• Project Papers and Notes
    This brief presents the results of a study of fertilizer supply to investigate supply-side constraints for fertilizer use by smallholder famers in Mozambique in which the government is implicated. The government actions that could constrain the ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Contents: 1.The Changing Profile of Poverty in the World/Shaohua Chen and Martin Ravallion. 2.Characteristics and Causes of Severe Poverty and Hunger/Akhter U. Ahmed, Ruth Vargas Hill, Lisa C. Smith, and Tim Frankenberger. 3.The Poorest and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    To understand how different sectors in an economy interact with each other, economywide analyses, such as the computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, are often required. The database of a CGE model is usually the Social Accounting Matrix ...
  • Report
    This paper documents a Malawian Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) for the year 2007. The SAM is based on newly estimated supply-use tables, national accounts, government budgets, and balance of payments. The SAM reconciles these data using ...
  • Report
    This paper documents a Ugandan Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) for the year 2007. The SAM is based on newly estimated supply-use tables, national accounts, government budgets, and balance of payments. The SAM reconciles these data using ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper presents the latest Social Accounting Matrix of Pakistan (SAM) for the year 2007–08. Our proposed approach to estimating SAMs is motivated by an information theoretic approach to estimation (Judge & Mittelhammer, 2012) that takes a ...
  • General Information
    Complex policy problems call for complex solutions that require the involvement of multiple stakeholders. For example, both developing and developed countries have instituted multi-stakeholder water governance bodies on local, national, and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This report has been defined in accordance with the initial terms of reference. I first tried to develop a vision of the long-term census and survey system through interviews held with diverse stakeholders. I thus identified the clients and their ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Egypt is a lower middle-income country with a per capita gross domestic product (GDP) in 2003 of US$3,949 measured in international dollars, or purchasing power parity (World Bank 2005a). In the decade from 1975 to 1985, Egypt enjoyed rapid ...
  • Books and Monographs
    Several Sub-Saharan African nations have experienced increased economic growth and political stability in recent years compared with the stagnation and turmoil of previous decades. Ghana is one of the biggest success stories of the region; the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper presents a model of the Malawi maize commodity market that is developed for use as a policy analysis tool. The model captures national and local maize market dynamics and the linkages existing within the maize market in the country. ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Malnutrition rates among children 0 to 36 months and women of reproductive age in Nigeria are high and vary significantly across rural-urban locations, geopolitical zones, and agro-ecological zones, thereby constituting a significant public ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Malnutrition rates among children 0-36 months and women of reproductive age in Nigeria are high and vary significantly across rural-urban locations, geopolitical regions, and agroecological zones, constituting a significant public health ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Low fertilizer use is one of the many reasons for low agricultural productivity in Nigeria. Fertilizer use estimated at 13 kg/ha in 2009 by the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (FMARD), is far lower than the 200 kg/ha ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Low fertilizer use is professed to be among the many reasons for low agricultural productivity in Nigeria. Fertilizer application, estimated at 13 kg/ha in 2009 by the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, is far lower than the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This study links smallholder livestock production data from the Agricultural Census (2001/02) and annual CSA agricultural sam-ple survey with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data on land cover, city population, and road networks in order to ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agriculture is the backbone of the Ghanaian economy. It plays an important role in the socioeconomic development of Ghana as it contributes to ensuring food security, provides raw materials for local industries, generates foreign exchange, and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Access to sufficient food and nutrients is essential for household welfare, as well as for accomplishing other development objectives. Households with insufficient access to food often face other challenges related to food insecurity including ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The link between economic distribution and social conflict-and the notion that this link arises from individuals’ sense of identification with those similar to them and their feelings of alienation from individuals with different ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper considers vulnerability reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) from a more aggregated macro viewpoint. We focus on risk related to agriculture, since vulnerability and agriculture are intimately linked in SSA due to the location of the ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Discussion Papers
    In Africa the global food crisis threatens the livelihoods of millions of people who because of high rates of poverty, hunger, malnutrition, and food dependency are already exceptionally vulnerable. In better circumstances, Africa’s ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Ghana has made considerable progress over the last 20 years in sustaining economic growth and reducing poverty. The Government of Ghana has declared its new development goal of reaching middle-income status by 2015. Achieving this goal will ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Ghana is an emerging success story in Africa and in a couple of years will become the first African country to achieve the first Millennium Development Goal of halving its national poverty rate. The government of Ghana has therefore extended its ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This study investigated access to agricultural extension and rural water supply and assessed strategies to improve the provision of these services by strengthening accountability. The study paid special attention to the gender dimension of ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In recent years access to safe and reliable water supplies has received increased government attention in Ethiopia. As a result, the national coverage rate for this service has gradually improved. Yet millions of people in rural areas still do ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In recent years access to safe and reliable water supplies has received increased government attention in Ethiopia. As a result, the national coverage rate for this service has gradually improved. Yet millions of people in rural areas still do ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Significant changes in the agricultural sector in northern Mali suggest that irrigation has made a large contribution to welfare increases over the past eight years. Using difference-in-differences, propensity score matching, and matched ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agriculture is the backbone of Ghana’s economy, and this sector needs to play a key role if Ghana is to achieve the goal of becoming a middle income country by 2015. Despite its impressive progress in economic growth and poverty reduction, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This study focuses on public investments and policy reforms for leveraging growth spillovers at the African regional level. A conceptual framework that is built on the endogenous growth theory and the new economic geography is presented ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In this paper we examine which farmers would be early entrants into weather indexinsurance markets in Ethiopia, were such markets to develop on a large scale. We do this by examining the determinants of willingness to pay for weather insurance ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Groundnut is an import cash crop in Ghana and an essential component of the diet of many Ghanaians. In 2009, Ghanaian farmers produced 495,000 metric tonnes of groundnuts on 346,900 ha. Production tripled between 1995 and 2005 (Yaw et al. 2008). ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Uganda has experienced rapid economic growth and poverty reduction over the past decade but has failed to significantly improve incomes in its northern regions where prolonged conflict has hindered growth. We consider three strategies to close ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The past decade has seen several African countries increasing their agricultural growth, a trend largely underpinned by increases in land area cultivated instead of productivity increases. Meanwhile, scholars debate whether Africa should pursue a ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Contrary to conventional economic theories, the relationship between income growth and the share of the population within the rural or agricultural sector is extremely diverse, even among regions starting from similar levels of development, such ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Drawing on a household survey collected in eight woredas in seven Ethiopian regions in 2009, as well as on qualitative fieldwork in four of the eight woredas, this paper provides analysis of agricultural extension delivery in Ethiopia. While ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Decentralized delivery of public services has been promoted as a means to enhance citizen voice and make service provision more responsive to users. Ethiopia has undertaken two rounds of decentralization, making first the regional states and then ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Decentralized delivery of public services has been promoted as a means to enhance citizen voice and make service provision more responsive to users. Ethiopia has undertaken two rounds of decentralization, making first the regional states and then ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agriculture employs three-quarters of the population of Malawi. It makes up more than forty percent of the economy and sixty percent of all exports. Yet productivity in agriculture—measured as the amount of output for a given amount of inputs—is ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Malawi has experienced modest economic growth over the last decade and a half. However, agricultural growth has been particularly erratic, and while the incidence of poverty has declined, it still remains high. The Malawian government, within the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study uses an economy-wide, dynamic computable general equilibrium (DCGE) model to analyze the ability of growth in various agricultural subsectors to accelerate overall economic growth and reduce poverty in Nigeria over the next years ...
