments and philanthropic donors could drive innovation through a new kind of technology contest. We begin by reviewing the history of technology prizes, which operate alongside private intellectual property rights ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This study investigated access to agricultural extension and rural water supply and assessed strategies to improve the provision of these services by strengthening accountability. The study paid special attention to the gender dimension of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In recent years access to safe and reliable water supplies has received increased government attention in Ethiopia. As a result, the national coverage rate for this service has gradually improved. Yet millions of people in rural areas still do ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Significant changes in the agricultural sector in northern Mali suggest that irrigation has made a large contribution to welfare increases over the past eight years. Using difference-in-differences, propensity score matching, and matched ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agriculture is the backbone of Ghana’s economy, and this sector needs to play a key role if Ghana is to achieve the goal of becoming a middle income country by 2015. Despite its impressive progress in economic growth and poverty reduction, ...
  • The purpose of this project is to provide empirical evidence of the cost-effectiveness of technologies currently used in developing countries to reduce the risk of human and animal exposure to aflatoxin contamination and to understand what is ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Recent IFPRI research shows how coordinated investments in regional agricultural trade and productivity can leverage regional growth dynamics and improve Africa’s competitiveness in an increasingly globalized world. This brief looks at ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Uganda has experienced rapid economic growth and poverty reduction over the past decade but has failed to significantly improve incomes in its northern regions where prolonged conflict has hindered growth. We consider three strategies to close ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agricultural cooperatives in Ethiopia have received significant attention by researchers over the past ten years, highlighting their potential strength and limitations (e.g. Bernard et al. 2010, Francesconi 2010). This short note seeks to provide ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Drawing on a household survey collected in eight woredas in seven Ethiopian regions in 2009, as well as on qualitative fieldwork in four of the eight woredas, this paper provides analysis of agricultural extension delivery in Ethiopia. While ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Malawi has experienced modest economic growth over the last decade and a half. However, agricultural growth has been particularly erratic, and while the incidence of poverty has declined, it still remains high. The Malawian government, within the ...
  • Books and Monographs
    Agricultural development strategies that are put forward by individual African countries delineate priorities for actions to enhance agricultural and overall development. Understanding alternative agricultural growth options and their linkages ...
  • Discussion Papers
    An economywide, multimarket (EMM) model was developed for Rwanda to analyze the linkages and trade-offs between growth and poverty reduction goals at both macro- and micro-economic levels. The model includes 30 agricultural commodities or ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Over the past two decades, Uganda has experienced strong economic growth. However, agriculture has not performed as well as the rest of the economy in recent years, and while the incidence of poverty has declined, it is still substantially higher ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Zambia has experienced strong economic performance since 1999. However, agriculture has not performed as well as the rest of the economy, and although the incidence of poverty has declined, it still remains high. The Zambian government, within ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In any economy there are important economic linkages and trade-offs that need to be considered when designing policies or assessing their impacts. Various policy analysis tools can help policymakers understand these linkages and trade-offs. One ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Accelerating growth and poverty reduction, and the ultimate achievement of structural transformation, are the critical policy challenges in present day Ethiopia. This paper examines relevant growth options in terms of their impact on overall ...
  • Books and Monographs
    How much extra net income growth can be had in rural areas of Africa by increasing the spending power of local households? The answer depends on how rural households spend increments to income, whether the items desired can be imported to the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Rapid economic growth has failed to significantly improve poverty and nutrition outcomes in Tanzania. This raises concerns over a decoupling of growth, poverty, and nutrition. We link recent production trends to household incomes using a ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    A subsidy is defined as a payment, generally made from public resources, that reduces the price that a buyer pays for a good or service below the price at which the seller provides it. The difference between the sellers’ price and the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program (CAADP) includes a target of 6 percent annual agricultural growth, supported by the allocation of at least 10 percent of the national budget for agriculture. The Nigerian government has set ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This study assesses public investment required for agricultural growth and poverty reduction in Nigeria. Using time series data for public spending and agricultural total factor productivity (TFP) growth, the econometrically estimated results ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The majority of Nigeria’s smallholder farmers are often too poor to employ modern tools, such as tractors and plows, even with substantial government support. In this respect, an agricultural mechanization policy would need effective targeting ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Since 2007, the government of Ghana has been providing subsidized agricultural machines to private enterprises established as Agricultural Mechanization Services Enterprise Centers (AMSEC) to scale up tractor-hire services to smallholder farmers. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Anecdotal evidence indicates labor costs for farming in Nigeria are rising while levels of mechanization remain low. Information is scarce regarding the types of farm households that use mechanization in Nigeria and the potential demand for ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Evidence exists which shows growing disillusionment with and disinterest in agricultural-based livelihoods among the youth in Africa south of the Sahara. This disillusionment raises concerns for the future of agriculture for the developing world ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The survey was based on a stratified random sample of 3,000 households in the four main regions of Ethiopia: Tigray, Amhara, Oromiya, and the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People’s (SNNP) region. The selected households were dispersed ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Public spending on agriculture in Nigeria is exceedingly low. Less than 2 percent of total federal expenditure was allotted to agriculture during 2001 to 2005, far lower than spending in other key sectors such as education, health, and water. ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Following two decades of increasing investments, growth in public agricultural research spending (adjusted for inflation) largely stagnated in Sub-Saharan Africa during the 1980s and 1990s, at an average rate of about 1 percent per year. This ...
  • CD-Roms
    “During 2001-03, the Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators (ASTI) initiative, in close collaboration with the Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa (ASARECA), the West and Central African ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Participatory approaches are an increasingly prominent technique for designing agricultural strategies within Sub-Saharan Africa. However, such approaches are frequently criticized for either not involving enough stakeholders or limiting the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources (FMAWR) is updating Nigeria’s agricultural development strategy document to make it meet the requirement of evidence-based strategy formulation. In line with this goal, the FMAWR in ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper examines the importance of achieving high agricultural growth as a means of accelerating Ethiopia’s economic transformation. The conclusions are that a high rate of agricultural growth has farreaching positive implications for ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Agriculture is the main source of livelihood of the majority of people affected by HIV and AIDS globally, and it is being progressively undermined by the disease. In Sub-Saharan Africa AIDS is affecting the rural landscape in ways that demand a ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Economic development transforms an economy from one that is largely agricultural to one that is largely manufacturing and services. Since agriculture currently dominates Ethiopia’s economy and employment, however, there is an issue as to what its ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper has been prepared in support of the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program (CAADP) roundtable in Ghana. The study also takes a fresh perspective on the role of agriculture for development in light of the global food ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Malaria, schistosomiasis (bilharzia), and Japanese encephalitis are the major vector-borne diseases whose increase or decrease can be attributed to agricultural water development (see table). Others include dengue fever, yellow fever, and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    A farmer-managed, agroenvironmental transformation has occurred over the past three decades in the West African Sahel, enabling both land rehabilitation and agricultural intensification to support a dense and growing population. This paper traces ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper uses case studies of Bangladesh, Ghana, Rwanda, and Senegal to assess the degree to which the L’Aquila Food Security Initiative (AFSI) has been implemented within the framework of managing for development results (MfDR) and to evaluate ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper assesses the degree to which the L’Aquila Food Security Initiative (AFSI) has been implemented in Ghana within the framework of managing for development results (MfDR), and to evaluate progress in various outcomes, including economic ...
  • Booklets
    Poor people in developing countries struggle continually to fight hunger,malnutrition, ill health, and deepening poverty.The alarming spread of HIV/AIDS has made their struggle even more difficult. Hit by this syndrome, the poor lose their ...
  • Booklets
    It is easy to forget in the complicated world of global AIDS politics that for many people around the world, AIDS is one additional burden on top of many others. AIDS does not occur in a vacuum. People’s basic concerns remain the same as they ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    It is almost certain that Ghana will become one of the few African countries to achieve the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG1) earlier than the target year of 2015. The country is also in a good position to sustain the 6 percent ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Around the world, it is recognized in agricultural production and processing that energy (farm power) is perhaps the second most important input besides land). Yet the agricultural sector in Nigeria has access to less than one percent of the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The main objective of agricultural statistics is to provide information on agricultural production. The data collected include the range and quantity of crops and livestock produced; the amount of land put to crop or livestock production; how the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The Uganda offices of WFP, UNICEF, and FAO commissioned the Kampala office of the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) to assess the likely impact of rising world food prices on the welfare and food security of Ugandan households. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Uganda has made notable progress in reducing micronutrient deficiencies in recent years, but the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) and anemia among children under 5 remain unacceptably high. According to World Health Organization criteria, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Poultry keeping in Kenya plays a major role as a livelihood source, an income generating activity as well meeting other socio‐cultural roles. Poultry production is, however, threatened by the emerging HPAI threat that has devastated other parts ...
  • Discussion Papers
    We analyze the evolution of Sub-Saharan Africa’s agricultural total factor productivity (TFP) over the past 40 years, looking for evidence of recent changes in growth patterns using a nonparametric Malmquist index. Our TFP estimates show a ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Impacts of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) can cause reverberations throughout the poultry marketing chain. In Nigeria, peak HPAI outbreaks in February 2006 and February 2007 affected 3,057 farms and farmers; 1.3 million of the country’s ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Uganda’s economy remains heavily dependent on the agricultural sector. In 2008/09, the agricultural sector contributed 90 percent of total export earnings, generated 23.7 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and directly or indirectly ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Uganda’s economy remains heavily reliant on the agricultural sector. The agricultural sector contributes about 90 percent of total export earnings, generates about 23.7 percent of total Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and directly or indirectly ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Animal traction is still relevant for some farming communities in the northern regions. Findings suggest draft animals (bullocks and donkeys) are used to perform a wide set of activities ranging from land preparation, weeding, on-farm and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The recent state’s interest in agricultural mechanization has largely focused on the provision of tractors and imported machinery to the farming population. Animal traction has not received much attention from the country’s policymakers. ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The objective of this brief is to analyze available data on public agriculture expenditure in Africa—with a particular focus on Ghana—to assess the commitment of African governments to the agriculture sector, which they themselves have formally ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Vitamin A deficiency is a major health problem in Africa and in many other developing countries. Biofortified staple crops that are high in beta-carotene and adapted to local growing environments have the potential to significantly reduce the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Kenyan horticultural exports are often cited as a success story in African agriculture. Fruit and vegetable exports from Côte ‘Ivoire have received less attention, but the export value is similar to that of Kenya. This paper focuses on ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Debates around Common Property Resources and Intellectual Property Rights fail to consider traditional and indigenous rights regimes that regulate plant resource exploitation, establish bundles of powers and obligations for heterogeneous groups ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Today’s resource boom in Africa, driven by Asian economic growth, offers new opportunities for resource-rich African countries. Contrary to the experience of previous booms, however, most mining profits now accrue to foreign companies, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agriculture in Ghana accounts for about 40 percent of national economy, three quarters of export earnings, and employs 60 percent of the labor force. Agriculture is the backbone of the economy (McKay and Aryeetey, 2004) and the sector has served ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study measures the vulnerability of farmers to climatic extremes such as droughts, floods and hailstorms, by employing the “vulnerability as expected poverty” approach. This approach is based on estimating the probability that a given shock ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In 2008, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) established multistakeholder platforms in the agricultural sector known as agricultural and rural management councils (CARGs). The aim of CARGs is achieving a decentralized governance of the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    While some African countries have not yet experienced outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), they remain vulnerable, both in terms of susceptibility and potential economic losses. Kenya is one of these vulnerable countries. Its ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This study is part of a larger effort to explore the impact of agricultural research on poverty reduction. It examines the diffusion and impact of hybrid maize in selected resettlement areas of rural Zimbabwe, paying particular attention ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “This study is part of a larger effort to explore the impact of agricultural research on poverty reduction. It examines the diffusion and impact of hybrid maize in selected resettlement areas of rural Zimbabwe, paying particular attention ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In recent years, microfinance institutions are seen as beacons of hope to help eradicate poverty through, among others, providing credit to poor rural households. Availability of small but repeated loans is, in the long-term, expected to impact ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Despite many efforts to ease Nigerian farmers’ access to quality and affordable fertilizer, it remains a key challenge for Nigerian agricultural policymakers As a result, the Nigerian government is experimenting with implementing a fertilizer ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This study analyzes the application of an input voucher program implemented in 2009 in two Nigerian states, Kano and Taraba. Using primary data collected from 1000 households, we explore the effect of the voucher program on the quantity and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agriculture is the mainstay for Uganda’s economy, providing both food and foreign exchange. Liberalization of the economy and expansion of the area under cultivation led to a steady growth of the agricultural sector in the 1990s of over 4 percent ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The Ghana Strategy Support Program (GSSP) aims to build the capacity of agricultural stakeholders in Ghana to develop and implement agricultural and rural devel-opment policy reforms. This summary outlines findings from an IFPRI-commissioned ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper examines household asset dynamics and gender-differentiated asset inequality over a 20-year period (1988–2008) in northern Nigeria. We show that the initial endowments of both household capital and livestock holdings are inconsistent ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This paper contributes to the economic analysis of marriage and the family by examining and analyzing the relative importance of potential determinants of assets brought to marriages in rural Ethiopia. One potential determinant is ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “This paper contributes to the economic analysis of marriage and the family by examining and analyzing the relative importance of potential determinants of assets brought to marriages in rural Ethiopia. One potential determinant is ...
  • CD-Roms
    CD-Rom One important impediment to improved policies and investments for poor and rural people in Africa has been a lack of data on actual conditions. To begin to help fill this data gap, the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) ...
  • Booklets
    One important impediment to improved policies and investments for poor and rural people in Africa has been a lack of data on actual conditions. To begin to help fill this data gap, the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) worked ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This paper examines attrition in the KwaZulu-Natal Income Dynamics Study (1993-1998) and assesses the extent of attrition bias for a specific empirical example. The analysis shows that 1993 first round nonresponse is largely unrelated to ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Recent trends in agricultural growth and food security in Eastern and Central Africa (ECA) have been discouraging. With very low labor productivity, yields, and growth rates, agriculture is unable to keep up with population growth or achieve the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper provides a background on past and current efforts to generate national agricultural production estimates for Uganda across a range of institutions. Several sets of issues related to the design of a sustainable and spatially ...
  • Discussion Papers
    We examine the role of gender in adoption and diffusion of orange sweet potato, a biofortified staple food crop being promoted as a strategy to increase dietary intakes of vitamin A among young children and adult women in Uganda. As an ...
  • Publication
    Au cours de la dernière décennie, le Bénin a connu une augmentation des investissements en R&D agricole par suite d’une intensification de la participation du secteur d’enseignement supérieur à la recherche et d’une volonté accrue du ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Fatalism is considered pervasive, especially in many poor communities. In this paper, we explore whether fatalistic beliefs have implications for the attitudes and behavior of poor rural households toward investment in the future. To explore the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Large private investments in biofuels are presently underway in Mozambique. This paper uses an economywide model to assess the implications of these investments for growth and income distribution. Our results indicate that biofuels provide an ...
  • Discussion Papers
    South Africa is the only country in Africa that has both adopted genetically modified (GM) crops and developed a functional biosafety system to manage any risks related to the use of GM products. But it is also one of the only countries that ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    By just about any measure, Blue Skies Limited is a financial and economic success story. Over the past decade, sales have grown by an average of 28 percent per year, the company now employs close to 3,000 workers, and it works with hundreds of ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Food security in Malawi is generally equated with adequate maize production as the country’s main staple crop accounts for more than 60 percent of total food consumption. Malawi has a long history of subsidizing agricultural inputs, either as a ...