  • Books and Monographs
    Agricultural development strategies that are put forward by individual African countries delineate priorities for actions to enhance agricultural and overall development. Understanding alternative agricultural growth options and their linkages ...
  • Discussion Papers
    An economywide, multimarket (EMM) model was developed for Rwanda to analyze the linkages and trade-offs between growth and poverty reduction goals at both macro- and micro-economic levels. The model includes 30 agricultural commodities or ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Over the past two decades, Uganda has experienced strong economic growth. However, agriculture has not performed as well as the rest of the economy in recent years, and while the incidence of poverty has declined, it is still substantially higher ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Zambia has experienced strong economic performance since 1999. However, agriculture has not performed as well as the rest of the economy, and although the incidence of poverty has declined, it still remains high. The Zambian government, within ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In any economy there are important economic linkages and trade-offs that need to be considered when designing policies or assessing their impacts. Various policy analysis tools can help policymakers understand these linkages and trade-offs. One ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Accelerating growth and poverty reduction, and the ultimate achievement of structural transformation, are the critical policy challenges in present day Ethiopia. This paper examines relevant growth options in terms of their impact on overall ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Rapid economic growth has failed to significantly improve poverty and nutrition outcomes in Tanzania. This raises concerns over a decoupling of growth, poverty, and nutrition. We link recent production trends to household incomes using a ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    While economic growth is generally acknowledged as a necessary precondition for reducing poverty, relatively little is known about how growth and nutrition are related. Therefore, questions persist regarding how to leverage economic policies so ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    A subsidy is defined as a payment, generally made from public resources, that reduces the price that a buyer pays for a good or service below the price at which the seller provides it. The difference between the sellers’ price and the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program (CAADP) includes a target of 6 percent annual agricultural growth, supported by the allocation of at least 10 percent of the national budget for agriculture. The Nigerian government has set ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This study assesses public investment required for agricultural growth and poverty reduction in Nigeria. Using time series data for public spending and agricultural total factor productivity (TFP) growth, the econometrically estimated results ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The majority of Nigeria’s smallholder farmers are often too poor to employ modern tools, such as tractors and plows, even with substantial government support. In this respect, an agricultural mechanization policy would need effective targeting ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Since 2007, the government of Ghana has been providing subsidized agricultural machines to private enterprises established as Agricultural Mechanization Services Enterprise Centers (AMSEC) to scale up tractor-hire services to smallholder farmers. ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The Government of Ghana (GoG) since 2007 has been providing subsidized agricultural machines to individual farmers and private enterprises established as specialized Agricultural Mechanization Services Enterprise Centers (AMSECs) to offer ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Anecdotal evidence indicates labor costs for farming in Nigeria are rising while levels of mechanization remain low. Information is scarce regarding the types of farm households that use mechanization in Nigeria and the potential demand for ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Evidence exists which shows growing disillusionment with and disinterest in agricultural-based livelihoods among the youth in Africa south of the Sahara. This disillusionment raises concerns for the future of agriculture for the developing world ...
  • Discussion Papers
    We analyze the evolution of Sub-Saharan Africa’s (SSA’s) agricultural total factor productivity (TFP) over the past 45 years, looking for evidence of recent changes in growth patterns using an improved nonparametric Malmquist index. Our TFP ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Public spending on agriculture in Nigeria is exceedingly low. Less than 2 percent of total federal expenditure was allotted to agriculture during 2001 to 2005, far lower than spending in other key sectors such as education, health, and water. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Using a similar analytical approach to a study in China, this paper analyzes the impact of agricultural research on urban poverty reduction in India. State level data from 1970 to 1995 were used in the empirical analysis. It is found that in ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Ghana’s agriculture sector accounts for 35 percent of the country’s gross domestic product (GDP) and nearly two thirds (60 percent) of the employment (Breisinger et al. 2011). Ghana is one of the top five performers in the world in terms of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Participatory approaches are an increasingly prominent technique for designing agricultural strategies within Sub-Saharan Africa. However, such approaches are frequently criticized for either not involving enough stakeholders or limiting the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources (FMAWR) is updating Nigeria’s agricultural development strategy document to make it meet the requirement of evidence-based strategy formulation. In line with this goal, the FMAWR in ...
  • Discussion Papers
    African countries tend to be affected by global agricultural policies in the same way as other economies but with much more severe economy-wide repercussions… The present discussion paper 1) examines the vulnerability of Africa economies ...
  • Event
    The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and the University of Central Asia will host a Research Conference on Agricultural Policy and Food Security in Central Asia, to unveil IFPRI's new Central Asia Research and Capacity ...
  • Books and Monographs
    Executive Summary Relationship Between Agriculture and the Millennium Development Goals In 2000 the member states of the United Nations adopted the Millennium Declaration as a renewed commitment to human development. The Declaration includes ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper examines the importance of achieving high agricultural growth as a means of accelerating Ethiopia’s economic transformation. The conclusions are that a high rate of agricultural growth has farreaching positive implications for ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Economic development transforms an economy from one that is largely agricultural to one that is largely manufacturing and services. Since agriculture currently dominates Ethiopia’s economy and employment, however, there is an issue as to what its ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper has been prepared in support of the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program (CAADP) roundtable in Ghana. The study also takes a fresh perspective on the role of agriculture for development in light of the global food ...
  • Discussion Papers
    India contains the majority of the world’s malnourished children, yet malnutrition has declined only very slowly in recent years, despite rapid economic growth and apparent improvements in food security. Understanding and addressing the causes of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In recent decades India has achieved one of the fastest economic growth rates in the world, yet its progress against both child and adult undernutrition has been sluggish at best. While this Indian variant of the so-called Asian enigma presents ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper uses case studies of Bangladesh, Ghana, Rwanda, and Senegal to assess the degree to which the L’Aquila Food Security Initiative (AFSI) has been implemented within the framework of managing for development results (MfDR) and to evaluate ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    It is almost certain that Ghana will become one of the few African countries to achieve the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG1) earlier than the target year of 2015. The country is also in a good position to sustain the 6 percent ...
  • Staff Profile
    Akeem Ajibola joined IFPRI in April, 2011. He received his MSc and BSc in Agricultural Economics from University of Ibadan, Nigeria in 2006 and 2010 respectively. He also obtained a Higher National Diploma and a National Diploma in Animal ...
  • Staff Profile
    More about Alemayehu Seyoum Taffesse in: IFPRI ebrary
  • Discussion Papers
    Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in the study of structural transformation. However, Africa has received little attention despite the fact that its rural areas seem to be very poor and unproductive relative to urban areas. This ...
  • Staff Profile
    Allen joined IFPRI’s Development Strategy and Governance Division in 2013. Prior to joining IFPRI, he worked for the U.S. federal government on a variety of issues related to immigration and refugee affairs. Allen completed his master’s in ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In this paper, we estimate the allocative inefficiency of groundwater in Pakistani agriculture and compare it across a set of farm-level constraints, using a panel dataset of rural households. The farm-level constraints include tenure, farm size, ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Staff Profile
  • Staff Profile
    Amina joined IFPRI in July 2011 as a Program Assistant. Her main responsibilities invove assisting with logistical and financial dimensions of workshops, training courses, and collaborative research projects, including liaising with relevant ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The main objective of agricultural statistics is to provide information on agricultural production. The data collected include the range and quantity of crops and livestock produced; the amount of land put to crop or livestock production; how the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The Uganda offices of WFP, UNICEF, and FAO commissioned the Kampala office of the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) to assess the likely impact of rising world food prices on the welfare and food security of Ugandan households. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Knowledge of actual poverty prevalence is important for any society concerned with improving public welfare and reducing poverty. In this paper, we calculate and compare the poverty incidence rate in China using four nationally representative ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The recent expansion of Chinese economic engagement in Africa is often poorly documented and not well understood. This paper is the first in an International Food Policy Research Institute-sponsored effort to better understand Chinese engagement ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The recent expansion of Chinese economic engagement in Africa is often poorly documented and not well understood. This paper is the second in an IFPRI-sponsored effort to better understand Chinese engagement in Africa’s agricultural sector. A ...
  • Discussion Papers
    We analyze the evolution of Sub-Saharan Africa’s agricultural total factor productivity (TFP) over the past 40 years, looking for evidence of recent changes in growth patterns using a nonparametric Malmquist index. Our TFP estimates show a ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Chemical contaminants in milk affect public health and levels above permissible limits can constrain exports under sanitary and phyto-sanitary agreements. A screening survey was conducted during 2012-2013 to determine concen-trations of Copper ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Uganda’s economy remains heavily dependent on the agricultural sector. In 2008/09, the agricultural sector contributed 90 percent of total export earnings, generated 23.7 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and directly or indirectly ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Uganda’s economy remains heavily reliant on the agricultural sector. The agricultural sector contributes about 90 percent of total export earnings, generates about 23.7 percent of total Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and directly or indirectly ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Widespread malnutrition in developing countries calls for appropriate strategies, presupposing good knowledge about nutritional impacts of policies. Little previous work has been carried out in this direction, especially with respect to ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The study combines policy analysis matrix (PAM) and data envelopment analysis (DEA) techniques to evaluate the profitability and competitiveness of maize, rice, and soybean production in Ghana. The efficiency of a sample of maize, rice, and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Reducing malnutrition, including undernutrition (insufficient calorie intake) and micronutrient deficiencies (insufficient intake of vitamins and minerals) is a high priority for Malawi and many developing country governments, closely linked to ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Although the potential causes and consequences of recent increases in international food prices have attracted widespread attention, many existing appraisals are superficial and/or piecemeal. This paper attempts to provide a more comprehensive ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Animal traction is still relevant for some farming communities in the northern regions. Findings suggest draft animals (bullocks and donkeys) are used to perform a wide set of activities ranging from land preparation, weeding, on-farm and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The recent state’s interest in agricultural mechanization has largely focused on the provision of tractors and imported machinery to the farming population. Animal traction has not received much attention from the country’s policymakers. ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Staff Profile
  • Online
    The Arab Spatial Development and Food Security Atlas is a “start-up” initiative of the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) that is supported by the International Fund of Agricultural Development (IFAD) and the ...
  • News
    IFPRI Senior Research Analyst Perrihan Al-Riffai discusses the progress and promise of Arab Spatial, an open-access database and interactive mapping tool she helped design that houses and geographically displays data on more than 150 indicators ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The objective of this brief is to analyze available data on public agriculture expenditure in Africa—with a particular focus on Ghana—to assess the commitment of African governments to the agriculture sector, which they themselves have formally ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Developing countries allocate scarce government funds to investments in rural areas to achieve the twin goals of agricultural growth and poverty alleviation. Choices have to be made between different types of investments, especially ...
  • Staff Profile
  • General Information
    Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains the only region of the world where food insecurity and malnutrition are growing. It is estimated that 50-60 percent of the countries will fail to achieve the hunger and poverty targets of the Millennium ...
  • Press Release
    September 27, 2013, SIEM REAP, CAMBODIA – Country experience shared at a recent conference showed that fertilizer subsidies can have huge costs, crowding out public expenditures on agricultural research, extension, rural roads and other ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Today’s resource boom in Africa, driven by Asian economic growth, offers new opportunities for resource-rich African countries. Contrary to the experience of previous booms, however, most mining profits now accrue to foreign companies, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    To aspire means “to seek to attain or accomplish a particular goal” (Merriam-Webster 2012). Aspirations play an important role in everyday decision-making (Camerer et al. 1997). They help determine whether individuals make investments to better ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agriculture in Ghana accounts for about 40 percent of national economy, three quarters of export earnings, and employs 60 percent of the labor force. Agriculture is the backbone of the economy (McKay and Aryeetey, 2004) and the sector has served ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The lack of updated information about food security is of concern to many countries, especially during and after economic crises, natural disasters, and conflicts. In this paper we present an analytical framework for assessing the effects of such ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “In this paper, the authors analyze the potential economic impacts of avian influenza (AI) in West Africa, taking Nigeria as an example. They find that, depending on the size of the affected areas, the direct impact of the spread of AI ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In 2008, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) established multistakeholder platforms in the agricultural sector known as agricultural and rural management councils (CARGs). The aim of CARGs is achieving a decentralized governance of the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The National Agricultural Advisory Services (NAADS) program of Uganda is an innovative public-private extension service delivery approach, with the goal of increasing market oriented agricultural production by empowering farmers to demand and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In recent years, microfinance institutions are seen as beacons of hope to help eradicate poverty through, among others, providing credit to poor rural households. Availability of small but repeated loans is, in the long-term, expected to impact ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The principal objective of this paper is to review and assess the policy implications and potential for Nigeria to transform its domestic rice sector and become more competitive with imports in order to ultimately displace them over time. Since ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Despite many efforts to ease Nigerian farmers’ access to quality and affordable fertilizer, it remains a key challenge for Nigerian agricultural policymakers As a result, the Nigerian government is experimenting with implementing a fertilizer ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This study analyzes the application of an input voucher program implemented in 2009 in two Nigerian states, Kano and Taraba. Using primary data collected from 1000 households, we explore the effect of the voucher program on the quantity and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Agricultural extension is critical for agricultural growth and food security, but making the extension system effective, demand driven, and responsive to the needs of a diverse set of producers remains a challenge. As part of the institutional ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agriculture is the mainstay for Uganda’s economy, providing both food and foreign exchange. Liberalization of the economy and expansion of the area under cultivation led to a steady growth of the agricultural sector in the 1990s of over 4 percent ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The Ghana Strategy Support Program (GSSP) aims to build the capacity of agricultural stakeholders in Ghana to develop and implement agricultural and rural devel-opment policy reforms. This summary outlines findings from an IFPRI-commissioned ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Effective poverty reduction programs require careful measurement of poverty status. Several studies have shown conceptually that assets reflecting productive capacity form a more robust basis for identifying the poor than do flow variables such ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper highlights the difference between secure investor property rights and loosely defined individual property rights. Globalization and fiscal decentralization have intensified this difference. On the one hand, in the presence of mobile ...