  • Discussion Papers
    There is a high degree of interest in the potential for agricultural programs to be designed and implemented to achieve health and nutrition objectives. Policymakers have often looked to the experience of civil society organizations in designing ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Rural household economies dependent on rainfed agriculture are increasingly turning to irrigation technology solutions to reduce the effects of weather variability and guard against inconsistent and low crop output. Organizations are increasingly ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper aims to empirically infer potential causal linkages between fruit and vegetable (F&V) production, individual F&V intake, household food security, and anemia levels for individual women caregivers of childbearing age. Using a ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The Agricultural Policy Support Facility (APSF) is an initiative to strengthen evidence-based policymaking in Nigeria in the areas of rural and agricultural development. Facilitated by the Nigeria Strategy Support Program of the International ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper deals with the human resource development and institutional capacity strengthening in Nigeria as they relate to policy analysis and research capacity in addressing the problems of poverty and food security. The findings of the paper ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Ghana’s “market queens,” itinerant traders who purchase tomatoes from rural farms and bring them to the large urban markets, are accused of acting as a cartel, both driving down the price farmers receive and driving up the price urban consumers ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    A large proportion of Malawian households are caught in a trap where poverty and food insecurity reinforce one another and where periods of food deficits and severe food crises are frequent occurrences. In recognition of this, the Malawian ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The Federal Government of Nigeria, through the FMAWR, envisions improving its food security by facilitating equitable access, availability and affordability of quality foods to all Nigerian. This vision has become more important as global food ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Among the many devastating consequences of the AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa, the rapidly growing orphan population demands particular attention. Today, over 12 million children in the region have been orphaned by AIDS, a population that is ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The implications of China’s growth for the development prospects of Sub-Saharan Africa have been the subject of recent attention. Interest in this topic is motivated by the increasing presence of China in the region and the growing ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Maize is the primary food staple in southern Africa, and 50 percent of the total maize output in the area is produced in South Africa, where maize constitutes approximately 70 percent of grain production and covers 60 percent of the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Using data from microenterprises of the handloom sector in four regions of Ethiopia, the paper shows that clustering, through specialization and division of labor, can lower entry barriers by reducing the initial capital required to start a ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The combination of increasingly globalizing agricultural markets, rapidly modernizing local value chains, and urbanizing distribution channels presents African smallholders with considerably more complex challenges than those faced by Asian ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The adoption of intensified cattle-feeding techniques by smallholders in Sub-Saharan Africa has been slower than anticipated. This study seeks to better define and understand the role of local collective action in conditioning the strategies that ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Collective action can help individuals, groups, and communities achieve common goals, thus contributing to poverty reduction. Drawing on longitudinal household and qualitative community data, the authors examine the impact of shocks on household ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The primary inquiry of this study is to identify and understand the underlying factors that enable smallholder farmer groups to improve their market situation. The specific objective of this paper is to examine to what extent certain group ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “CARE began PROSPECT (Program of Support for Poverty Elimination and Community Transformation) in 1998. PROSPECT aims to reduce poverty in peri-urban areas of Lusaka. It employs a community-based approach to carry out three types of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “CARE began PROSPECT (Program of Support for Poverty Elimination and Community Transformation) in 1998. PROSPECT aims to reduce poverty in peri-urban areas of Lusaka. It employs a community-based approach to carry out three types of ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “Yamauchi and Nishiyama are interested in the relationship between local inequality and the quality of human capital investment and growth. In this paper, they examine the impact of unequal income distribution on the ability of a community ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “To examine how local income distribution affects both a community’s ability to pay for schooling and the quality of that schooling, this research merges household and school census data from South Africa. Empirical results are ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The Nigerian Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Analysis (CFSVA) provides an in-depth assessment of the food security situation within Nigeria. This is very important as it equips policymakers with timely and relevant information that ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The importance of agriculture in Nigeria’s economy cannot be understated. Farming and livestock rearing is the main livelihood for over 70 percent of households in the country. In 2008, agriculture contributed 42 percent of the country’s GDP, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper reviews the constraints hindering growth of agricultural productivity in Nigeria by providing an overview of the policy environment that affects agricultural productivity, establishing how the policy environment affects ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agriculture is the principal source of food and livelihood in Nigeria, and employs nearly three-quarters of the nation’s work force. Over the past two decades, agricultural yields have stayed the same or declined. Although there has been a ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This study analyzes consumer acceptance of biofortified orange maize in rural Zambia by eliciting consumers’ willingness to pay. It attempts to examine the impact of nutrition information, comparing the use of simulated radio versus community ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This paper synthesizes the results of five studies using household panel data from Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Mali, Mexico and Russia, which examine the extent to which households are able through formal and/or informal arrangements to insure their ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper synthesizes the results of five studies using household panel data from Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Mali, Mexico and Russia, which examine the extent to which households are able through formal and/or informal arrangements to insure their ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This study examines the consumption patterns of livestock products in Ethiopia. The contribution of livestock products to households’ daily consumption is very limited. A considerable difference exists between urban and rural areas and the ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “This paper explores risk sharing in the Zone Lacustre, Mali, as viewed through the lens of consumption smoothing. We find that idiosyncratic shocks appear to have little impact on consumption, and that households respond to these shocks in ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This paper explores risk sharing in the Zone Lacustre, Mali, as viewed through the lens of consumption smoothing. We find that idiosyncratic shocks appear to have little impact on consumption, and that households respond to these shocks in ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Cassava was imported from Latin America some 300 years ago, and colonial governments in Africa used it as a famine-reserve crop. Over time cassava spread to over 40 countries in Sub-Sahara Africa, and Nigeria is now the largest cassava producer ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper examines the extent of cooperative behaviour in rural Uganda as recorded in the most recent nationally representative household survey. Summary statistics on the presence of marketing cooperatives, recently formed National Agricultural ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    An economywide, multimarket model is constructed for Ghana and the effects of agricultural soil erosion on crop yields are explicitly modeled at the subnational regional level for eight main staple crops. The model is used to evaluate the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    An economywide, multimarket model is constructed for Ghana and the effects of agricultural soil erosion on crop yields are explicitly modeled at the subnational regional level for eight main staple crops. The model is used to evaluate the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Governments play a key role in supporting populations affected by natural disasters, including rebuilding infrastructure to ensure continued services and scaling-up public safety nets to prevent widespread hunger and poverty. However, the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In rural economies encumbered by significant market imperfections, farming decisions may partly be motivated by nutritional considerations, in addition to income and risk factors. These imperfections create the potential for farm assets to have ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Ethiopia’s crop agriculture is complex, involving substantial variation in crops grown across the country’s different regions and ecologies. Five major cereals (teff, wheat, maize, sorghum and barley) are the core of Ethiopia’s agriculture and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper presents an overview of crop agriculture in Ethiopia, focusing mainly on cereal production. Ethiopia’s crop agriculture continues to be dominated by the country’s numerous small farms that cultivate mainly cereals for both ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study is to examine the labor requirements associated with different cropping systems in Ghana in order to guide the prioritization of investments in mechanization in the country. First, major cropping systems are identified in the country ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The key motivation behind this study is to explore the many patterns of interactions between economic and non-economic factors in sub-Saharan Africa (hereafter referred to as Africa) in order to map out a typology of different types of country ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The evidence of improved performance of the agricultural sector in Sub‐Saharan Africa (SSA) in recent years has indeed been quite striking. For the first time, agricultural gross domestic product (AgGDP) per capita has maintained a real growth ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Nigeria’s efforts to decentralize its government system are aimed at improving service delivery. However, access to important social and economic services remains limited, especially for rural populations. The deficiencies in service delivery ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa. The 2006 provisional census counted over 140 million people (United Nations 2007), 64 percent of whom live in rural areas. These rural areas are undergoing radical, noticeable change, particularly ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Uganda introduced the decentralization policy in 1997 under the Local Government Act of 1997 that has since undergone four amendments. The policy inherently decentralized service delivery institutions and their governance in order to improve ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The substantial differences in agricultural productivity between Asia and Africa can be largely explained by differences in use of modern inputs. The evidence suggests that better access to infrastructure (such as roads and irrigation) and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Using a large household survey data, this study examines the impact of government involvement in agricultural service provision on the use of modern inputs by farmers in Nigeria. The empirical methodology used in this study is based on the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper provides an exploratory analysis that highlights the implications of a new stage in the implementation of decentralization reforms in Ghana on agricultural service delivery. These recent developments begun in 2011, and as described at ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Smallholders in Ghana, as elsewhere, are widely considered to be the largest as well as the most vulnerable component of the rural sector. Ghana professes national development objectives of reducing rural poverty through the increased ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Despite recent studies on improved seed varieties estimating the adoption rates of maize in 1998 at 40 percent (Manyong et al. 2000) and rice at 60 percent (Larsson 2005), true adoption rates appear to be unknown. This knowledge gap exists due to ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Demand patterns for improved seed vary significantly among individual farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa because of the different capacity of farmers to overcome various constraints. Understanding these differences is crucial for speeding up the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Small-scale private irrigation (SPRI) schemes make up most of the irrigated area in Nigeria, although they constitute only about three percent of the cultivated area in the country. Farmers’ demand for SPRI is potentially affected by diverse sets ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Although there is growing evidence of the increasing role of nonfarm activities in rural livelihoods, there is still relatively little empirical evidence regarding the factors that influence smallholder farmers to diversify into nonfarm ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Ongoing debate over water resource management in the Nile basin and continuing land degradation in agricultural areas of Ethiopia suggest a need for efficient mechanisms to improve agricultural output in the Blue Nile basin in Ethiopia. Numerous ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Recent estimates showing increase in the incidence of poverty in Uganda has kindled interest in understanding the factors that cause changes in poverty, as the reversal of the positive trend in the 1990s threatens the government’s ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study identifies the major methods used by farmers to adapt to climate change in the Nile Basin of Ethiopia, the factors that affect their choice of method, and the barriers to adaptation. The methods identified include use of different crop ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Ethiopia’s agricultural sector, which is dominated by smallscale, mixed-crop, and livestock farming, is the mainstay of the country’s economy. It constitutes more than half of the country’s gross domestic product, generates more ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Bridging the research and policy divide remains a top priority on the Nigerian federal government’s agenda. This renewed commitment paved the way for the Agricultural Support Facility Project (APSF), which seeks to, among other things, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “The paper discusses the application of the Water Poverty Index (WPI) as a monitoring tool for Benin’s water sector. Benin is currently in a process of political decentralization shifting responsibility for and administration of rural ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “The choices that smallholder farmers are able to make are strongly conditioned by the geographic conditions in which they live. The importance of this fact for rural development strategy is not lost on policy makers. For example, the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “The choices that smallholder farmers are able to make are strongly conditioned by the geographic conditions in which they live. The importance of this fact for rural development strategy is not lost on policy makers. For example, the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper describes an action research process undertaken with four African agricultural carbon projects—CARE’s Sustainable Agriculture in Changing Climate Initiative in Western Kenya; World Vision’s Assisted Natural Regeneration Project in ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Though input vouchers are increasingly being used as a mechanism to target subsidies in developing countries, limited empirical evidence of their performance relative to other distribution mechanisms exist. Consequently this study contributes to ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In 2013 the Bureaus of Agriculture in the regional states of Amhara, Oromia, and Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples of Ethiopia supported a program of direct marketing of certified seed by seed producers to farmers across 31 woredas ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Decentralization is expected to lead to greater efficiency in the allocation of public resources, as subnational governments are said to have better information than central government about the needs for and requirements of public services in ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Theories of fiscal federalism imply that determining intergovernmental transfers based on the political incentives results in inefficient allocation of resources across geographic regions. Such practices also can result in tensions between ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Analyses of how coveted central-government resources in Africa are shared have shown widespread patronage, ethnic cronyism, and pork-barrel politics. While some governments have attempted to rectify the situation by establishing revenue-sharing ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The migration of household members is potentially an attractive pathway out of poverty for many rural households in developing countries. Such households face the challenge of maintaining or improving their livelihoods in the presence of capital ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This background paper attempts to expand our understanding of the gender-differentiated impact of shocks on assets through a literature review on shocks and gendered asset dynamics and an analysis of new panel data (2007 and 2009) from Uganda and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Expectations are high that transition in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Yemen will bring about more freedom, justice, and economic opportunities. However, experiences from other world regions show that countries in transition are at high risk of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Manufacturing is intensive in the use of reproducible factors and exhibits greater technological dynamism than primary production. As such, its growth is central to long-run development in low-income countries. African countries are latecomers to ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Standard economic models suggest that individuals participate in migration to improve their well-being, whether those decisions are made at the individual or the household level. However, explicit and implicit barriers to movement both within and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of irrigation on household food security and poverty using a case study of Bwanje Valley Irrigation Scheme in Malawi. Data used in the analysis were collected from 412 households – 169 ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Developing countries, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa, continue to face insurmountable challenges in building and sustaining capacity for development. Although donor assistance for capacity development has been estimated to be about 25 percent ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Previous research has suggested that urban agriculture has a positive impact on the household food security and nutritional status of low-socioeconomic status groups in cities in Sub-Saharan Africa, but a formal test of the link between ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Malawi suffers frequent droughts and floods. In an economy that is heavily dependent on the agricultural sector, it is crucial to understand the implications of these extreme climate events. Not only are rural livelihoods affected due to the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The paper develops a metric of structural transformation that can account for the production of new varieties of goods embodying advancements in technological know-how and design. Our measure captures the dynamics of an economy’s ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Agriculture in African South of the Sahara (SSA) can be transformed if the right public support is provided at the initial stage, and it can sustain itself once the enabling environment is put in place. Successes are also specific to the location ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Rice plays an important role and has potential in the development strategy for many West African countries, including Ghana. Among major crops, rice has the highest potential for overall agricultural growth and for generating the greatest ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The countries of Eastern and Central Africa are heavily dependent on agriculture, and seeds are a key input in agricultural production.Yet in each country in Eastern and Central Africa, the seed industry faces different laws, standards, and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    We estimate households’ willingness-to-pay for rural feeder roads in Ethiopia. Using a quasi-experimental setting, we find that the benefits of reducing transportation costs by 50 US dollars per metric ton of goods (agricultural surplus, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Ghana is often considered an African development success story. Over the past two decades, the country experienced strong and steady economic growth in a stable and democratic political environment. Broad-based growth over the past two ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The extent to which growth reduces poverty has been disputed for years, as has the controversy surrounding trade-offs between policies that seek growth and those that address equity. Structural models linking economic growth and the distribution ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper examines macro-economic developments in Ethiopia between 2004/05 and 2008/09, focusing on the external accounts and the real exchange rate. Simulations using a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model of Ethiopia’s economy show that, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Ethiopia enjoyed remarkable economic growth from 2004/05 to 2008/09, in large part due to increases in foreign transfers and capital inflows combined with expanded domestic credit to fund major increases in private and public investments in ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This brief focuses on growth patterns, structural change and agglomeration to assess the progress of economic transformation in Ghana. While Ghana has been seen as a successful story in Africa because of its sustainable growth performance and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    One of the earliest and most central insights from the literature on economic development is that development entails structural change. The countries that manage to pull out of poverty and get richer are those that are able to diversify away ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Encouraging signs of growth acceleration in Africa may herald a new development era of rapid transformation. In an effort to promote the future success of African transformation, we herein provide an extensive literature review on development ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Small-scale private irrigation (SPRI) schemes make up much of the irrigated areas in Nigeria. These irrigated areas, though, are only about three percent of the cultivated area in the country. Constraints on SPRI expansion are investigated by ...