  • Staff Profile
    More about Athur Mabiso in IFPRI eBrary
  • CD-Roms
    CD-Rom One important impediment to improved policies and investments for poor and rural people in Africa has been a lack of data on actual conditions. To begin to help fill this data gap, the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) ...
  • Booklets
    One important impediment to improved policies and investments for poor and rural people in Africa has been a lack of data on actual conditions. To begin to help fill this data gap, the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) worked ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Recent trends in agricultural growth and food security in Eastern and Central Africa (ECA) have been discouraging. With very low labor productivity, yields, and growth rates, agriculture is unable to keep up with population growth or achieve the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper provides a background on past and current efforts to generate national agricultural production estimates for Uganda across a range of institutions. Several sets of issues related to the design of a sustainable and spatially ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The extent to which Bangladesh should rely on imports for rice price stabilization is a contentious policy issue. This issue was underscored in the wake of the 2007–08 world food crisis, during which international rice prices skyrocketed and rice ...
  • Staff Profile
    Bart Minten, a Belgian citizen, joined IFPRI as a senior research fellow in December 2006 and works with the Development Strategy and Governance Division. He is out-posted in Addis Ababa since June 2011 and is the program leader of the Ethiopia ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The Ugandan coffee industry is facing some serious challenges, including low international prices in the international coffee market, aging coffee trees and declining productivity, and, more recently, the appearance of coffee-wilt disease, which ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Fatalism is considered pervasive, especially in many poor communities. In this paper, we explore whether fatalistic beliefs have implications for the attitudes and behavior of poor rural households toward investment in the future. To explore the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Fatalism is considered pervasive, especially in many poor communities. In this paper, we explore whether fatalistic beliefs have implications for the attitudes and behavior of poor rural households toward investment in the future. To explore the ...
  • Video
    Video on launch of IFPRI Food Policy Report "Beyond the Arab Awakening"
  • Food Policy Reports
    This report aims to inform and stimulate the debate on key policy priorities for poverty reduction and food security in light of the Arab Awakening. Its findings are based on an innovative combination of datasets and rigorous economic analysis. ...
  • Staff Profile
    Bingxin Yu joined the Development Strategy and Governance Division of IFPRI in 2004 to work on development strategy issues. More about Bingxin Yu in IFPRI ebrary Google Scholar She has a B.S. in Management Science from University of Science ...
  • 2020 Focus
    La bioenergía ––es decir, los biocombustibles de origen biológico y renovable, como el bioetanol, el biodiesel y la biomasa utilizada para generar energía–– es un tema que acapara cada vez más atención en todo el mundo. Los precios del petróleo ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Bioenergy—that is, biofuels of biological and renewable origin, like bioethanol, biodiesel, and biomass for energy—is the subject of increasing attention around the world. Oil prices have climbed to unprecedented heights, and concerns about the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Biofuels provide a new opportunity to enhance economic development in Tanzania. Drawing on detailed cost estimates, we develop a dynamic computable general equilibrium model to estimate the impact of different biofuel production scenarios on ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Large private investments in biofuels are presently underway in Mozambique. This paper uses an economywide model to assess the implications of these investments for growth and income distribution. Our results indicate that biofuels provide an ...
  • Staff Profile
    Bjorn Van Campenhout obtained his PhD in Economics from the Catholic University of Leuven (KULeuven) in 2009. During his PhD, he was employed as a Research Assistant at the Institute for Development Policy and Management (IOB) of the University ...
  • Staff Profile
    Blake D. Ratner is an environmental sociologist whose research focuses on natural resource governance, conflict, and cooperation from local to regional scales. Blake recently assumed the new role of Program Leader, Governance, at the WorldFish ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    By just about any measure, Blue Skies Limited is a financial and economic success story. Over the past decade, sales have grown by an average of 28 percent per year, the company now employs close to 3,000 workers, and it works with hundreds of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    A key objective of China’s reform program was to reduce distortions in the economic system and enhance growth. However, when implemented in incremental and partial ways, local governments or individuals have chance to capture rents inherent ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Farmers in developing countries face relatively large income risk and have limited access to formal financial products that can help them manage their risk. We present results from a randomized controlled trial in rural China designed to ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Local brands are rapidly gaining agricultural market share in developing countries. However, it is not well understood how they reshape agricultural value chains and what the implications are for consumers and producers. In a detailed case study ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Discussion Papers
    “Policy research on African agriculture is long on prescriptions for what needs to be done to spur agricultural growth but short on how such prescriptions might be implemented in practice. What explains this state of affairs? What might be ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Among the four largest cotton-producing countries, only Pakistan had not commercially adopted Bt cotton by 2010. However, the cultivation of first-generation (Cry1Ac) Bt cotton, unapproved and unregulated, increased rapidly after 2005. Using the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Food security in Malawi is generally equated with adequate maize production as the country’s main staple crop accounts for more than 60 percent of total food consumption. Malawi has a long history of subsidizing agricultural inputs, either as a ...
  • Press Release
    November 12, 2013, Dakar, Senegal—It has been 10 years since African heads of state and government pledged to allocate 10 percent of their national budgets to the agricultural sector as part of the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development ...
  • News
    Investment in the African agricultural sector was largely in a state of decline until the early 2000s, followed by what became known as Africa’s “decade of growth.” Between the years 2001-2010, investment in the sector grew more than 3 percent ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Providing the poorest with safety nets and some form of social protection is becoming part of the agenda of the majority of developing countries. And while cash transfer programs started 15 years ago with experiments and pilot projects, there is ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Scholars and urban planners have suggested that the key characteristic of leading world cities is that they attract the best and brightest minds. As home to the creative classes, which consist of professionals working in knowledge-based ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The Agricultural Policy Support Facility (APSF) is an initiative to strengthen evidence-based policymaking in Nigeria in the areas of rural and agricultural development. Facilitated by the Nigeria Strategy Support Program of the International ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper deals with the human resource development and institutional capacity strengthening in Nigeria as they relate to policy analysis and research capacity in addressing the problems of poverty and food security. The findings of the paper ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Ghana’s “market queens,” itinerant traders who purchase tomatoes from rural farms and bring them to the large urban markets, are accused of acting as a cartel, both driving down the price farmers receive and driving up the price urban consumers ...
  • Staff Profile
    Catherine Ragasa received her PhD in Agricultural Economics from Michigan State University in 2008 and holds a Masters in Economics from University of the Philippines-School of Economics. More about Catherine Ragasa in IFPRI eBrary Google ...
  • General Information
    The Central Asian countries have enjoyed significant agricultural and economic growth and improvements in household welfare in the past decade. Nevertheless, its regional food systems remain highly vulnerable to global economic shocks, volatility ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The Ethiopian government has been promoting a package-driven extension that combines credit, fertilizers, improved seeds, and better management practices. This approach has reached almost all farming communities, representing about 2 percent of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The Ethiopian government has been promoting a package-driven extension that combines credit, fertilizers, improved seeds, and better management practices. This approach has reached almost all farming communities, representing about 2 percent of ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper presents the findings of a case study on land governance in the Ondo State of Nigeria. A conceptual framework based on concepts of organizational theory is presented to guide the study. The empirical part of the study focuses on two ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The Federal Government of Nigeria, through the FMAWR, envisions improving its food security by facilitating equitable access, availability and affordability of quality foods to all Nigerian. This vision has become more important as global food ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper investigates children’s time allocation to schooling, home production, and market production using a unique data set collected from northern Mali. Production shocks from harvest period pest infestations induce households to ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In the past several years, labor shortages in China have become an issue. However, there is heated debate as to whether China has passed the Lewis turning point and moved from a period of unlimited supply to a new era of labor shortage. Most ...
  • Books and Monographs
    CONTENTS: Introduction: China’s agricultural development: challenges and prospects, Xiao-Yuan Dong, Shunfeng Song and Xiaobo Zhang. Overview of the Challenges and Options: High performing Asian economies: retrospect and prospect, Robert W. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The implications of China’s growth for the development prospects of Sub-Saharan Africa have been the subject of recent attention. Interest in this topic is motivated by the increasing presence of China in the region and the growing ...
  • Staff Profile
    Chinonso Etumnu has been a Senior Research Assistant at the Nigeria Office of the International Food Policy Research Institute since January 2013. Chinonso joined IFPRI immediately after his graduation from the University of Reading, United ...
  • 2020 Focus
    So far in this first decade of the 21st century, more than 1 billion people are subsisting on less than US$1 per day, and more than 800 million people are suffering from hunger. Many countries, most notably in Asia, have made spectacular success ...
  • Staff Profile
    Clemens Breisinger is an economist and research fellow at IFPRI’s Development Strategy and Governance Division, which he joined in 2006. Since 2010, Clemens leads the Middle East and North Africa team, which provides knowledge, strengthens ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper uses both a global and local perspective to assess the impacts of climate change on the Yemeni economy, agriculture, and household income and food security. The major impact channels of climate change are through changing world food ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Despite the recent transition to an industry and service sec-tors-led economy, agriculture still plays a fundamental role in Ghana. The sector comprises approximately 30 percent of the country’s GDP to date and employs approximately 50 percent of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Using firm-level data from China’s two recent censuses (Industry Census 1995 and Economic Census 2004) and a new measure of clustering (industry proximity), we show that China’s rapid industrialization is marked by increased clustering. A higher ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Using data from microenterprises of the handloom sector in four regions of Ethiopia, the paper shows that clustering, through specialization and division of labor, can lower entry barriers by reducing the initial capital required to start a ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In 2012, existing practices in collecting and trading high value minor crops (such as medicinal and aromatic plants) from District Swat, Pakistan, were analyzed. The focus of the study was on the collection pattern of medicinal plants as an ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Discussion Papers
    Common-pool resource management is a critical element in the interlocked challenges of food security, nutrition, poverty reduction, and environmental sustainability. This paper examines strategic policy choices and governance challenges facing ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In the second half of the last century, both India and China have undergone major transitions and have moved to more liberalized economies. This paper relates the observed patterns in regional inequality to major events during this period. ...
  • General Information
    The Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) is an African Union/New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) initiative to accelerate growth and reduce poverty and hunger in Africa. CAADP’s primary goal is ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The Nigerian Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Analysis (CFSVA) provides an in-depth assessment of the food security situation within Nigeria. This is very important as it equips policymakers with timely and relevant information that ...
  • News
    www.arabspatial.org Improving food security and enhancing economic development in developing countries requires a multifaceted approach—and that includes access to reliable data. In the swiftly changing Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Since 1996, a growing coalition of stakeholders from the private sector, government and donor communities has promoted a new package of agronomic practices for smallholders in Zambia. The conservation farming (CF) system they advocate involves: ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Fertilizer consumption rates in Nigeria remains among the lowest in the world despite decades of aggressive subsidization. The extension service in Nigeria has a double-edged impact on fertilizer use in the country; not only can their activities ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The importance of agriculture in Nigeria’s economy cannot be understated. Farming and livestock rearing is the main livelihood for over 70 percent of households in the country. In 2008, agriculture contributed 42 percent of the country’s GDP, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper reviews the constraints hindering growth of agricultural productivity in Nigeria by providing an overview of the policy environment that affects agricultural productivity, establishing how the policy environment affects ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agriculture is the principal source of food and livelihood in Nigeria, and employs nearly three-quarters of the nation’s work force. Over the past two decades, agricultural yields have stayed the same or declined. Although there has been a ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Ethiopia is known to have one of the largest livestock populations in the world. Yet the overall contribution of livestock products to households’ daily consumption is very limited. The average per capita annual consumption of meat and dairy ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This study examines the consumption patterns of livestock products in Ethiopia. The contribution of livestock products to households’ daily consumption is very limited. A considerable difference exists between urban and rural areas and the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper examines the extent of cooperative behaviour in rural Uganda as recorded in the most recent nationally representative household survey. Summary statistics on the presence of marketing cooperatives, recently formed National Agricultural ...