  • Discussion Papers
    We use a dynamic CGE model to quantitatively assess the economywide impact of HPAI in Ghana. The likely effect of an avian flu outbreak is modeled as demand or supply shocks to the poultry sector. Our analysis shows that, while chicken is a quite ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The primary goal of this paper is to provide a quantitative assessment of the economywide impact of HPAI in Ghana under different scenarios. A dynamic computable general equilibrium (DCGE) model for Ghana has been developed for this study, and a ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Since its emergence in Africa in 2006, the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus of the H5N1 subtype has spread rapidly to poultry farms in several countries, including Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ghana, Niger, and Nigeria (FAO 2006; OIE ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In recent years, the government of Tanzania, like other governments in Africa south of the Sahara, has periodically banned the export of staple crops (maize) in an attempt to ensure the domestic food supply and protect its citizens from ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Approximately 80 percent of poor people in Sub-Saharan Africa continue to depend on the agricultural sector for their livelihoods, but—unlike in other regions of the world—agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa is characterized by very low yields due ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Two possible adaptation options to climate change for Sub-Saharan Africa are analyzed under the SRES B2 scenario. The first scenario doubles the irrigated area in Sub-Saharan Africa by 2050, compared to the baseline, but keeps total crop area ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This study contributes new empirical evidence on the gender difference in access to extension services in Ethiopia and how this translates to observed differences in technology adoption and agricultural productivity. Our results suggest that ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Although theory predicts that better property rights to land can increase land productivity through tenure security effects (investment effects) and through more efficient input use due to enhanced tradability of the land (factor intensity ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Although theory predicts that better property rights to land can increase land productivity through tenure security effects (investment effects) and through more efficient input use due to enhanced tradability of the land (factor intensity ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Available evidence suggests an ageing farming population in Nigeria, with an average age of 47 years and life expectancy at 47-50 years in 2008 (NBS 2008, Oboh et al., 2009). In 2009, the national unemployment rate was 19.7 percent with the youth ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    In contrast to widely held uncertainties about Sub-Saharan Africa’s ability to meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), recent successes in African smallholder farming show that agriculture could play a key role in helping the region ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Much of Nigeria’s recent economic growth can be attributed to its non-oil economy—primarily agriculture. But the recent agricultural growth has been driven mainly by expansion in areas planted while productivity has remained flat or declining. ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Nigerian administrations have long focused on strengthening the links along the chain from fork to farm in several commodities of key importance to Nigerian smallholders. The presidential initiatives on some commodities are cases in point. ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The most recent (2010–2011) drought in the arid and semiarid lowlands (ASAL) of the Horn of Africa has rendered over 13 million people in need of food, and caused a devastating famine in southern Somalia. The drought has also raised concerns that ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Nigeria’s economic performance since 2002 has improved, with growth averaging about 7.3 percent during 2002–07 (Global insight 2008). While the production of cassava, rice, and maize has responded to the associated improved policy ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Since registering a disappointing growth of 1.2 percent in 2002, Nigeria’s economic performance has rebounded, averaging growth at 7.3 percent between then and 2007. However, the pressing challenge for the nation lies in maintaining and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Malnutrition is widespread in Nigeria, especially in rural areas. Nigerians are vulnerable to chronic food shortages, erratic supply, poor quality food, and fluctuating food prices. The huge investment in ensuring food and nutrition security for ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Nigeria is still characterized by high reliance on food imports. Malnutrition is widespread in the entire country and rural areas are especially vulnerable to chronic food shortages, malnutrition, unbalanced nutrition, erratic food supply, poor ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Uganda has experienced strong economic growth in recent years with GDP growth among the highest in Africa at an average annual rate of 7.2 percent from 2000-2008 (WDI, 2009). The most recent study by the World Bank shows that strong poverty ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agriculture is the major sector upon which the majority of Nigeria’s rural poor depend on for their livelihood. Over 70 percent of the active labor force is employed in agriculture (World Bank 2007). The federal government of Nigeria (FGN) has ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agricultural R&D investments in Eritrea have declined rapidly since the turn of the millennium, largely due to the completion of the FAO–led project Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eritrea, funded by the Government of Italy, and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Monitoring rural household income is important for governments, donors, nongovernmental organizations, researchers, and others involved with development strategies, because increasing rural household income is a primary objective for achieving ...
  • Discussion Papers
    It has often been argued that new agricultural technologies lead to poverty reduction. This paper argues that any changes in poverty situation attributed to those who adopt new agricultural technology (treatment group) without a counterfactual ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    With a per capita income of only about 20 percent of the African average, Ethiopia is one of the world’s poorest countries. More than 85 percent of the country’s population lives in rural areas, where agriculture is the main economic activity and ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    IFPRI assessed CARE-Ethiopia’s Urban Food-for-Work Project in order to draw lessons about how to work effectively in urban areas. This country study gives information on the research focus, under Project Leader, James Garrett, highlights of ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agricultural R&D in Ethiopia has received increasing financial support from the government and through two consecutive World Bank loans. Total researcher numbers and total spending almost doubled in the 1990s, but the country’s intensity of ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    IFPRI assessed CARE-Ethiopia’s Urban Food-for-Work Project in order to draw lessons about how to work effectively in urban areas. This country study gives information on the research focus, under Project Leader, James Garrett, highlights of ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The opportunities and constraints facing Ethiopian agriculture are strongly influenced by conditions which vary across geographical space. These conditions include basic agricultural production potentials, access to input and output markets, and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP) has set higher growth and investment targets than those of any of Ethiopia’s earlier national plans and its implementation requires faster growth in total factor productivity and large-scale mobilization ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    We study the value chain of teff, Ethiopia’s most important staple food crop by area and value. Based on large-scale primary surveys, we find significant changes in the last decade. First, there is increasing adoption of modern inputs (chemical ...
  • Discussion Papers
    United Kingdom (UK) demand for carnations by exporting country was estimated using a production version of the Rotterdam model, and model estimates were used to assess the effects of EU preferential trade agreements on import demand. Of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Higher world food prices have led many governments in developing countries to adopt policy measures to mitigate the adverse impact on low-income households. This paper sets out a partial equilibrium framework to evaluate the relative efficiency, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The theorized impact of land tenure and titling on access to credit has produced mixed results in the empirical literature. Land tenure and titling is hypothesized to increase access to credit because of the enhanced land security provided and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Despite years of development interventions, agricultural productivity in Africa south of the Sahara still trails far behind all other continents, leaving many rural populations in dire poverty. This suggests that our understanding of the impacts ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This study assessed four major subsidy and credit facilitation initiatives implemented by the Ministry of Food and Agriculture (MoFA) to guide government policy and improve performance.
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Progressive legislative actions in Uganda and Tanzania have improved women’s legal rights to land, however significant gender disparities persist in access, control, inheritance, and ownership of land at the grassroots level. One promising ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Economic reform programs assume that major goods are tradable, such that depreciation of the real exchange rate raises the value of output compared to factor costs in domestic currency. In Tanzania, major food staples that account for ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The Malawian economy has in recent months been plagued by a severe foreign exchange crisis, fueled in part by a steadily rising import bill, sharp successive declines in tobacco export prices, the suspension of direct government budget support ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Removing subsidies that have been applied to agricultural inputs and closing down subsidy programs, once introduced, have proved difficult to do in many countries, whether the subsidies are for irrigation, seed, or fertilizer. Long‐running ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Index-based insurance is an innovative financial product that has been introduced in recent years in countries as diverse as India, Malawi, Mongolia, and Thailand. It allows individual smallholder farmers to hedge against agricultural production ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The recognition that the HIV/AIDS epidemic is a major threat to sub Saharan Africa’s economic development has prompted researchers to focus on the economic impacts of the disease. In particular, given the importance of agriculture for livelihoods ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Identifying growth poles in the SSA region, strengthening linkages and generating mutual benefits across African countries is an important part of the strategy to promote agriculture-led growth at the Africa-wide scale. Using agricultural ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Agriculture plays a dominant role in nearly all the countries of East and Central Africa, and many face similar agroecological, climatic, and development challenges. As a result, significant scale economies can be made through the regionalization ...
  • Discussion Papers
    An in-depth quantitative analysis is undertaken in this paper to assist the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Secretariat, member countries, and development partners in setting future regional investment priorities for agricultural ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The East African Community (EAC) was revived in July 2000. Since then, there has been some progress registered in expansion of trade between the five member countries, especially with the Customs Union that brought together Kenya, Tanzania and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Climate change leads to more frequent and more intense droughts in Somalia. In a global context, weather shocks have been found to perpetuate poverty and fuel civil conflict. By relating regional and temporal variations in violent conflict ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Food security in Africa has substantially worsened since 1970. Although the proportion of malnourished individuals in Sub-Saharan Africa has remained in the range of 33-35 percent since around 1970, the absolute number of malnourished people in ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study adopted the multinomial logit model to analyze factors affecting the choice of coping strategies in response to climate extreme events for the Ethiopian Nile River Basin. Results from the multinomial logit model show that different ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In this paper we attempt to bridge the resilience school of thought and incentive compatibility in livestock disease control policies through a pilot choice experiment study conducted on 104 farm households in the Nasarawa state of Nigeria. The ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Farmer groups are considered potentially effective mechanisms to increase farmer livelihood by reducing information asymmetries and transaction costs. In many countries, farmers are coordinated in groups for participation in poverty reduction ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper investigates the effects of wheat genetic diversity and land degradation on risk and agricultural productivity in less favored production environments of a developing agricultural economy. Drawing production data from household survey ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “A typical private good is defined by its excludability and rivalry characteristics. Information embodied in a technology might not generate rivalry among its users. By contrast, excludability is certainly a characteristic of this kind of ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Although achieving in situ conservation is possible without changing farmers’ customary management of crops as common pool resources, an alternative approach is to negotiate a bioprospecting contract with providers of the resource that ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The stochastic frontier production function is used to estimate agricultural efficiency index. Then, controlling for household characteristics and other exogenous variables, the efficiency index is regressed on the probability of being sick. ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The timely availability of seeds at planting time is considered one of the important factors for faster improved seed adoption in Nigeria. There is a lack of empirical information on how much more farmers are willing to pay (WTP) for seeds at ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Participation by women in agricultural research and higher education in Africa has increased in recent years. For a sample of 15 Sub-Saharan African countries, the proportion of female professional staff employed in agricultural research and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Fertilizer use in Ethiopia has almost quintupled since the official elimination of input subsidy programs. Yet, application rates remain far below recommended level and, given limited scope for area expansion, fertilizer promotion continues to be ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    About 10 million people in southern Africa-Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland, Zambia, and Zimbabwe-are experiencing famine or the threat of famine.The immediate causes of the current crisis are drought, flooding, and low levels of crop ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    About 10 million people in southern Africa-Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland, Zambia, and Zimbabwe-are experiencing famine or the threat of famine.The immediate causes of the current crisis are drought, flooding, and low levels of crop ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study is motivated by the idea that even though participatory monitoring and evaluation (PM&E) is widely accepted as a tool to manage development programs to be effective, its application is widely constrained by its high start-up ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Food aid remains significant for food availability in many low-income countries in sub-Saharan Africa, helping to reduce the gap between food consumption needs and supply from domestic production and inventories and commercial imports. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Conflicts have existed for generations worldwide. In sub-Saharan Africa, conflicts occur for various reasons, including inter-tribal or clanist tensions, resource disputes, and externally instigated wars. These conflicts may persist unabated for ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This proceedings report compiles the papers and written commentaries prepared for the regional workshop on “Food and Nutrition Security Policies for West Africa: Implementation Issues and Research Agendas.” The workshop gathered ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This study aims to investigate how households have adjusted their demand for various food and non-food items to changes in price and income. The Quadratic Linear Almost Ideal Demand Model (AIDM) was used on the Household Income Consumption ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    How households adjust their consumption in response to changes in prices and income is crucial determinant of the effects of various shocks to market prices and commodity supplies. These adjustments in demand are particularly significant in ...
  • “This report introduces new estimates of food insecurity based on food acquisition data collected directly from households as part of national household expenditure surveys (HESs) conducted in 12 Sub-Saharan African countries.The report has ...
  • Books and Monographs
    This report introduces new estimates of food insecurity based on food acquisition data collected directly from households as part of national household expenditure surveys (HESs) conducted in 12 Sub-Saharan African countries. The report has three ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The food price crisis of 2007–2008 and recent resurgence of food prices have focused increasing attention on the causes and consequences of food price volatility in international food markets and the developing world, particularly in Africa south ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In Ghana, tomato is important both as a cash crop and in diets. Yet despite its importance, tomato production in the country appears to have stalled or even declined, while imports of tomato paste surged in the 2000s and continue to increase. As ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Both availability and access issues underpin Ethiopia’s food security challenges. The country is mostly dependent on drought-exposed, rain fed agriculture, and high transaction costs inhibit trade in staples. Most of the population lives in rural ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Food-for-Education (FFE) programs can help Uganda fight malnutrition and hunger while broadening access to primary education. Whether these programs involve in-school feeding or take-home rations, they have the potential both to improve student’s ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Levels and composition of food consumption are major determinants of the nutritional wellbeing of individuals, which in turn, have important implications for health, productivity, and income. Analyzing food consumption patterns in poor countries, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Beginning in April 2008, lack of access to foreign exchange effectively stopped private sector wheat imports. Government imports and subsidized sales to millers and households in late 2008, subsequently increased domestic supply and lowered ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Forest sector governance reform is frequently promoted as a policy tool for achieving favorable livelihood outcomes in the low income tropics. However, there is a dearth of empirical evidence to support this claim, particularly at the household ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Poverty remains entrenched in Nigeria, where 70 percent of the rural population lives below the poverty line. In response, the Nigerian government launched the Second National Fadama Development Project (Fadama II) in 2005. Based on the ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The community-driven development (CDD) approach has become increasingly popular because of its potential to develop projects that are sustainable, are responsive to local priorities, empower local communities, and more effectively target poor and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The community-driven development (CDD) approach has become increasingly popular because of its potential to develop projects that are sustainable, are responsive to local priorities, empower local communities, and more effectively target poor and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper contributes new empirical evidence and nuanced analysis on the gender difference in access to extension services and how this translates to observed differences in technology adoption and agricultural productivity. We employ a ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Men and women participate in collective action for different purposes in northern Nigeria. Field work conducted in six villages show that while men engage in community activities such as road repairs, maintenance of schools and hospitals, refuse ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Gender analysis focuses on the different roles and responsibilities of women and men and how these affect society, culture, the economy and politics. For example, important differences exist between women and men in their quality of life; in the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In Nigeria, women are often marginalized in their access to economic, political, and social resources compared to men, rendering them relatively poorer than their male counterparts. Important differences also exist between women and men in their ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Over the past decade, stakeholders have made a variety of generalized claims concerning women’s landownership, both globally and in Africa. Typically, these claims include statements with single statistics, such as “women own less than 2 percent ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Women play an important role in the agricultural production process in developing countries, yet their role in making decisions about what to grow and the resulting implications for household welfare remain poorly understood. This paper studies ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Food and nutritional insecurity coexists with high HIV prevalence rates in war-affected communities in the north and northeastern regions of Uganda. Women and especially female children are disproportionately affected. Gender relations underpin ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This paper assesses the impact of prime-age mortality on human capital formation and labor markets by examining, first, the impact on adolescents, who may leave school in order to enter the labor market, and second, the impact on adult females ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Changing agricultural research and extension systems mean that informal mechanisms of information diffusion are often the primary source of information about improved seed and practices for farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. This paper investigates ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Agricultural production statistics reported at country or sub-national geopolitical scales are used in a wide range of economic analyses, and spatially explicit (geo-referenced) production data are increasingly needed to support improved ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Includes briefs 19-26: 19- Assessing the Impact of Crop Genetic Improvement in Sub-Saharan Africa: Research Context and Highlights By Melinda Smale 20- Crucial Determinants of Adoption: Planting Material Systems for Banana and Maize By ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    After a decade of marginal growth in the 1990s, agricultural R&D spending in Ghana has more than doubled since 2002. In 2008, the country spent 352 billion cedis or 95 million dollars on agricultural R&D (both in 2005 constant prices). ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Urban Challenges to Food and Nutrition Security
  • IFPRI Briefs
    In the Accra Urban Food and Nutrition Study, IFPRI collaborated with the Noguchi Memorial Institute of Medical Research and the World Health Organization to examine the nature of urban poverty and how it relates to food insecurity and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Ghana’s seed sector has undergone some significant changes in the past few years, including the establishment of a new seed law and regulations, the appointment of a National Seed Council, and the emergence of a more diversified commercial seed ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Ghana’s agriculture sector accounts for 35 percent of the country’s gross domestic product (GDP) and nearly two thirds (60 percent) of the employment (Breisinger et al. 2011). Ghana is one of the top five performers in the world in terms of ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Human activities such as fossil fuel burning and deforestation have significantly increased the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases (GHG) leading to global climate change. Global climate change and its associated weather extremes pose ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Global climate change poses great risks to poor people whose livelihoods depend directly on the use of natural resources. Mitigation of the adverse effects of climate change is a high priority on the international agenda. Carbon trading, under ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Global environmental change in Zimbabwe is intertwined with a challenging political environment, excessive economic decline, the depletion of scarce skills, and a generalized AIDS epidemic. Against this background, a development initiative known ...