  • Books and Monographs
    Rural producer organizations, such as farmers’ organizations or rural cooperatives, offer a means for smallholder farmers in developing countries to sell their crops commercially. They hold particular promise for Sub-Saharan Africa, where ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    An economywide, multimarket model is constructed for Ghana and the effects of agricultural soil erosion on crop yields are explicitly modeled at the subnational regional level for eight main staple crops. The model is used to evaluate the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    An economywide, multimarket model is constructed for Ghana and the effects of agricultural soil erosion on crop yields are explicitly modeled at the subnational regional level for eight main staple crops. The model is used to evaluate the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Participating in and presenting gifts at funerals, weddings, and other ceremonies held by fellow villagers have been regarded as social norms in Chinese villages for thousands of years. However, it is more burdensome for the poor to take part in ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Food security in Malawi depends on production of enough maize, the country’s staple crop. In Malawi, more than 90 percent of farm households grow maize and this grain accounts for 60 percent of total calorie consumption. As opportunities for ...
  • Discussion Papers
    A dynamic computable general equilibrium model is developed to assess the impact of the recent global recession and the Chinese government’s stimulus package on China’s economic growth. The model is first used to capture the actual ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In rural economies encumbered by significant market imperfections, farming decisions may partly be motivated by nutritional considerations, in addition to income and risk factors. These imperfections create the potential for farm assets to have ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Traditional economic theory posits that a well-functioning capital market is a necessary condition for industrialization and economic growth. In reality, micro and small enterprises are ubiquitous because entrepreneurs can undertake low-return ...
  • Books and Monographs
    Many countries have ambitious crop insurance programs to assist farmers in coping with risks. On a global basis, several billion dollars are spent each year on public subsidies for such programs. Given the high costs and the alternative uses of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Farmers face a particular set of risks that complicate the decision to borrow. We use a randomized experiment to investigate (1) the role of crop-price risk in reducing demand for credit among famers and (2) how risk mitigation changes farmers’ ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Ethiopia’s crop agriculture is complex, involving substantial variation in crops grown across the country’s different regions and ecologies. Five major cereals (teff, wheat, maize, sorghum and barley) are the core of Ethiopia’s agriculture and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper presents an overview of crop agriculture in Ethiopia, focusing mainly on cereal production. Ethiopia’s crop agriculture continues to be dominated by the country’s numerous small farms that cultivate mainly cereals for both ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study is to examine the labor requirements associated with different cropping systems in Ghana in order to guide the prioritization of investments in mechanization in the country. First, major cropping systems are identified in the country ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The key motivation behind this study is to explore the many patterns of interactions between economic and non-economic factors in sub-Saharan Africa (hereafter referred to as Africa) in order to map out a typology of different types of country ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Healthy and active lives for all require adequate access to food, care, employment, health services, and a healthy environment. None of these determinants of good health and nutrition is sufficient by itself; all of them are necessary. The most ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The evidence of improved performance of the agricultural sector in Sub‐Saharan Africa (SSA) in recent years has indeed been quite striking. For the first time, agricultural gross domestic product (AgGDP) per capita has maintained a real growth ...
  • Staff Profile
    Danielle Resnick is currently a Research Fellow in IFPRI’s Development Strategies and Governance Division (DSGD). From 2010-2013, she worked as a Research Fellow at the United Nations University–World Institute for Development Economics Research ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper explores disparities in local public service provision between decentralized districts in Ghana using district- and household-level data. The empirical results show that districts’ geographic locations play a major role in shaping ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper explores disparities in local public service provision between decentralized districts in Ghana using district and household level data. The results show that districts’ geography plays a major role in shaping disparities in ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Nigeria’s efforts to decentralize its government system are aimed at improving service delivery. However, access to important social and economic services remains limited, especially for rural populations. The deficiencies in service delivery ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa. The 2006 provisional census counted over 140 million people (United Nations 2007), 64 percent of whom live in rural areas. These rural areas are undergoing radical, noticeable change, particularly ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Uganda introduced the decentralization policy in 1997 under the Local Government Act of 1997 that has since undergone four amendments. The policy inherently decentralized service delivery institutions and their governance in order to improve ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The substantial differences in agricultural productivity between Asia and Africa can be largely explained by differences in use of modern inputs. The evidence suggests that better access to infrastructure (such as roads and irrigation) and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Using a large household survey data, this study examines the impact of government involvement in agricultural service provision on the use of modern inputs by farmers in Nigeria. The empirical methodology used in this study is based on the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Decentralization has the potential to improve the accountability of government and lead to a more efficient provision of public services. However, accountability requires broad groups of people to participate in local government. Thus, voter ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper provides an exploratory analysis that highlights the implications of a new stage in the implementation of decentralization reforms in Ghana on agricultural service delivery. These recent developments begun in 2011, and as described at ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Smallholders in Ghana, as elsewhere, are widely considered to be the largest as well as the most vulnerable component of the rural sector. Ghana professes national development objectives of reducing rural poverty through the increased ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Despite recent studies on improved seed varieties estimating the adoption rates of maize in 1998 at 40 percent (Manyong et al. 2000) and rice at 60 percent (Larsson 2005), true adoption rates appear to be unknown. This knowledge gap exists due to ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Demand patterns for improved seed vary significantly among individual farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa because of the different capacity of farmers to overcome various constraints. Understanding these differences is crucial for speeding up the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Small-scale private irrigation (SPRI) schemes make up most of the irrigated area in Nigeria, although they constitute only about three percent of the cultivated area in the country. Farmers’ demand for SPRI is potentially affected by diverse sets ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Les récentes tendances des cours des denrées alimentaires – niveaux plus élevés et plus grande volatilité – reflètent les prédictions d’un certain nombre d’experts. Compte tenu de la complexité de l’écheveau des facteurs influençant la sécurité ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Ongoing debate over water resource management in the Nile basin and continuing land degradation in agricultural areas of Ethiopia suggest a need for efficient mechanisms to improve agricultural output in the Blue Nile basin in Ethiopia. Numerous ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper explores the role of political institutions in determining the ability of agriculture to avoid taxation in developing countries or attract government transfers in industrialized countries. The utilized model is based on a probabilistic ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Recent estimates showing increase in the incidence of poverty in Uganda has kindled interest in understanding the factors that cause changes in poverty, as the reversal of the positive trend in the 1990s threatens the government’s ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Recent estimates showing increase in the incidence of poverty in Uganda has kindled interest in understanding the factors that cause changes in poverty, as the reversal of the positive trend in the 1990s threatens the government’s ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    After a brief tour of the Mazubi Farms, the retreat began with a welcome by Ms. Valerie Rhoe, Program Coordinator, IFPRI. The welcome address highlighted the importance of updating the FMAWR agriculture strategy based on evidence. Dr. Shashi ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Bridging the research and policy divide remains a top priority on the Nigerian federal government’s agenda. This renewed commitment paved the way for the Agricultural Support Facility Project (APSF), which seeks to, among other things, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “The choices that smallholder farmers are able to make are strongly conditioned by the geographic conditions in which they live. The importance of this fact for rural development strategy is not lost on policy makers. For example, the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper analyzes the role of social cohesion in economic and institutional development and, broadly, the creation of welfare in Latin America. The paper defines the concept of social cohesion with reference to the notions of social capital and ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    IFPRI and FANRPAN outlined and managed a highly participatory process involving high-level policymakers, senior representatives of a range of stakeholder agencies, and respected scientific leaders, who came together for an integrated series of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Though input vouchers are increasingly being used as a mechanism to target subsidies in developing countries, limited empirical evidence of their performance relative to other distribution mechanisms exist. Consequently this study contributes to ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Kaum jemand hätte den dramatischen Wandel, der sich in den letzten Monaten in der arabischen Welt abgespielt hat, für möglich gehalten. Die arabischen Regierungen schienen ihre Länder fest unter Kontrolle zu haben und die wirtschaftlichen ...