  • Books and Monographs
    CONTENTS: Table of Contents, Foreword and Acknowledgements Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: Recent Trend in Food Supply and Demand Chapter 3: The IMPACT Model Chapter 4: Projections of Global Food Supply and Demand and Child ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In light of the expected good maize harvest for the 2013-14 Meher season, the government of Ethiopia is considering removing a ban in the export of maize. This note describes the likely impact of removing the export ban based on economic theory ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    With renewed interest in technical change and productivity growth in the African agricultural sector, interest is growing in the lessons of Asia’s Green Revolution and in the implementation of input promotion and subsidies to promote agricultural ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This study assesses which agricultural subsectors have the strongest capacity to drive economic growth and poverty reduction in Ethiopia, and what kind of agricultural and nonagricultural growth is needed to achieve the millennium ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    During 2000–08, Guinean agricultural staffing levels remained relatively stable. Agricultural R&D expenditures, however, decreased significantly: in 2008, total investments were around 3.9 billion Guinean francs or 3.2 million PPP dollars (in ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Compared with neighboring countries, agricultural R&D in Guinea is characterized by a low level of highly qualified (masters- and doctoral-level) research staff, by much lower expenditures per researcher, and by a very low ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Au cours de la période 2000–2008, l’effectif total des chercheurs agricoles en Guinée est resté relativement stable. Or le niveau d’investissement en R&D agricole a diminué de beaucoup : en 2008, le pays investissait environ 3,9 milliards de ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Trade liberalization is a central part of South Africa’s post-Apartheid development strategy. However, despite considerable reforms, the country has failed to generate pro-poor growth, with both unemployment and inequality worsening ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Rising world prices for fuel and food represent a negative terms-of-trade shock for Mozambique. The impacts of these price increases are analyzed using various approaches. Detailed price data show that the world price increases are being ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The Lake Victoria region has the highest HIV prevalence in the East African Community, which comprises Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, and Burundi. This region also has a significant concentration of commercial agricultural plantations, which ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    It is now widely accepted that AIDS in not just a health issue. Its impacts are felt across all sectors of Ugandan society. In recognition of this, the Uganda AIDS Commission was constituted by Parliament in1992 “to put in place a multisectoral ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    It is now widely accepted that AIDS in not just a health issue. In the recently developed Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper, the Malawi people and government designated HIV/AIDS as a crosscutting issue, and the Malawi National HIV/AIDS Strategic ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper estimates the economic impact of HIV/AIDS on KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) and the rest of South Africa (RSA). We extend previous studies by employing an integrated analytical framework that combines the following: firm-level surveys of workers’ ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In 1994, South Africa’s Department of Land Affairs initiated a land reform programme. Land reform was—and still is—intended to redress the racial imbalance in landholding, develop the agricultural sector, and improve the livelihoods of the poor. ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Land degradation and water shortages are major issues in developing countries, contributing to reduced economic output, lower growth potential and increased poverty. The immediate trade-off between short-term welfare and long-term agricultural ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This study examines the impact of sustainable land and watershed management (SLWM) on value of agricultural production and livestock holdings. Analysis suggests that plots that received investment in the first period (1992) experience a 20.6 ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Over the past few years, Malawi made remarkable progress toward increasing its national maize production and achieving food security owing to its Farm Input Subsidy Program (FISP). Likewise, the implementation of the subsidy program is ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Table of Contents Brief 1: The Impact of Climate Variability and Climate Change on Water and Food Outcomes: A Framework for Analysis by Claudia Ringer Brief 2: Vulnerability and the Impact of Climate Change in South Africa’s ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Almost unaffected by the 2008 wave of soaring world food prices, Ugandan local market prices exhibit signs of high price volatility in the first quarter of 2009. At the household level, while net producers may reap some benefits from this ...
  • Discussion Papers
    We develop a detailed trade analysis to assess the potential welfare impacts of a free trade agreement (FTA) on the agricultural sector of southern African countries and to determine opportunities and challenges faced by the region as a ...
  • Books and Monographs
    The end of the apartheid system in South Africa in 1994 brought with it the end of legally sanctioned racial segregation in schools. In practice, however, racial disparities in educational attainment continue, with white and Asian students ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Despite the policy importance of household nutrition and food security in rural Zambia, we are not aware of any analyses since a 1994 study by Shubh Kumar that have related the adoption of hybrid seed to dietary diversity among smallholder maize ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Ethiopia is susceptible to frequent climate extremes such as disastrous droughts and floods. These disastrous climatic events, which have caused significant adverse effects on the country’s economy and society, are expected to become more ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    According to the International Water Management Institute (IWMI), the Blue Nile basin is one of the least planned and managed sub-basins of the Nile (IWMI, 2008). Previous studies have examined the impact of investments in sustainable land and ...
  • Archive
    CONTENTS: •Children at Work •AIDS and Hunger: A Step Forward •The Growing Bifurcation of Agricultural R&D •Are Farmer Field Schools the Answer to Extension’s Problems? •Interview with Rob Routs •Poverty Reduction Strategies for the New ...
  • Archive
    CONTENTS: •Funding Africa’s Farmers •Public-Private Cooperation in Agricultural Research •Working with Ugandan Parliamentarians on Food Security •Rural Development in West Africa •Supporting Agriculture in Ethiopia’s Poor Regions •Putting a ...
  • Archive
    CONTENTS: •Speculation and World Food Markets •IFPRI Contributes to the Debate on Rising Food Prices •Examining the Implications of Biotechnology for Developing Countries •IFPRI Policy Dialogue in Europe on Agriculture, Development, and the ...
  • Archive
    CONTENTS: •The 10 Percent that Could Change Africa •Tapping the DRC’s Immense Agricultural Potential •Empowering Women Farmers in South Asia •Best-Bet Investments in Agricultural Research •Interview with Asha-Rose Migiro Deputy ...
  • Archive
    The current global recession is leading to millions of job losses around the world, pushing some people deeper into poverty and nudging others into poverty for the first time. How can governments and others in developing countries create good ...
  • General Information
    In January 2007, the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) published its first Africa Strategy, the first of any region. That first edition of the strategy was completed after a thorough review of the institute’s activities in the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The potential impact of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak in Ethiopia is assessed, specifically on the country’s poultry and associated sectors. Ethiopia has not yet experienced an HPAI outbreak but has experienced a scare. An ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Farmer field schools (FFSs) are a popular education and extension approach worldwide. Such schools use experiential learning and a group approach to facilitate farmers in making decisions, solving problems, and learning new techniques. However, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    We examine whether and how much previous fertilizer subsidy schemes in Nigeria crowded-in or crowded-out the privatesector fertilizer. We apply a system of endogenous Tobit regressions which account for interlinkages between the subsidized ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Under the Agricultural Transformation Agenda (ATA), the government of Nigeria is implementing a new fertilizer program in which the government will withdraw from fertilizer marketing and distribution to promote the development of the private ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The global food crisis of 2007–2008 was characterized by a sharp increase in food and other commodity prices on world markets. Between January 2007 and March 2008, the prices of wheat and rice doubled while the price of maize rose 42 percent. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Use of mechanization in African agriculture has returned strongly to the development agenda, particularly following the recent high food prices crisis. Many developing country governments—including Ghana, the case study of this paper—have resumed ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Poultry production is an important livelihoods activity in the rural areas of many developing countries. Several studies from African and Asian countries have found that poultry production significantly contributes to several livelihoods ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    From April to June 2007, there were three highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks in Ghana, which were effectively controlled by the Veterinary Services Directorate of the Ministry of Food and Agriculture. Even though information is ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This study analyzed the impact of off-farm earnings on the intensity of adoption of improved maize varieties and the productivity of maize farming in Uganda in the years 2005/06 and 2009/10. Summary statistics show significantly higher adoption ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Previous studies implicitly assume uniform price-effects across regions or provinces within countries. They also do not address the issue of integration between the world food market and local markets. Instead, they assume a complete transmission ...
  • Books and Monographs
    The impact of trade liberalization on developing countries has been a topic of some interest and controversy for many years, but the debate became prominent during the Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations. The suspension of the Doha ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Numerous studies indicate that agricultural production is sensitive to climate variability, and lack of infrastructure in developing countries increases vulnerability to extreme climate events. In Ethiopia, the historical climate record indicates ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Extreme interannual variability of precipitation within Ethiopia is not uncommon, inducing droughts or floods and often creating serious repercussions on agricultural and non-agricultural commodities. An agro-economic model, including mean ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study investigated the impacts of access to inventory credit, input supply shops, fertilizer microdosing demonstrations, and other factors on farmers’ use of inorganic fertilizer and other inputs in Niger and on crop yields. We found ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper provides details of the analysis done for Ethiopia’s background study for its implementation of the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP). The analysis provides an assessment of agricultural growth options ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Ethiopia’s national development strategy, A Plan for Accelerated and Sustained Development to End Poverty for 2005/06 to 2009/10 (PASDEP) places a major emphasis on achieving high rates of agricultural and overall economic growth. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Kenya is vulnerable to avian flu given its position along migratory bird routes and proximity to other high-risk countries. This raises concerns about the effect an outbreak could have on economic development. We use a dynamic computable general ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Kenya is vulnerable to avian flu given its position along migratory bird routes and proximity to other high risk countries. This raises concern about the effect an outbreak could have on economic development. We use a dynamic computable general ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Rural-urban linkages (RUL) and rural-urban migration are key components in rural transformation – an important step toward industrial growth. Post-Keynesian development theory has recognized the central role of intersectoral linkage between ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Seed is an important input in agriculture. Appropriate seed policy enables the supply of good varieties to farmers at a low cost. Thus, improved seed-sector functions, including seed subsidies, effective regulations, certifications, and efficient ...
  • Discussion Papers
    There is limited empirical evidence on the linkages between agrotechnologies, poverty reduction and the pathways to better nutrition outcomes. The introduction and dissemination of improved dairy cow breeds in Uganda is arguably the most ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “The decline in soil fertility in smallholder systems is a major factor inhibiting equitable development in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Some areas fallow in order to strength soil fertility for later planting, but as populations increase, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The recent drought in the Horn of Africa has again generated widespread pessimism about the future of pastoralism in the re-gion. In this paper we argue that a much more balanced development strategy needs to be adopted in pastoralist areas. ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Farmer cooperatives are viewed as mechanisms to help improve the marketing environment for poor rural farmers faced with limited and uncertain consumer demand for the goods they produce. Cooperatives can help reduce production costs by organizing ...
  • In sum, it is crucial to alter the perception that undernutrition is part of the normal order of things. Advocacy groups should generate a perception of crisis related to undernutrition in order to foster significant, urgent, high-profile action ...
  • Books and Monographs
    Undernutrition remains a major source of human suffering and an obstacle to national economic and human development in many African countries. This report investigates undernutrition’s persistence, drawing on case studies of the public ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    When there is disconnect between research and policy, high quality research-based information can be produced without impact on policy dialogue and action. This often results in policy actions lagging far behind scientific and academic knowledge, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Decentralization reforms have been the overwhelming response to failures in the targeting of public resources by the central state in developing countries. The policy debate on decentralization typically revolves around several a priori ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Eighty-three percent of the population of Ethiopia depends directly on agriculture for their livelihoods, while many others depend on agriculture-related cottage industries such as textiles, leather, and food oil processing. Agriculture ...
  • Discussion Papers
    With poverty studies having shifted their focus from household poverty to individual poverty, a number of studies have started to examine ntrahousehold resource allocation, especially gender bias within the household as potential causes of ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In this paper we use the Becker-deGroot-Marschak auction mechanism to estimate consumer demand for biofortified yellow cassava varieties in two states of Nigeria: Imo in the southeast and Oyo in the southwest. These two states exhibit distinct ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper provides an assessment of information flows and the acquisition of knowledge in water governance of the Upper East Region, Ghana. These flows are patchy, often parallel, disconnected or slow. In many cases a great deal of information ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Rural nonfarm development plays a key role in generating employment in many developing countries. Clustering is an important form of industrial organization in the rural nonfarm sector. Based on a primary survey of both urban and rural handloom ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Rural non-farm development plays a key role in generating employment in many developing countries. Clustering is an important industrial organization in the rural non-farm sector. Based on primary surveys of both urban and rural handloom weaver ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Dimensions of the nature, scope, and complexity of collective action in Kenya have evolved over many years. In studying collective action, the aim is to understand why and how people participate in networks of trust. The purpose of this study was ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agriculture is at the core of the livelihoods of most rural households in Uganda. It is a major engine for overall economic growth and possibly the single most important pathway out of poverty in the rural space. Although measures to enhance the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The use of modern agricultural inputs is considered the key to raising crop productivity and overall agricultural production in Ethiopia. The government places high priority on making modern agricultural inputs, particularly fertilizer and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Tomato, cabbage, and garden egg (African eggplant, or Solanum aethiopicum) are important crops for small-scale farmers and migrants in the rural and peri-urban areas of Ghana. Genetic modification has the potential to alleviate poverty through ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    An agricultural system consists of production, processing, storage, marketing, extension, research, and training. While production is a result of land, labor, capital, and entrepreneurship, its magnitude and efficiency from the farm to the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This study assessed the capacity for designing and implementing agricultural and rural development policies, strategies, and programs in Nigeria. Data for this study were derived from initial consultations at the Federal Ministry of Agriculture ...
  • Books and Monographs
    Professionals in economics and agricultural economics have been paying increasing attention to institutional issues and have developed strong concepts and analytical tools to do so. The core message of this book is that this new focus is ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In Nigeria, conventional financial institutions serve only about 35 percent of the active population, and the poor, especially women, have limited access to financial services. Private sector-led microfinance institutions (MFIs) are increasingly ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Executive Summary The major objective of this study was to examine the relationship between the institutional environment of microfinance and access of rural women to microfinance. Focus group sessions were held with groups of rural women ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Like other West African cotton producers, Burkina Faso’s cotton strategy has traditionally involved substantial government intervention in both input and output markets. Despite some notable successes, this state-led strategy became widely ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The agriculture sector has great potential to contribute to the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions through changes in agricultural management and land use. However, the technical potential for agricultural mitigation has yet to translate into ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The economic characteristics of subsidized inputs affect how the benefits of the subsidy on the input are distributed between farmers and input suppliers. However, how the benefits are distributed across the population of farmers in a country ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Migration and remittances can be used by rural households as a means of insurance, investment, and income augmentation. Ample attention has been given to studying international remittance flows, since for many countries such transfers comprise a ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Weather risk remains a major challenge to farming in poor countries that face frequent droughts. Recent evidence on index-based weather insurance points to low take-up rates largely due to basis risk (i.e. residual risk left uninsured by the ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Ethiopia possesses abundant water resources and hydropower potential, yet less than 5 percent of irrigable land in the Blue Nile basin has been developed for food production, and more than 80 percent of Ethiopians lack access to electricity. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Ethiopia is at a critical crossroads with a large and increasing population, a depressed national economy, insufficient agricultural production, and a low number of developed energy sources. The upper Blue Nile basin harbors considerable ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This study examines the magnitude of the macro and welfare effects generated by a realistic acceleration in the productivity growth of the Ethiopian livestock sector, as compared to historical trends and to alternative scenarios of productivity ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Cereal price variability in Ethiopia has worsened in recent years, and some of the earlier liberalizations are being reversed due to the unacceptable economic and political costs of increased price variability. The challenge now is to achieve ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper uses a two-stage conditional maximum likelihood procedure and new data from Ghana to identify the determinants of rural-urban migration at the individual, household and community levels, with a particular focus on rural services. The ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The System-wide Program for Collective Action and Property Rights (CAPRi) sponsored an International Conference on Policy and Institutional Options for the Management of Rangelands in Dry Areas, May 7-11, 2001 in Hammamet, Tunisia. The conference ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Banana is a staple crop consumed by Ugandan households. The Uganda National Agricultural Research Organization has implemented conventional and biotechnology programs that seek improving bananas and address the crop’s most important pest ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    En muchas partes del mundo, el aumento del crecimiento agrícola tendrá un papel clave contribuyendo a superar la actual crisis alimentaria mundial, aportando al crecimiento económico general, y ayudando a lograr el primer Objetivo de Desarrollo ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Do the economic effects of potential avian flu outbreaks justify policy attention and resource allocation in a poor country like Ethiopia? We address this question by assessing both economywide (macro-level) economic impacts and household ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Small-scale poultry production is an integral part of livelihoods in Nigeria, contributing to households’ income, food and nutrition security, and gender equality (Kushi et al. 1998; Houndonougbo 2005; Obi et al. 2008). Almost 60 percent of ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Ghana experienced three confirmed highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks in 2007. The virus was detected on commercial farms of different sizes in three regions: in the Tema area (Greater Accra region) at the end of April, in the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Ethiopia supports one of the largest livestock populations in all of Africa (Alemu et al. 2008). In fact, the livestock sector accounts for 19 percent of national GDP, and as much as 40 percent of agricultural GDP (FAO 2004). At a micro level, it ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper proposes a simple methodology to estimate the agricultural spending that will be required to achieve the Millennium Development Goal of halving poverty by 2015 (MDG1) in 30 sub-Saharan African countries. This method uses growth-poverty ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    In many parts of the world, increased agricultural growth will play a key role in addressing the current world food crisis, in contributing to overall economic growth, and in helping to achieve the first Millennium Development Goal of halving the ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    It has long been known that good nutrition is essential to children’s physical and cognitive development, but recent evidence sheds new light on the optimal timing of interventions to improve child nutrition and the long-term effects of ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The majority of farmers in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) lack the means to mitigate the impact of risks associated with rainfall and commodity prices due to financial constraints and the imperfect insurance markets in these countries. Because most SSA ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper uses data from national household expenditure surveys to explore whether food insecurity is more severe in South Asia or Sub-Saharan Africa. It employs two indicators of the diet quantity dimension of food insecurity, or the inability ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Since 2007, the Government of Ghana (GoG) embarked on a bid to transform agriculture under its Medium Term Agricultural Investment Plan (METASIP) and Accelerated Agricultural Modernization Policy. This policy has been translated into the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Rapidly increasing mobile phone coverage, cheaper technology, and an open platform that allows for the development of applications that extend the use of mobile devices provide new ways to reach farmers in isolated places. We investigate the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “The primary goal of emergency food aid after an economic shock is often to bolster short-term food and nutrition security. However, these transfers also act as insurance against other shock effects, such as destruction of assets and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Strategies for boosting the agricultural economies of developing countries usually focus on small farms, attempting, for example, to link smallholders with markets through production chain development. However, such strategies often fail to ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Public agricultural R&D in Kenya continues to be relatively well-funded and staffed compared with many other African countries. In 2008, the country employed over 1,000 FTE agricultural researchers and spent 4.5 billion Kenyan shillings or ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Ajaikaiye and Olusola (2003) observed that the knowledge system of any progressive society performs a pivotal function in its development. However, they note that “in spite of this recognition, the attention given to Nigeria’s knowledge system ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The Nigerian situation presents a paradox because the country is rich but the people are poor, with the poverty experienced by Nigerians being pervasive, multifaceted and chronic, affecting the lives of a large proportion of the populace. On the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    En comparaison avec les pays voisins, la R&D agricole guinéenne se caractérise par un taux faible de personnel de recherche hautement diplômé (niveau maîtrise et doctorat), par des dépenses par chercheur beaucoup moins élevées ainsi que par ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Depuis le début des années 90, le nombre des chercheurs agricoles mauritaniens n’a cessé de croître, bien que l’augmentation des effectifs que l’IMROP a connu au cours de ces dernières années masque la diminution du nombre des chercheurs au CNERV ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Highland Ethiopia is one of the most densely populated regions of Africa and has long been associated with both Malthusian disasters and Boserupian agricultural intensification. This paper explores the race between these two countervailing ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Highland Ethiopia is one of the most densely populated regions of Africa and has long been associated with both Malthusian disasters and Boserupian agricultural intensification. This paper explores the race between these two countervailing ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The impact of land tenure systems in sub‐Saharan Africa on agricultural investment and productivity continues to be the subject of intense scrutiny. Recent food security crises in Africa have revived the debate over whether current land tenure ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Uganda’s significant economic growth over the last twenty years seemed to create favorable conditions for increased agricultural productivity, but agricultural productivity has failed to increase concordantly. As a result, most increases in ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Ethiopia experiences a fierce political debate about the appropriate land tenure policy. After the fall of the socialist derg regime in 1991, land property rights have remained vested in the state and only usufruct rights have been alienated to ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Women in Uganda, especially widows, disproportionately suffer the impacts of AIDS because of their disadvantaged position due to sociocultural factors. Some of the key factors impacted by the disease are food security, self-esteem, income, and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    One of the key activities of the Agricultural Policy Support Facility (APSF) is to improve communication linkages and consultations between policymakers, policy analysts, and policy beneficiaries on agricultural and rural development policy ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Au Gabon, l’agriculture a été longuement éclipsée par des secteurs économiques plus attractifs tels que l’extraction minière et pétrolière, faisant que les dépenses du pays consacrées à la recherche agricole ainsi que les effectifs de chercheurs ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Le changement climatique et la dégradation des terres constituent de très fortes menaces pour la survie de millions de personnes en Afrique sub-saharienne. Pourtant, il est d’ores et déjà réellement possible de contribuer à améliorer les ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Du fait de la conjugaison de l’augmentation du nombre de chercheurs dans les secteurs de l’enseignement supérieur et des organisations à but non lucratif avec la diminution des effectifs au sein des organismes d’État, le nombre de chercheurs ...
  • Books and Monographs
    Agriculture is vital to the economies of Sub-Saharan Africa: two-thirds of the region’s people depend on it for their livelihoods. Nevertheless, agricultural productivity in most of the region is stagnant or declining, in large part because ...
  • Agriculture is vital to the economies of Sub-Saharan Africa: two-thirds of the region’s people depend on it for their livelihoods. Nevertheless, agricultural productivity in most of the region is stagnant or declining, in large part because ...
  • Publication
    This paper provides a review of the literature on migration, HIV/AIDS and urban food security, and attempts to draw the links between these three powerful dynamics which are at play in Southern and Eastern Africa. The aim of the paper is to ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    While clinical care providers, program managers and other stakeholders increasingly recognize the critical importance of nutrition for the treatment of HIV and AIDS, interventions that link nutritional support to treatment are relatively new. The ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agricultural trade policies, in particular import tariffs to protect domestic production, constitute a highly contested field of agricultural policy. In view of the recent focus on “evidence-based policy making” in the international development ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Access to guaranteed markets for produce and for the acquisition of inputs is a major problem confronting smallholders… The questions addressed by this research are: (a) how can agricultural contracts be enforced in the face of Ghana’s weak ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    While there exists ample studies that evaluate the impacts of land reform on household investment behavior, land productivity, and land rental market activities, the literature is thin in terms of showing the direct food securities impacts of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    While numerous studies exist that evaluate the impacts of land reform on household investment behavior, land productivity, and land rental market activities, the literature is thin in terms of showing the direct food securities impacts of land ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “”This paper uses longitudinal data from 15 villages in rural Ethiopia to explore the nature and consequences of these links. It addresses the following questions: (1) What are the links between rural households and local urban ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “”This paper uses longitudinal data from 15 villages in rural Ethiopia to explore the nature and consequences of these links. It addresses the following questions: (1) What are the links between rural households and local urban ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper takes a local perspective on global food price shocks by analyzing food price transmission between regional markets in Ghana. It also assesses the impacts of differential local food price increases on various household groups. Taking ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    There are no easy solutions to the ongoing food price crisis. Maize and wheat prices doubled between 2003 and 2008, and the price of rice doubled in the first four months of 2008, rising 33 percent in a single day. Even with declines in food ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Resistance to HIV refers to an active response on the part of individuals, households, communities that is aimed at avoiding or minimizing exposure to the virus. To understand resistance to HIV it is necessary to first identify factors and ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “This paper examines the impact of preschool malnutrition on subsequent human capital formation in rural Zimbabwe using a maternal fixed effects-instrumental variables (MFE-IV) estimator with a long-term panel data set. Representations of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This paper examines the impact of preschool malnutrition on subsequent human capital formation in rural Zimbabwe using a maternal fixed effects-instrumental variables (MFE-IV) estimator with a long-term panel data set. Representations of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper identifies the cumulative impact of early schooling investments on later schooling outcomes in the context of a developing country, using enrollment status and relative grade attainment (RGA) as short- and long-run measures of ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Disputes over land, water, forests, rangelands, and other resources, both privately and commonly-held, are omnipresent across Africa and increasing in number due to the socioeconomic and environmental changes happening on micro- and macro-levels. ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Food security in Malawi is generally equated with adequate maize production, the country’s main staple crop, which accounts for more than 60 percent of total food production. However, reliable estimates of maize consumption are also useful ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This study tests the long-run and short-run integration of maize markets in Malawi using the co-integration approach within the Vector Autoregressive modeling framework. The analysis is extended to Wald-F Granger Causality tests to see the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Over the last several years, the Ethiopian government has committed substantial resources for the expansion of public services and infrastructure in rural areas. To what extent do these investments and services reach different social and economic ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Malaria is one of the top five causes of death worldwide, and roughly half the world’s population lives at risk of the disease. This health problem disproportionately affects the poor, particularly those in Africa south of the Sahara, where the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    malaria is still largely considered a health issue, and almost all interventions have a health focus (key interventions include insecticide treated bed nets and anti-malaria medication), even though those most at risk of malaria spend much of ...
  • General Information
    Program Brochure Malawi ranks among the world’s most densely populated and least developed countries. Although gross domestic product (GDP) growth has increased in recent years, poverty and hunger are still widespread, with more than half of ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Malawi’s Farm Input Subsidy Program (FISP) has dominated the agriculture and food security policy landscape in the country since its inception in 2005/06. FISP is now credited—or blamed, depending on one’s viewpoint—for a revival of agricultural ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Contemporary policy debates on the macroeconomics of resource booms often concentrate on the short-run Dutch disease effects of public expenditure, ignoring the possible long-term effects of alternative revenue-allocation options and the ...
  • Books and Monographs
    This study analyzes the links between risk and the kinds of property rights that have evolved to provide the mobility necessary to raise livestock in drought-prone countries—in this case Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, and Niger. The study also ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper analyzes the vulnerability of South African farmers to climate change and variability by developing a vulnerability index and comparing vulnerability indicators across the nine provinces of the country. Nineteen environmental and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Spatial analysis of the distribution of disease risk and its visual presentation through risk maps can be used to inform the design of animal disease surveillance resulting in more cost-effective strategies. It is suitable for application in the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The results of an analysis of the spatial distribution of disease risk and its visual presentation through risk maps allow for the design of targeted and therefore more cost-effective animal disease surveillance strategies. There are various ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    How research can feed into the policy process in developing countries in general, and in Nigeria more specifically, is not very well understood. Yet, this understanding is a critical part of doing effective policy research. This has become ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    In southern Africa, by the middle of the 21st century climate change is expected to cause temperature increases of 1–3°C, broad summer rainfall reductions of 5–10 percent, and an increase in the incidence of both droughts and floods. ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    A well-integrated market system is central to a well-functioning market economy (Dercon, 1995). As production decisions are based on observed prices, the most efficient allocation of resources would come about when prices represent scarcity ...
  • Books and Monographs
    This report focuses on demand-side constraints on agricultural growth and their implications for three broad alternative agricultural development strategies: promoting traditional exports, developing nontraditional exports, and increasing food ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This brief analyzes the past successes and recent challenges of South Africa’s trade and marketing policies on genetically modified (GM) products, with the aim of drawing lessons for countries that are designing their biosafety systems.
  • Discussion Papers
    The institution of marriage plays some role in determining one’s risk of exposure to HIV. Since the transmission of HIV in the population is mainly through sexual activity, avoiding infection depends on risk-avoiding behavior. ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Since the beginning of the 1990s, Mauritania’s agricultural researcher numbers have steadily increased, though in recent years increasing researcher numbers at IMROP mask decreasing researcher numbers at CNERV and CNRADA. Agricultural research ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Historically, agricultural R&D in Mauritius has been funded through national sources. Sugarcane research is financed through a tax on sugar production, while nonsugarcane research is primarily funded by the national government. In 2008, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The rapidly changing nature of the global food and agriculture system suggests the need to rethink how innovation can contribute to developing-country agriculture. While scientific and technological changes in agriculture can help foster ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Individuals’ aspirations and their consequences for future-oriented behavior have received increased attention in devel-opment economics literature in recent years. At this stage, however, each study relies on ad hoc empirical instruments to ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Individuals’ aspirations and their consequences for future-oriented behavior have received increased attention in development economics literature in recent years. At this stage, however, each study relies on ad hoc empirical instruments to ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Ethiopia’s agricultural sector, which is dominated by smallscale, mixed crop, and livestock farming, is the mainstay of the country’s economy. It constitutes more than half the nation’s gross domestic product (GDP), generates ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study analyzes the vulnerability of Ethiopian farmers to climate change based on the integrated vulnerability assessment approach using vulnerability indicators. The vulnerability indicators consist of the different socioeconomic and ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Ethiopia’s agricultural sector, which is dominated by smallscale, mixed crop, and livestock farming, is the mainstay of the country’s economy. It constitutes more than half the nation’s gross domestic product (GDP), generates ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Addressing emerging global poverty, hunger, and malnutrition challenges requires prudent evidence-based policymaking at the country level. Capacity for generating evidence remains a major constraint in the policy process in developing countries. ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Although farmers in developing countries are generally thought to be risk averse, little is known about the actual form of their risk preferences. In this paper, we use a relatively large field experiment to explore risk preferences related to ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Small-scale private irrigation schemes (SPRI) have been the driving force behind the expansion of irrigated areas in Nigeria, despite government efforts to promote large-scale public irrigation schemes. SPRI allows adjustment of irrigation ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Little has been written in recent literature regarding the role of mechanization in agricultural transformation in Africa. Government-led mechanization schemes in the 1970s and 1980s proved unsustainable after structural adjustment policies ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Mechanization has received less attention in academic literature, international policy dialogue and program formulation than other modern inputs to agricultural transformation (Pingali 2007). Demand for mechanized services by smallholder farmers, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Capacity strengthening programs often do not achieve their intended objectives due to poor targeting of the participants and mismatch between the capacity needs and the capacity development activities. It is increasingly recognized that assessing ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Agricultural production remains the main source of livelihood for rural communities in Sub-Saharan Africa, providing employment to more than 60 percent of the population and contributing about 30 percent of gross domestic product. With likely ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper uses data envelopment analysis and new data from Burkina Faso to test the impact of intercontinental and continental migration on technical efficiency in the production of two cereals-millet and sorghum-by rural households. Econometric ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper applies Gini and concentration coefficient decomposition as well as the Foster-Greer-Thorbecke poverty index and a welfare function to new data from Burkina Faso to test the relationship between long-distance international migration ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Civil wars inflict considerable costs on countries which may be trapped in vicious cycles of violence. To avoid these adverse events, scholars have attempted to identify the roots of civil wars. Valuable minerals have been listed among the main ...