  • CD-Roms
    The Digital Food Security Atlas (DFSA) for Yemen expands the conventional concept of an atlas by allowing users to create their own maps in an interactive way. This innovative tool allows policymakers, analysts, researchers, and the interested ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The CAADP is a commitment of African countries to pursue economic growth through agriculture-led development to reduce poverty and hunger on the continent. It stems from the failure of previous interventions on the continent largely attributed to ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Decentralization is expected to lead to greater efficiency in the allocation of public resources, as subnational governments are said to have better information than central government about the needs for and requirements of public services in ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Theories of fiscal federalism imply that determining intergovernmental transfers based on the political incentives results in inefficient allocation of resources across geographic regions. Such practices also can result in tensions between ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The vast majority of empirical literature on “flying geese” examines industrial relocation across national boundaries, in particular in Asia. However, few studies have empirically tested whether this kind of “flying geese” pattern of industrial ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Analyses of how coveted central-government resources in Africa are shared have shown widespread patronage, ethnic cronyism, and pork-barrel politics. While some governments have attempted to rectify the situation by establishing revenue-sharing ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The migration of household members is potentially an attractive pathway out of poverty for many rural households in developing countries. Such households face the challenge of maintaining or improving their livelihoods in the presence of capital ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Expectations are high that transition in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Yemen will bring about more freedom, justice, and economic opportunities. However, experiences from other world regions show that countries in transition are at high risk of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Manufacturing is intensive in the use of reproducible factors and exhibits greater technological dynamism than primary production. As such, its growth is central to long-run development in low-income countries. African countries are latecomers to ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Even though both “good governance” and “pro-poor growth” have become important concepts in development thinking and practice, studies that assess to which extent and how good governance contributes to pro-poor ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Standard economic models suggest that individuals participate in migration to improve their well-being, whether those decisions are made at the individual or the household level. However, explicit and implicit barriers to movement both within and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Developing countries, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa, continue to face insurmountable challenges in building and sustaining capacity for development. Although donor assistance for capacity development has been estimated to be about 25 percent ...
  • News
    It is a problem that extends far beyond the borders of a single country: Exponentially growing populations and a finite pool of resources needed to support them, including land, water, food and energy. In Ethiopia, expanding populations and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Using a two year panel dataset, this paper offers an empirical investigation of the unprecedented production boom episode observed in Ghana’s cocoa sector between 2002 and 2004. We look at the technology of production underlying the years ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Malawi suffers frequent droughts and floods. In an economy that is heavily dependent on the agricultural sector, it is crucial to understand the implications of these extreme climate events. Not only are rural livelihoods affected due to the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    China has experienced dramatic economic transformation and is facing the challenge of ensuring steady agricultural growth. This study examines the crop sector by estimating the supply response for major crops in Henan province from 1998 to 2007. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The paper develops a metric of structural transformation that can account for the production of new varieties of goods embodying advancements in technological know-how and design. Our measure captures the dynamics of an economy’s ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Agriculture in African South of the Sahara (SSA) can be transformed if the right public support is provided at the initial stage, and it can sustain itself once the enabling environment is put in place. Successes are also specific to the location ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Rice plays an important role and has potential in the development strategy for many West African countries, including Ghana. Among major crops, rice has the highest potential for overall agricultural growth and for generating the greatest ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The countries of Eastern and Central Africa are heavily dependent on agriculture, and seeds are a key input in agricultural production.Yet in each country in Eastern and Central Africa, the seed industry faces different laws, standards, and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    We estimate households’ willingness-to-pay for rural feeder roads in Ethiopia. Using a quasi-experimental setting, we find that the benefits of reducing transportation costs by 50 US dollars per metric ton of goods (agricultural surplus, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Using an equivalent variation approach, we estimate households’ willingness-to-pay for rural feeder roads in Ethiopia. The problem of endogenous road placement is addressed by a purposeful data collection process as the survey site was chosen in ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The combination of the recent global food and financial crises has had severe negative consequences on food security in Tajikistan. High dependence on food imports has made Tajikistan extremely vulnerable to the increasing global food prices and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper describes the potential impact on the economy of Pakistan of building the Diamer-Basha dam. An integrated system of economic and water simulation models is applied to Pakistan to analyze the economywide impacts of changes in water ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Ghana is often considered an African development success story. Over the past two decades, the country experienced strong and steady economic growth in a stable and democratic political environment. Broad-based growth over the past two ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The extent to which growth reduces poverty has been disputed for years, as has the controversy surrounding trade-offs between policies that seek growth and those that address equity. Structural models linking economic growth and the distribution ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper examines macro-economic developments in Ethiopia between 2004/05 and 2008/09, focusing on the external accounts and the real exchange rate. Simulations using a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model of Ethiopia’s economy show that, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Ethiopia enjoyed remarkable economic growth from 2004/05 to 2008/09, in large part due to increases in foreign transfers and capital inflows combined with expanded domestic credit to fund major increases in private and public investments in ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Droughts and floods are a capricious part of life for many Malawians. The country depends heavily on rain-fed agriculture and so it is crucial that we understand the implications of these climate events. Not only are rural livelihoods affected, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    China’s growing economic engagement with other developing countries has aroused heated debates. Yet there has been relatively little research on when, how, and why the Chinese state intervenes in the overseas economic activities of its firms. We ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This brief focuses on growth patterns, structural change and agglomeration to assess the progress of economic transformation in Ghana. While Ghana has been seen as a successful story in Africa because of its sustainable growth performance and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    One of the earliest and most central insights from the literature on economic development is that development entails structural change. The countries that manage to pull out of poverty and get richer are those that are able to diversify away ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In the context of the Ghanaian government’s objective of structural transformation with an emphasis on manufacturing, this paper provides a case study of economic transformation in Ghana, exploring patterns of growth, sectoral transformation, and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Encouraging signs of growth acceleration in Africa may herald a new development era of rapid transformation. In an effort to promote the future success of African transformation, we herein provide an extensive literature review on development ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Small-scale private irrigation (SPRI) schemes make up much of the irrigated areas in Nigeria. These irrigated areas, though, are only about three percent of the cultivated area in the country. Constraints on SPRI expansion are investigated by ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Few observers would have predicted the dramatic changes over the past few months in the Arab world. Arab governments appeared to be in tight control, and many Arab economies were growing around or above the world average over the past few years. ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Rares sont les observateurs qui auraient pu prédire les changements dramatiques survenus dans le monde arabe au cours des derniers mois. Les gouvernements arabes semblaient exercer un contrôle absolu et, au cours des dernières années, la ...