  • Aflatoxin is a fungi-produced toxin that resides in the soil and affects crops. It thrives in humid conditions and is prevalent throughout much of the developing world in such staple crops as maize and groundnuts. While aflatoxin is a known ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) is a critical aspect of agricultural input subsidy policy and programs. The M&E of subsidies should not only focus on implementation issues such as targeting effectiveness, but also on the key development ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The fertilizer subsidy, reintroduced in Ghana in 2008, seems to have led to increased fertilizer use and use intensity among farmers, but there is limited empirical evidence as to whether this increased fertilizer use has reached the optimal ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper uses panel data from Bangladesh, Ethiopia, and Malawi to examine the impacts of disasters on dynamic human capital production. Our empirical results show that accumulation of biological human capital prior to a disaster helps children ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This empirical study uses data from 1970 to 2010 to estimate levels of neopatrimonialism in Malawi. We then test how neopatrimonialism has affected policy-induced agriculture producer incentives. Three dimensions are used to measure ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agriculture is a precarious business in which farmers face a host of market and production risks that make their incomes volatile from year to year. These risks include yield losses due to bad weather, pests and diseases, postharvest losses ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Ghana is widely regarded as an African success story due to its impressive achievements in accelerating growth and reducing poverty and hunger in line with the Millennium Development Goals. Strong agricultural output growth (4.5 percent annually ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    “The HIV epidemic has created over 10 million orphans in sub-Saharan Africa and countless other children are affected by the disease, whether by living with a parent who is chronically ill or living in a household that is hosting orphans. ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Fertilizantes químicos têm elevado potencial para aumentar a produtividade dos agregados familiares mais pobres, permitindo-os aumentar o rendimento familiar, acumular activos e tirá-los da pobreza. O baixo uso de fertilizantes químicos em ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This article analyzes the on-site and off-site economic impacts of various sustainable land management (SLM) practices in Kenya. Long-term trial data are used to establish the relationship between SLM practices and maize yield. The analysis of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Onset risk, the uncertainty in the onset of rainy season, is an important element of weather risk for African farmers with little access to formal insurance who engage in traditional rainfed farming. A knowledge gap still exists empirically on ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In July 2008, the government of Ghana instituted a country-wide subsidy on 50Kg bags of four types of fertilizer in an effort to mitigate the effect of rising energy and food prices. Farmers received the subsidy in the form of fertilizer- and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This study analyzes growth options in agricultural sub-sectors to accelerate overall economic growth and reduce poverty in Nigeria in the next nine years (2009-17) using an economy-wide, dynamic computable general equilibrium (DCGE) model. The ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Since 2003, economic growth in Nigeria has been strong. Annual GDP grew by 9.1 percent per annum between 2003 and 2005 and by 6 .1 percent per annum between 2006 and 2008. Much of this growth can be attributed to the non-oil economy which has ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This report provides some reflections and insights on the level of awareness, practices, and organizational and institutional issues being faced by countries as they adapt to climate change, based on interviews with 87 practitioners working in ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    “The present study employs Deaton’s outlay equivalence approach to analyze potential discrimination in resource allocation within households against children who are not the biological descendant of the household head in Mozambique. ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This study presents a detailed review of the poultry sector in Ethiopia in order to provide background information for further research related to pro‐poor HPAI risk reduction strategies in Ethiopia. The report surveys information that exists in ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    From 2006 to the present, 11 countries in Africa reported outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1: Egypt, Sudan, Djibouti, Niger, Nigeria, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Togo, Benin, and Cameroon. Other than Egypt, where ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Using survey data from the Upper East region of Ghana collected in 2005, the paper evaluates the household- and community-level factors influencing women’s and men’s decisions to participate in off-farm activities, either in the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The average maize yield in Ghana is estimated to be 1.7 metric tons/hectare (MOFA 2009–2011), whereas achievable yields based on on-farm trials are between 4 and 6 tons/hectare. Low adoption of inputs and improved technologies is often cited as ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The average rice yield in Ghana is estimated to be 2.5 tons/hectare (MOFA 2009–2011), while the achievable yield based on on-farm trials is 6–8 tons/hectare. Low adoption of inputs and improved technologies is often cited as the major reason for ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The potential adverse effects of climate change on Ethiopia’s agricultural sector are a major concern, particularly given the country’s dependence on agricultural production. Securing Ethiopia’s economic and social well-being in ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This study analyzes the perceptions, impacts, and rewards of farmers who adopted row planting for the production of teff as a result of being exposed to a technology promotion campaign for row planting of teff in the Oromia region of Ethiopia. ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In recent years, there has been renewed interest among both public and private organizations to establish farmerbased organizations (FBOs) in Ghana (Salifu et al. 2010). This interest is based on the premise that FBOs give farmers ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Cereal production and marketing is the single largest sub-sector within Ethiopia’s agriculture. It dominates in terms of its share in rural employment, agricultural land use, and calorie intake, as well as its contribution to national income. The ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    “The objectives of this workshop are to review and discuss the main findings and policy implications of recent research conducted on these topics by IFPRI, Wageningen University and Research Center (WUR), the International Livestock ...
  • Books and Monographs
    “Policy Analysis for Sustainable Land Management and Food Security in Ethiopia presents a bioeconomic model of this less- favored area in the Ethiopian highlands. The main reason for selecting this case study area is the unique availability ...
  • Policy Analysis for Sustainable Land Management and Food Security in Ethiopia presents a bioeconomic model of this less- favored area in the Ethiopian highlands. The main reason for selecting this case study area is the unique availability of ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Although the Nigerian economy depends significantly on the oil sector, agriculture remains its mainstay. Agriculture contributed 42 percent of Nigeria’s gross domestic product (GDP) in 2008 (National Bureau of Statistics). Agriculture is the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The Nigerian government has embarked on an ambitious plan to make the country self-sufficient in rice production by 2015 under its current Agricultural Transformation Agenda (ATA). The plan is in response to the perceived threat to the Nigerian ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Nigeria is the world’s largest cassava producer and Africa’s largest rice importer. The government and private sector should figure out ways to enhance cassava’s competitiveness in the international market and improve the efficiency of domestic ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper is an attempt to provide initial discussion points that may be useful in considering the types of policies that can support the development of Ghana’s commercial seed sector.
  • Project Papers and Notes
    There is growing interest in the role of policy reforms to promote gender equality and empower women, two key objec-tives of development policy. From a policy perspective, it would be ideal for reforms undertaken in different policy areas to be ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The donor response to CAADP has developed and grown over the past decade CAADP’s clear continent‐wide ambitions and the ability of CAADP to draw in solid African government financial and political commitments at head‐of‐state level are attractive ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Public investments in agriculture in Africa can have profound effects on productivity in the sector. It is therefore important to understand how budgetary allocation decisions are made. For example, what are the reasons for persistent ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Malawi has struggled to achieve sustained agricultural growth over the last four decades. As such there is need for in-creased investment and supportive policies if greater success is to be realized. As a prerequisite to identifying the role that ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Like in most African countries, the livestock sector is an important part of the economy in Ghana. At an aggregate level it contributes to about 7 percent of Ghana’s GDP and more than 40 percent to the agricultural GDP (Aning et al. 2008). Within ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Rising demand both for organic tropical products and for year-round supply of some organic temperate products has encouraged organic activists and some donors to promote certified organic export production in a number of tropical African ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Poverty and malnutrition in Nigeria are widespread and severe, and therefore continue to be at the center stage of the development discourse. Sixty-four percent of all rural Nigerians have a consumption level below the basic-needs poverty line, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “The objective of measuring poverty is usually to make comparisons over time or between two or more groups. Common statistical inference methods are used to determine whether an apparent difference in measured poverty is statistically ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper uses a computable general equilibrium approach to simulate two opposing views describing regional trade agreements either as building blocks for or stumbling blocks to multilateral trade liberalization. This study focuses on the free ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The Ghanaian cocoa sector is considered a successful case of agricultural development in Africa. Sector reforms in the 1990s resulted in increased production that reached 1 million tons, making Ghana the second largest cocoa producer in the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper investigates price transmission for agricultural commodities between world markets and the Ugandan market in an attempt to determine the impact of world market prices on the Ugandan market. Based on the realization that price formation ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    We study food retail in Addis Ababa based on a large survey of food retail outlets selling cereals, fruits and vegetables, and pro-cessed foods. The study shows high variation in quality and prices in the city and an increasing differentiation in ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper documents the factors driving the impressive growth in fertilizer use and maize productivity in Kenya since the early 1990s up to 2007. The basic story is one of synergies between liberalization of input and maize markets and public ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) is assisting the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources (FMAWR) in facilitating the process of updating Nigeria’s agricultural strategy with inputs from academia, the private ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This brief is a synopsis of five country background papers that provided an inventory of information about the importance of the poultry sector in the economy and for rural livelihoods, the structure of the poultry sector and the associated level ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This study presents a detailed review of the poultry sector in Ghana with an aim to provide in depth information on the linkages in the production chain and the role of the poultry sector in the national economy. Information on the history and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The objective of this background paper is to document available information on the poultry sector and Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) in Nigeria. It is hoped that this will help identify the gaps that would help focus the planned study ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Recent trends in Ugandan agriculture indicate output is increasing for most crops but at a declining rate. The pervasive decline in output per unit of input (factor productivity) threatens the economic well-being and food security of producers ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The adoption of more efficient farming practices and technologies that enhance agricultural productivity and improve environmental sustainability is instrumental for achieving economic growth, food security and poverty alleviation in sub-Saharan ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Recognizing that “gender matters,” many development interventions have aimed to close the gender gap in access to resources, both human and physical, and to address the specific needs of female farmers. This paper critically reviews attempts to ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Given that Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence of poverty and malnutrition in the world, the stagnation in per capita grain production there is worrisome. Since 1970, per capita grain production in Sub-Saharan Africa has declined more ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Zambia is one of the poorest countries in Africa. Despite substantial reform during the 1990s, the economy has remained heavily dependent on urban-based mining. Copper’s long-standing dominance led to a strong bias against ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Agriculture in Ethiopia is almost entirely rainfed and highly prone to droughts and floods. Given that 85 percent of the population depends on smallholder agriculture, these weather shocks severely affect many Ethiopians. The high covariance of ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agriculture has been the backbone of a Ghanaian economy that has recorded positive per capita GDP growth over the last 20 years. The agriculture sector has grown rapidly at an average annual rate of 5.5 percent in recent years, benefiting from ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Using district-level data for 1992, 1995, and 1999, the study estimated effects of different types of government expenditure on agricultural growth and rural poverty in Uganda. The results reveal that government spending on agricultural ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper undertakes a two-pronged investigation of agricultural public investments in Mozambique. Firstly, it estimates the public resources required in the agricultural sector—both in magnitude and in type or composition—in order for the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Using Tanzania as a test case, this study demonstrates how household survey data can be used to assess the impacts of public investments on growth and poverty. A two step procedure is used. First, household survey data are used to link ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This paper studies the relevance of agricultural policies for avoiding Dutch Disease, which affects many less developed countries experiencing a resource boom. Using a computable general equilibrium model calibrated for Chad, we study the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Public spending may influence poverty alleviation objectives at several levels including overall spending plans of government (aggregate fiscal policy), policy decisions funded in the budget and the flow of budgeted resources to Ministries, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Ghana’s Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy (GPRS II; November, 2005) which spans the period 2006 – 2009 intends to shift the strategic focus of the country’s development agenda from the direct anti-poverty objectives of the GPRS I to a more ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    By December 2007, there was a continuum of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 affected countries along the West African coast from Côte d’Ivoire to Cameroon. Eight West African countries (Nigeria, Niger, Cameroon, Burkina Faso, Côte ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    By December 2007, there was a continuum of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 affected countries along the West African coast from Cote d’Ivoire to Cameroon. In all, 8 countries in West Africa had recorded HPAI H5N1 (Niger, Burkina ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    As part of the DFID funded Pro-poor HPAI Risk Reduction Project, a qualitative risk assessment was conducted for risk questions, agreed during stakeholders workshop in September, 2008, related to introduction of highly pathogenic avian influenza ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In spite of Nigeria’s abundant natural and human resource endowment, poverty remains pervasive, multifaceted, and chronic. Given the most recent data available, it is estimated that approximately 69 million (or 54.4 percent) Nigerians lived in ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Poverty in Nigeria is pervasive although the country is rich in human and material resources that should translate into better living standards. According to the most recent survey (2004 National Living Standards Survey) presented by the National ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “This paper uses recently available South African school census data from 1996 and 2000 to assess variations in educational quality across former population groups of public schools and dynamic changes in post-apartheid South Africa. The ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The Government of Ghana has identified accelerated growth in agriculture as the source of its overall Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy (GPRS II) and reaching middle-income status by 2015. Using data from the recent Ghana Living Standards ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Using district-level data on public expenditures from 2000 to 2006, and household-level production data from the 2005/06 Ghana Living Standards Survey, this paper estimates the returns to different types of public investments across four ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The civil war in Sierra Leone, caused by a mix of political, social, and economic factors, had a huge impact on the overall economy in general and on the performance of the agricultural sector in particular. The agricultural research system of ...
  • Books and Monographs
    “Rather than looking at the association between poverty and various household and individual characteristics on a one-to-one basis (bivariate analysis), which often oversimplifies complex relationships and can lead to erroneous conclusions, ...
  • “Rather than looking at the association between poverty and various household and individual characteristics on a one-to-one basis (bivariate analysis), which often oversimplifies complex relationships and can lead to erroneous conclusions, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Most conflicts in the developing world take place in rural areas, displacing large numbers of civilians and disrupting their agricultural livelihoods. Rebuilding agriculture is an important strategy for post-conflict reconstruction. Agriculture ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The country strategy support programs are burdened by having to demonstrate that they have influenced the policies and strategies of the countries they serve. The task is particularly onerous as it calls for influencing a particular client. This ...
  • Books and Monographs
    “The long-term reduction of hunger and poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa remains one of the great challenges for the international development community. Eliminating hunger and promoting widespread growth in the region inevitably involves ...
  • Archive
    “Since the early 1980s, almost all African governments have embarked on economic reform programs to reduce state intervention in the economy and to allow markets to play a larger role. In the agricultural sector these programs were designed ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Many developing countries are currently in the process of designing regulatory systems that should allow them to use genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for agricultural development, while also managing the food safety and environmental risks ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper sets out to identify avenues for pro-poor growth in Ghana, focussing on agricultural opportunities, particularly in northern Ghana. Using an economywide, multimarket model and based on time series production data between 1991 and 2000 ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The development pattern in Ghana is characterised by a north-south divide in which the north lags far behind the south. This paper sets out to identify avenues for pro-poor growth in Ghana, focussing on agricultural opportunities, particularly in ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The Regional Network on HIV/AIDS, Rural Livelihoods and Food Security (RENEWAL) was launched in 2001. Facilitated by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and with support from several donors, RENEWAL is a growing regional ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Broad and intensive consultative processes were conducted in Malawi and Uganda from June 2001 – July 2002 aimed at identifying the content and shape of an initiative that would enable agricultural R&D organizations to contribute effectively ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The Agricultural Sector-Wide Approach (ASWAp) aims to support priority activities in the agricultural sector in Malawi that would increase agricultural productivity, reduce hunger, enable people access to nutritious foods, and increase the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The International Food Policy Research Institute has been undertaking policy research and capacity strengthening activities in Uganda since about 1998. A broad range of research reports, discussion papers, project reports, and other documents ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The average smallholder farmer in Malawi is tasked to feed a family of five on a farm of less than one hectare in size (NSO, 2008). The intensification of land through, for example, fertilizer use plays a prominent role in Malawi’s policy to ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Endowed with 80 million hectares of arable land (of which only 10 percent are used), diverse climatic conditions, and abundant water resources, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has the potential to become the breadbasket of the entire ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    To fully realize the potential of food aid to reduce risk and to mitigate the impacts of HIV/AIDS, existing strategies and interventiuons need to be re-viewed using an HIV/AIDS lens.
  • Discussion Papers
    While there are ample empirical studies that claim the potential disincentive effects of sharecropping arrangements, the existing literature is shallow in explaining why share tenancy contracts are prevalent and diffusing in many developing ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Public-private sector dialogue in Nigeria’s economic policymaking process is fragmented and unstructured. As a result, the private sector has moved to organize itself around trade groups, which have the tendency to seek self-interest. Advocacy ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The important role of credit in agricultural enterprise development and sustainability has prompted the Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN) to establish credit schemes such as the Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme (ACGS) and Agricultural ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Agricultural production remains the main source of livelihood for rural communities in Sub-Saharan Africa, providing employment to more than 60 percent of the population and contributing about 30 percent of gross domestic product. With likely ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Agricultural production remains the main source of livelihood for rural communities in Sub-Saharan Africa, providing employment to more than 60 percent of the population and contributing about 30 percent of gross domestic product. With likely ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper uses panel data from Bangladesh, Ethiopia, and Malawi to examine the impacts of natural disasters on schooling investments, with a particular focus on the roles of ex-ante actions and ex-post responses. We find that the importance of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper investigates the contribution of rural non-farm income to income inequality by examining the contribution of specific income sources (farm income from irrigated agriculture, farm income from rainfed agriculture and non-farm income) to ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Adoption of yield-increasing technologies is seen as a key driver to increase agricultural production in Sub-Saharan Africa. There is, however, a lack of empirical evidence on the impact of programs aiming to scale-up the adoption of improved ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The seasonality of disease, ill‐health and hunger were illustrated in multiple contexts in the original IDS conference on seasonality over three decades ago. The subsequent book (Chambers et al. 1981) was published in the same year as the first ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Decisionmakers in Ethiopia have pursued a range of policies and investments to boost agricultural production and productivity. An important tool has been to increase the availability of improved seed, chemical fertilizers, and extension services ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    We preliminarily find that providing sustainable land management (SLM) training to standard contact farmers and having them maintain demonstration plots within the community on a whole had low impact on the knowledge and adoption of SLM ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper discusses the application of the equilibrium displacement model (EDM) to estimate ex-ante the welfare effects of biological productivity growth for semi-subsistence crop and its impact on poverty reduction. The conventionally used EDM ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Agriculture and rural development must play a central role in stimulating economic growth, reducing poverty, and improving food and nutrition security in Africa. The food price crisis of 2007-08 highlighted the dramatic implications of world ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper uses household survey panel data of 416 rural households to study livestock asset dynamics in the north-east of Ethiopia. The period under examination (1996-2003) was marked by severe environmental shocks, including a series of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Droughts, hurricanes and other environmental shocks punctuate the lives of poor and vulnerable populations in many parts of the world. The direct impacts can be horrific, but what are the longer-term effects of such shocks on households and their ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The 1991–2002 civil war that ravaged Sierra Leone virtually destroyed the country’s agricultural R&D infrastructure. When hostilities ended, Sierra Leone began the long and painful process of re-establishing its agricultural R&D system, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In contrast to uniformly pessimistic assessments about Sub-Saharan Africa’s (hereafter Africa) ability to meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), this paper examines recent trends in poverty, malnutrition, and growth to delineate ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In recent years, agricultural growth in Ghana has been positive overall. However, much of this growth has resulted from area expansion rather than increased yield. Furthermore, growth patterns have not been uniform across commodities or ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Zambian farmers have extensive experience with maize hybrids and input subsidies. Like other countries in Eastern and Southern Africa, the successful development and diffusion of improved maize seed in Zambia during the 1970s and 1980s was ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper examines social learning regarding HIV infection, using HIV test results and sibling death data from Malawi. In the analysis, we compare hypotheses on social learning, selection. and common factors. Empirical results show that young ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    For the past 20 years, AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa has been considered a disease of high mobility largely associated with political strife1 or urbanization.2 With its largely peaceful recent history and heavily rural population, however, Malawi ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Demand for social protection programs within more empowered segments of the poor population in African societies will be on the rise due to the historically high levels of poverty, faster economic growth, rapid urbanization, and increasingly ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study applies regression analysis as well as a non-parametric method to survey data from Burkina Faso to analyze the role of human capital in explaining technical efficiency in smallholder agricultural production. Exploiting the panel nature ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study investigates the impact of different soil and water conservation technologies on the variance of crop production in Ethiopia to determine the risk implications of the different technologies in different regions and rainfall zones. ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Studying the sources of growth in agricultural production, examining the extent of inefficiency, and identifying the sources of such inefficiency, is an important step forward to improve the livelihood of subsistence farm households in developing ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Public-sector financing remains the dominant source of funding, but—as in many countries—public funding has come under severe pressure in recent years. In the past five years, contributions to agricultural research funding by producer ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The livestock sector is a large contributor to the Ethiopian economy as well as a mainstay in the livelihoods of many Ethiopians. It comprised 11 percent of national GDP and 24 percent of agricultural GDP between the years of 1995/96 and 2005/06 ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Because the conditions for agricultural development vary considerably across space, we need to develop methods that allow us to take such variability into account when evaluating development strategies for particular crops or farming ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This study looks at the extent of and changes in spatial integration of cereal markets in Ethiopia over the last ten years. Based on weekly wholesale prices of the Ethiopian Grain Trade Enterprise (EGTE) and covering all major cereals in the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Using weekly price data for two sub-periods, this paper analyzes how Ugandan maize market performed in the years following agricultural market liberalization in the early 1990’s. For each time period, the extent of integration, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This research examines the extent of market integration among different bean markets across Malawi. Market integration is an indicator that efficiency exists within the flow of information between markets. The study focused on beans as they are a ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Though there is increasing evidence of the availability and potential of new agricultural technologies in Africa south of the Sahara, effective demand for them is still low. A recent refocus on increasing farmers’ use of modern technologies such ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “While greater growth in agriculture and the broader rural sector is crucial for ameliorating Africa’s high levels of poverty and malnutrition, developing strategies to achieve these objectives is hindered by a number of factors, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Designing agricultural strategies requires an understanding of the options for dealing with growth in the sector, its impact on targeted beneficiaries, and the investment required to achieve the growth. IFPRI’s recent study identified ...
  • “Agricultural development strategies delineate priorities for actions to enhance agricultural and overall development. They are usually put forward by individual countries based on assessments of national needs. Seldom are attempts made to ...
  • Books and Monographs
    Agricultural development strategies delineate priorities for actions to enhance agricultural and overall development. They are usually put forward by individual countries based on assessments of national needs. Seldom are attempts made to ...
  • Books and Monographs
    “The government of Uganda, with help from its development partners, is designing and implementing policies and strategies to address poverty, land degradation, and declining agricultural productivity. Land degradation, especially soil ...
  • “The government of Uganda, with help from its development partners, is designing and implementing policies and strategies to address poverty, land degradation, and declining agricultural productivity. Land degradation, especially soil ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper examines the role of postsecondary agricultural education and training (AET) in Sub-Saharan Africa in the context of the region’s agricultural innovation systems. Specifically, the paper looks at how AET in Sub-Saharan Africa can ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In spite of its oil wealth, poverty plagues Nigeria. The Federal Government of Nigeria has recognized that improved agricultural performance is critical to poverty reduction, since the majority of the nation’s poor depend on agriculture for ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The Computable General equilibrium (CGE) model has been successfully used to inform macro and micro policymaking in many developed countries. In developing countries like Nigeria, their influence on policy is limited - in spite of their proven ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    We document that structural change accounts for approximately one-fifth of the total change in labor productivity in Nigeria between 1996 and 2009. Labor moved out of the agricultural and wholesale and retail trade sectors into manufacturing, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    We study cereal wholesale markets in Ethiopia in the last decade (2001–2011), a period that has been characterized by important local changes affecting agricultural markets, including strong economic growth, urbanization, improved road and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    We study the structure and performance of the coffee export sector in Ethiopia, Africa’s most important coffee producer, over the period 2003 to 2013. We find an evolving policy environment leading to structural changes in the export sector, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Strengthening Sudan’s agricultural research system is a key component in addressing the country’s increasing food insecurity and poverty. Nevertheless, public agricultural R&D spending has decreased over the past 30 years because of declining ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In rural economies encumbered by significant market imperfections, farming decisions may partly be motivated by nutritional considerations, in addition to income and risk factors. These imperfections create the potential for farm assets to have ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Smallholder producers in marginal and semiarid areas of eastern Kenya have not benefited greatly from research investments made in improvement of crops grown in such environments (sorghum, millet, and legumes, including pigeonpea) either by the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    How does information about a suspected outbreak of avian influenza on the farm level reach the respective authorities? How and through which actors is the response to a confirmed outbreak implemented on the ground? These were the guiding ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    How does information about a suspected outbreak of avian influenza on the farm level reach the respective authorities? How and through which actors is the response to a confirmed outbreak implemented on the ground? These were the guiding ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The Federal Government of Nigeria has demonstrated a strong commitment to achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the NEEDS Targets. Recognizing the importance of agriculture, as well as the challenges faced by the sector, in ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Uganda’s rapid urbanization, particularly in the capital city Kampala, offers new market opportunities for organized farmers to supply higher value produce for emerging growth markets such as multinational supermarket chains and fast food ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The Ethiopian Strategy Support Program (ESSP-II) Conference on “Accelerating Agricultural Development, Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction in Ethiopia” was held at the Addis Ababa Hilton Hotel from October 22-24. This conference was organized ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Though input vouchers are being publicized as a mechanism to simultaneously target subsidies and develop demand in private markets, limited empirical evidence of their effect on private input demand exists. Few empirical studies, if any, exist on ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In Ethiopia, as in many other African countries, there is a pressing need to improve household food security. An emerging consensus suggests that this is most easily accomplished through two development strategies with two complementary ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP) is targeted towards households that are both food-insecure and poor. Overall the targeting principles laid out in the Project Implementation Manual are being followed, but with some regional variation. ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Some have proposed that the Ethiopia Grain Trading Enterprise (EGTE) offer a minimum support price (MSP) on wheat. The goals of the MSP are to stimulate wheat production, decrease the need for wheat imports, and reduce seasonal variability in ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Alors que certains pays de l’Afrique Subsaharienne sont en mesure d’atteindre les objectifs du millénaire pour le développement (OMD) en 2015, les défis de développement auxquels fait face la République Démocratique du Congo (RDC) ne lui ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Poor agricultural productivity and food insecurity are persistent features of many less developed countries. Governments and international development agencies have therefore rightly considered agricultural intensification as the primary means ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In line with the conventional view that customary land rights impede agricultural development, the traditional tenure system in Nigeria has been perceived to obstruct the achievement of efficient development and agricultural transformation. This ...
  • Books and Monographs
    During the past decade and a half, Ethiopia’s approach to promoting development and improving the lives of the country’s rural population has been driven by a government strategy called Agricultural Development-Led Industrialization ...
  • During the past decade and a half, Ethiopia’s approach to promoting development and improving the lives of the country’s rural population has been driven by a government strategy called Agricultural Development-Led Industrialization ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper explores and compares the impact of different types of public spending on rural household welfare in Ethiopia. The analysis of public financial and household-level data reveals that returns to road investments are significantly higher ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Agriculture plays a crucial role in the economy of sub-Saharan Africa. A feature of particular significance about the region is that the majority of households are heavily dependent on agriculture as their major source of livelihood. ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Ghana’s commitment to the tomato sector has its roots in the 1960s when three large tomato processing plants were established in the country. Though set up as part of President Nkrumah’s development plan for Ghana, the current rationale for these ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In Ghana, the agricultural sector in general and the tomato sector in particular have not met their potential. In the tomato sector, production seasonality, the dominance of rainfed agriculture, high perishability of the fruits combined with no ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Processing of highly perishable non-storable crops, such as tomato, is typically promoted for two reasons: as a way of absorbing excess supply, particularly during gluts that result from predominantly rainfed cultivation; and to enhance the value ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The tomato sector in Ghana has failed to reach its potential, in terms of attaining yields comparable to other countries, in terms of the ability to sustain processing plants, and in terms of improving the livelihoods of those households involved ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Years of continuous cultivation with little or no use of external inputs to restore soil nutrients has resulted in a situation in which crop production in a number of African countries is now limited by nutrient deficiencies – nitrogen, in ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Identifying policies which can improve water sector management is critically important given the global burden of water-related disease. Each year, 1 in 10 child deaths—roughly 800,000 in total—is the direct result of diarrhea. Can private-sector ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) was designed to promote the transformation of agriculture in SSA. Under this program, African countries have committed to seek development through agriculture led growth by ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program (CAADP), an initiative of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), was developed in response to the neglect of the agricultural sector by African governments as well as donors. ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Zambia and South Africa (SA) are two countries that are seriously affected by the dual epidemics of tuberculosis (TB) and HIV. While both are attempting to integrate public TB and HIV services to reach co-infected people, there is little evidence ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper uses spatially-explicit analyses of climate change effects on selected key sectors of Ethiopia’s economy to estimate both sector-wise and economy-wide estimates of impacts and adaptation costs. Using four IPCC-vetted Global Circulation ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agriculture is vital to Zambia’s economic development and is a mainstay for the livelihoods of a large proportion of the population. Agricultural production is mainly dependent on rain-fed hoe cultivation with maize as the principal staple food ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Achieving food security is high on the agenda of the Malawi government. Notably, Malawi’s Growth and Development Strategy (MGDS) recognizes that food security is a prerequisite for sustained economic growth and poverty reduction. However, a good ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Migration may be triggered by one or more factors including economic issues such as relative economic stagnation or decline, environmental fluctuations that would include climate change and negative changes in weather conditions, political ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This analytical report is the outcome of a restudy that was undertaken in January 2005 of an original study undertaken in 1993 of the impact of HIV/AIDS on agricultural production systems and livelihoods in the Mpongwe area of the Copperbelt ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The primary purpose of the research conducted from January to December 2006 was to investigate the ways in which the AIDS epidemic was playing out in a Zomba District sample of households that had been studied since 1986. The single most ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The research, conducted from January to December 2006, investigated the effects of the HIV epidemic on a Zomba District sample of households that has been studied since 1986. The sample families follow matrilineal and matrilocal patterns of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This paper describes the emergence of improved traditional planting pits (zaï) in Burkina Faso in the early 1980s as well as their advantages, disadvantages and impact. The zaï emerged in a context of recurrent droughts and frequent ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The Ethiopia Strategy Support Program (ESSP), the first major IFPRI country strategy support program managed by the Development Strategy and Governance Division (DSGD), was undertaken in close collaboration with the Ethiopian Development Research ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Overview of ESSP The Ethiopia Strategy Support Program, the first major IFPRI country strategy support program managed by the Development Strategy and Governance Division (DSGD), has been undertaken in close collaboration with the Ethiopian ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Unemployment is currently a major policy issue in many African countries (African Development Bank 2012). As pockets of widespread unemployment often persist despite labor market expansion, there is a growing demand among policy makers for ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Public agricultural R&D investments in The Gambia have followed an erratic pattern since the turn of the millennium, largely due to significant yearly fluctuations in government and donor support. In 2008, the country invested close to 20 ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper looks at the gendered impacts of a development project that provided improved dairy cattle and training as part of a broader effort to develop a smallholder-friendly, market-oriented dairy value chain in Manica province, Mozambique. ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This study presents empirical findings on drinking water supply in Ethiopia from a set of qualitative and quantitive surveys on rural public services. Access to safe drinking water is very low: 32% of the surveyed households use safe drinking ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper investigates whether public investments that led to improvements in road quality and increased access to agricultural extension services led to faster consumption growth and lower rates of poverty in rural Ethiopia. Estimating an ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study has been conducted in order to generate evidence of the visibility of exit from farm input subsidies in an African context. The study simulates the impact of alternative exit strategies from Malawi’s farm input subsidy program on maize ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Growing consensus in the scientific community indicates that higher temperatures and changing precipitation levels resulting from climate change will depress crop yields in many countries over the coming decades. This is particularly true in ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Growing consensus in the scientific community indicates that higher temperatures and changing precipitation levels resulting from climate change will depress crop yields in many countries over the coming decades. This is particularly true in ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper presents an empirical analysis of the impact of climate change on food production in a typical low-income developing country. Furthermore, it provides an estimation of the determinants of adaptation to climate change and the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    We combined a hydro-crop model with a dynamic general equilibrium (DCGE) model to assess the impacts of climate variability and change on economic growth and poverty reduction in Zambia. The hydro-crop model is first used to estimate the impact ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Over the coming decades, global change will have an impact on food and water security in significant and highly uncertain ways, and there are strong indications that developing countries will bear the brunt of the adverse consequences, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper assesses the impact of Ethiopia’s Productive Safety Nets Programme (PSNP), the largest social protection program in Sub-Saharan Africa outside of South Africa. Using Propensity Score Matching techniques, we find that the program ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In developing countries, all too often policies formulated in response to high food prices are inspired by ideology instead of evidence-based policy research. We look at the immediate effects of these shocks faced by households in Uganda on their ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Agriculture in Africa south of the Sahara (SSA) is still largely rainfed. SSA also exhibits the lowest crop yields for major staples in the world, largely due to low use of irrigation and fertilizer. Rainfed agriculture poses growing production ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    We assess the impact of the promotion of row planting at reduced seed rate on farmers’ teff yields in Ethiopia. Results indicate that the program to scale-up row planting, on average, has a positive but moderate effect on teff yield. These ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    IFPRI’s Global Research Program on the Sustainable Development of Less-Favored Areas was initiated in 1998, with the goals of (1) providing empirical evidence on appropriate development strategies and public investments for improving the ...
  • Books and Monographs
    “Malnutrition affects one out of every three preschool-age children living in developing countries.This disturbing, yet preventable, state of affairs causes untold suffering and, given its wide scale, presents a major obstacle to the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Increasing adoption of modern inputs remains one of the best hopes towards higher agricultural production in developing countries. Based on unique data from a quasi-experimental setting in northwestern Ethiopia, this study examines the “last ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Increasing adoption of modern inputs remains one of the best hopes toward higher agricultural production in developing coun-tries. Based on unique data from a quasi-experimental setting in northwestern Ethiopia, this study examines the “last ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Healthcare financing through social health insurance has become a very important tool in providing access to and utilization of health services in most developing countries such as Ghana. Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) is a ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Sub-Saharan African cities in the late 1990s face a daunting set of problems including rapid growth, increasing poverty, deteriorating infrastructure, and inadequate capacity for service provision. However, even as a renewed debate is shaping up ...
  • Discussion Papers
    During the last decade, the resurgence in economic growth in Africa south of the Sahara has generated an interest in the drivers and consequences of structural change and transformation. Using the case of Zambia, this paper examines whether ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In this paper, we develop a simple game-theoretic model to explore the relationship between management of common pool resources used as an input in livestock production (common pastures) and the adoption of inputs associated with intensified per ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This brief reviews the extensive evidence on agricultural market reforms in Sub-Saharan Africa and summarizes the impact reforms have had on market performance, agricultural production, use of modern inputs, and poverty. It offers eight ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The recent surge in world commodity prices might alter the role of traditional export crops in African economies. While export crops have traditionally been important sources of foreign exchange earnings and government revenues, Ghana is an ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In this policy brief, we report on work by Brautigam, McMillan and Tang (2012) who study the impact of foreign investment on Ethiopia’s leather value chain. The goal is to draw policy lessons for Ghana and other African countries. While it is ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Mapping the flow of information along the poultry value chain is crucial for the identification of the actors to whom highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) risks should be communicated. Each actor in the poultry sector, whether private and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In many developing countries, information regarding the occurrence of a disease outbreak must travel through a network of individuals and institutions before it reaches the central government. Likewise, the response must travel back through these ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agriculture is the largest contributor to the economic well-being of most Nigerians. For the agriculture sector to continue to grow, research-based knowledge of the existing agricultural practices, the potential of the sector, the approach for ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Evidence-based policymaking relies on findings from research and analysis. The availability of information and data is the foundation for sound policy advice, but developing countries lack access to the timely knowledge and data fundamental for ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    As in other African countries, poultry production in Kenya is an important livelihoods activity. Eighty percent of the national poultry population is managed in small-scale, non- or semi-commercial, village, or backyard poultry systems (MOLFD ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Climate change and land degradation are major threats to the survival and livelihoods of millions of people in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Major new opportunities exist to help improve the livelihoods of African smallholder farmers, pastoralists, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Although Ethiopia‘s economy has grown rapidly over the past decade and urbanization is increasing, the country‘s economic and spatial transformation has only just begun. Ethiopia‘s share of agriculture in GDP in 2006 (48 percent) was the highest ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Inorganic fertilizer is one of a handful of agricultural technologies that have immense potential for raising the productivity of poor smallholders, enabling them to increase income, accumulate assets, and set themselves economically on a pathway ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This brief presents the results of a study to investigate sup-ply-side constraints for fertilizer use by smallholder famers in Tanzania in which the government is implicated. Government actions that could constrain the supply of fertilizer ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Inorganic fertilizer is one of a handful of agricultural technologies that have immense potential for raising the productivity of poor smallholders, enabling them to increase income, accumulate assets, and set themselves economically on a pathway ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This brief presents the results of a late-2010 study of fertilizer supply to smallholder farmers in Uganda that was done to assess whether the taxes (explicit or implicit) that are applied at various points along the fertilizer importation and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Inorganic fertilizer is one of a handful of agricultural technologies that has immense potential for raising the productivity of poor smallholder farmers, enabling them to increase income, accumulate assets, and set themselves economically on a ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    We study the value chain of teff, Ethiopia’s most important staple food crop by area and value. Based on large-scale primary surveys, we find significant changes in the last decade. First, there is increasing adoption of modern inputs (chemical ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Commercial agriculture in Ghana has over the years been receiving a lot of attention from both the government and donor agencies as a way out of poverty. The focus has been on small‐scale farmers who have continued to struggle to feed themselves ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    With rising numbers of researchers in the higher-education and nonprofit sectors and falling numbers in the government sector, total agricultural researcher numbers in Togo remained relatively unchanged throughout the 1990s. Agricultural research ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    On 23 April 2010, farmers, traders, processors, agribusiness, Ghanaian and international academics, donors, and officials met in Accra for an exchange of views on how to revive the strategic but ailing tomato sector. The dialogue was organized by ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Believing that complex problems call for complex solutions and that stakeholders should have a say in policies that concern them, policymakers have strongly promoted the development of forums and organizations made up of many stakeholders to ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In June 2012, a Technical Working Group on Monitoring and Evaluation (TWG on M&E) was established in Malawi to track agricultural sector performance under the overarching sector strategy, the Agricultural Sector Wide Approach (ASWAP). The TWG ...
  • Discussion Papers
    We examine the effect of trade protection rates on evasion in three African countries: Kenya, Mauritius, and Nigeria. In capturing the effect of trade protection on tariff evasion, we use a much improved measure of trade protection from MacMAP ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Small-scale private irrigation schemes (SPRI) have been the major driving force behind the expansion of irrigated areas in Nigeria, despite government efforts to promote large scale public irrigation schemes. SPRI allows adjustment of irrigation ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The global food crisis of 2007–2008 was characterized by a sharp spike in the prices of most commodities, including staple grains. This analysis examines the degree to which changes in world food markets influence the price of staple foods in ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agriculture is the economic mainstay of the majority of households in Nigeria (Udoh, 2000) and is a significant sector in Nigeria’s economy (Amaza, 2000). The important benefits of the agricultural sector to Nigeria’s economy include: the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Irrigation is considered an important factor for agriculture and food security. Knowledge gaps, however, still exist with regard to how farmers in Africa south of Sahara, including Nigeria, are using irrigation. Given the diverse agroecological ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Public agricultural R&D investment in Uganda grew substantially during 2000–08. Initially, growth stemmed from increased donor funding, mainly through the World Bank loan–funded project ARTP II; more recently, government support increased ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Climate change is expected to have serious environmental, economic, and social impacts on South Africa. In particular, rural farmers, whose livelihoods depend on the use of natural resources, are likely to bear the brunt of adverse impacts. The ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Climate change is expected to have serious environmental, economic, and social impacts on South Africa. In particular, rural farmers, whose livelihoods depend on the use of natural resources, are likely to bear the brunt of adverse impacts. The ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper uses models of irreversible investment under uncertainty to examine the investment and abandonment behavior of poor rural households. It considers the decision of Ugandan coffee-farming households to invest in or abandon coffee trees. ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Despite CAADP commitment by African governments to allocate at least 10 percent of their budgets to agriculture, this has not materialized in all countries. Why is this so? Why do public resource allocations for agriculture still lag behind the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study examines the role of research in agricultural policy making in Malawi at a time when the Africa Union and the New Partnership for Africa’s Development have been seeking to promote greater evidenced-based decision making in agriculture. ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    La mondialisation est une arme à double tranchant. Elle élargit l’accès à l’information, aux technologies, aux intrants et aux marchés. En intégrant leur économie au marché mondial, les pays parviennent à tirer parti de l’avantage concurrentiel ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Les réglementations relatives à l’approbation de cultures génétiquement modifiées exigent, initialement, des petites expérimentations restreintes appelées essais au champ confinés. À partir de ces expériences réalisées à petite échelle, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    We study food retail in Addis Ababa, one of the biggest cities in Africa. Based on a primary survey of food retail outlets selling cereals, fruits and vegetables, and processed foods, we note high variation in quality and prices in the city and ...
  • Accra offers a compelling case study of the contemporary impact of urban life on the livelihoods, food security, and nutritional status of its people. The Accra Urban Food and Nutrition Study was a collaborative effort between IFPRI, the Noguchi ...
  • Books and Monographs
    Accra offers a compelling case study of the contemporary impact of urban life on the livelihoods, food security, and nutritional status of its people. The Accra Urban Food and Nutrition Study was a collaborative effort between IFPRI, the Noguchi ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    On the back of both a global food crisis and various domestic factors, Ethiopia has experienced one of the world’s fastest rates of food inflation in recent years. Yet the lack of high frequency survey data means that very little is known about ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This study examines the trends and behavior of urban wages in Ethiopia during the country’s recent inflationary episodes. We use the CSA Consumer Price Survey to construct a real wage series for the urban poor, and to conduct formal econometric ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This study uses Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques to estimate urbanization rates in Ethiopia, using a definition of urban extents that combines city population size, along with population density and travel times in surrounding ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In comparison to other African countries, Ethiopia has a low urbanization rate. According to the World Bank World Development Report (WDR) 2009, Sub-Sahara Africa is 30% urbanized, whereas Ethiopia is only 10.9% urbanized. Urbanization rates ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Improving agricultural productivity is vital for poor rural households in Uganda to meet their food security needs and to promote sustained increases in income. Inorganic fertilizer can be a powerful productivity enhancing input. While Uganda has ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In this paper we assess (a) consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for a recently developed variety of maize that is high in provitamin A in the context of a public health intervention and (b) the performance of three elicitation mechanisms in ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Urbanization is quickly increasing in Africa, raising important questions on how food value chains to cities function and what the implications of urban growth are for the local food trade and farm sector. We study the rural–urban value chain of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The objective of this study is to validate the World Food Programme’s (WFP) method of establishing the prevalence of food insecurity. WFP’s method has two parts: (1) the construction of a Food Consumption Score (FCS) and (2) the classification of ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In line with the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources (FMAWR)’s vision of ensuring access, availability, and affordability of quality foods to all Nigerians and the objectives of the USAID Global Food Security Response Project of ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The export sector of the Ugandan economy has recorded tremendous recent growth. Between 2000 and 2006, the value of exports climbed from US $401 million to US $962 million, with agricultural products accounting for 60 percent of this. The growth ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The market for food staples remains central to many agricultural-based economies because staple foods constitute such a major share of household food expenditures. Uganda is no different in this regard. Recognizing the importance of staple food ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Ugandan smallholder farmers produce the nation’s major food crop using numerous banana varieties with distinctive attributes, while coping with important biotic constraints and imperfect markets. This empirical context motivates a ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    L’ampleur et la gravité des répercussions de l’épidémie de VIH/SIDA en Afrique subsaharienne sont effrayantes: la maladie a décimé les pays de la région et à sérieusement compromis la nutrition et la sécurité alimentaire de millions de ménages. ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    La magnitud y gravedad de las repercusiones del VIH/SIDA en el África subsahariana son abrumadoras. La epidemia está destruyendo los medios de subsistencia y poniendo en grave peligro la seguridad alimentaria y nutricional de millones de hogares. ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    With likely long-term changes in rainfall patterns and shifting temperature zones, climate change is expected to increase the frequency of climate-related shocks, such as floods and droughts in Sub-Saharan Africa. For farm households, an increase ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper uses farmers’ responses to exogenous weather shocks in South Africa’s Limpopo River Basin to gauge how farmers are apt to respond to future climate change-induced shocks, in particular drought. Droughts are expected to ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Safe water is widely recognized as both a fundamental human need and a key input into economic activity. Across the developing world, the typical approach to addressing these needs is to segregate supplies of water for domestic use from water for ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The international trend toward investing in social protection in poor countries has reached sub-Saharan Africa, taking on a new urgency as HIV and AIDS interact with other drivers of poverty to simultaneously destabilize livelihoods systems and ...
  • Community-based Natural Resource Management (NRM) is increasingly becoming an important approach for addressing natural resource degradation in low income countries. This study analyzes the determinants of enactment, awareness of and compliance ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Community-based Natural Resource Management (NRM) is increasingly becoming an important approach for addressing natural resource degradation in low income countries. This study analyzes the determinants of enactment, awareness of and compliance ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study tests the null hypothesis that it is sufficient to interview only the household head to obtain accurate information on household income. The results show that using a husband’s estimate of his wife’s income does not produce ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The sector-wide approach currently dominates as the strategy for developing the agricultural sector of many African countries. Although it is recognized that agricultural research plays a vital role in ensuring success of sectorwide agricultural ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    A Social Network Analysis (SNA) of agricultural research institutions in Malawi was performed to investigate networking and knowledge sharing in relation to the implementation of the Agricultural Sector Wide Approach (ASWAp). SNA helps explain ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agriculture plays a crucial role in food security and poverty reduction in Mozambique, contributing around 25 percent of the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP). However, despite the considerable agro-ecological potential and the need for ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Brief prepared for the USAID meeting on Women in Science: Meeting the Challenge. Lessons for Agricultural Sciences in Africa, Washington, D.C., June 21, 2006.
  • Discussion Papers
    Increasingly, women’s property rights are seen as important for both equity and efficiency reasons. While there has been debate in the literature about women are better off with individual rights in contrast to rights jointly with their husband, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In Ethiopia, 85 percent of the population depends on agriculture for livelihood. Many are smallholder farmers who lack modern inputs and market access. Agricultural cooperatives hold much potential to enable these economically weak farmers to ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Female farmers play a vital role in African agriculture, accounting for 60 to 80 percent of the agricultural workforce. However, agricultural research and higher education are disproportionately led by men. There is an urgent need for a greater ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The Agricultural Policy Support Facility (APSF) is an initiative to strengthen pro-poor, gender-sensitive, and environmentally sustainable evidence-based policymaking in Nigeria in the areas of rural and agricultural development. The program is ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Long-term trends indicate a serious decline in investment in agricultural R&D in Zambia. Public agricultural R&D spending fell to an historical low of 18 billion kwacha or 7 million PPP dollars in 2005 (both in 2005 constant prices), ...