  • Discussion Papers
    We use a dynamic CGE model to quantitatively assess the economywide impact of HPAI in Ghana. The likely effect of an avian flu outbreak is modeled as demand or supply shocks to the poultry sector. Our analysis shows that, while chicken is a quite ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In recent years, the government of Tanzania, like other governments in Africa south of the Sahara, has periodically banned the export of staple crops (maize) in an attempt to ensure the domestic food supply and protect its citizens from ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Staff Profile
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This study contributes new empirical evidence on the gender difference in access to extension services in Ethiopia and how this translates to observed differences in technology adoption and agricultural productivity. Our results suggest that ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The top-down public agricultural extension system in China and its early commercialization reforms during the 1990s have left millions of farmers without access to extension services. A pilot inclusive agricultural extension system was introduced ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Although theory predicts that better property rights to land can increase land productivity through tenure security effects (investment effects) and through more efficient input use due to enhanced tradability of the land (factor intensity ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Although theory predicts that better property rights to land can increase land productivity through tenure security effects (investment effects) and through more efficient input use due to enhanced tradability of the land (factor intensity ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This paper uses an asset-base framework to analyze the determinants of rural growth and sustainable poverty reduction for the three poorest countries in Central America: Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua…Using a combination of GIS ...
  • Discussion Papers
    While the Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) remains a hotly debated issue in all five Central American countries that are part of the treaty, most discussions are based on preconceived opinions rather than grounded in research-based ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper examines European Union (E.U.) demand for chilled fish fillets assuming product heterogeneity due to country of origin and assesses the structural adjustment in demand as indicated by the increase in imports from Sri Lanka since the ...
  • Staff Profile
    Emily Schmidt has worked for IFPRI’s Development Strategy and Governance Division as the Ethiopia Country Strategy Support Program Coordinator and GIS specialist since February 2009. During which time, she has been based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Much of Nigeria’s recent economic growth can be attributed to its non-oil economy—primarily agriculture. But the recent agricultural growth has been driven mainly by expansion in areas planted while productivity has remained flat or declining. ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Nigerian administrations have long focused on strengthening the links along the chain from fork to farm in several commodities of key importance to Nigerian smallholders. The presidential initiatives on some commodities are cases in point. ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The most recent (2010–2011) drought in the arid and semiarid lowlands (ASAL) of the Horn of Africa has rendered over 13 million people in need of food, and caused a devastating famine in southern Somalia. The drought has also raised concerns that ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The most recent (2010-211) drought in the arid and semiarid lowlands (ASAL) of the Horn of Africa has rendered over 13 million people in need of food, and caused a devastating famine in southern Somalia. The drought has also raised concerns that ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Nigeria’s economic performance since 2002 has improved, with growth averaging about 7.3 percent during 2002–07 (Global insight 2008). While the production of cassava, rice, and maize has responded to the associated improved policy ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Since registering a disappointing growth of 1.2 percent in 2002, Nigeria’s economic performance has rebounded, averaging growth at 7.3 percent between then and 2007. However, the pressing challenge for the nation lies in maintaining and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Malnutrition is widespread in Nigeria, especially in rural areas. Nigerians are vulnerable to chronic food shortages, erratic supply, poor quality food, and fluctuating food prices. The huge investment in ensuring food and nutrition security for ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Nigeria is still characterized by high reliance on food imports. Malnutrition is widespread in the entire country and rural areas are especially vulnerable to chronic food shortages, malnutrition, unbalanced nutrition, erratic food supply, poor ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Uganda has experienced strong economic growth in recent years with GDP growth among the highest in Africa at an average annual rate of 7.2 percent from 2000-2008 (WDI, 2009). The most recent study by the World Bank shows that strong poverty ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agriculture is the major sector upon which the majority of Nigeria’s rural poor depend on for their livelihood. Over 70 percent of the active labor force is employed in agriculture (World Bank 2007). The federal government of Nigeria (FGN) has ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Environmental migration has been the subject of lively debate in recent years. The conundrum over why experts’ global predictions of 50 million environmental refugees were not met in 2010 best captures how messages from advocacy and research can ...
  • Discussion Papers
    A Generalized Maximum Entropy (GME) approach is adapted to empirically estimate crop-specific production technologies in Chinese agriculture. Despite a modest behavior assumption about equal marginal returns of non-land inputs among crops, this ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Monitoring rural household income is important for governments, donors, nongovernmental organizations, researchers, and others involved with development strategies, because increasing rural household income is a primary objective for achieving ...
  • Books and Monographs
    During the period of Nepal's ninth Five-Year Plan (1997–2002), agricultural growth in the predominantly rural society was disappointing. The recent peace process, however, gives the country new opportunities to develop its economy with less ...
  • Discussion Papers
    It has often been argued that new agricultural technologies lead to poverty reduction. This paper argues that any changes in poverty situation attributed to those who adopt new agricultural technology (treatment group) without a counterfactual ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Precise agricultural statistics are essential for planning and evaluation of agricultural investments to improve the productivity and profitability of smallholder farming systems. However, accurately estimating crop yields is never easy and is ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    With a per capita income of only about 20 percent of the African average, Ethiopia is one of the world’s poorest countries. More than 85 percent of the country’s population lives in rural areas, where agriculture is the main economic activity and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The opportunities and constraints facing Ethiopian agriculture are strongly influenced by conditions which vary across geographical space. These conditions include basic agricultural production potentials, access to input and output markets, and ...
  • General Information
    Ethiopia’s market reforms of the 1990s did not have the intended impact on agricultural growth and poverty reduction. Market constraints like high transaction costs limited the markets’ potential to catalyze production and growth and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Under the Plan for Accelerated and Sustained Development to End Poverty (PASDEP), implemented from 2005/06 to 2009/10, Ethiopia achieved rapid economic growth and laid a foundation for future growth by making substantial investments in ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP) has set higher growth and investment targets than those of any of Ethiopia’s earlier national plans and its implementation requires faster growth in total factor productivity and large-scale mobilization ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    We study the value chain of teff, Ethiopia’s most important staple food crop by area and value. Based on large-scale primary surveys, we find significant changes in the last decade. First, there is increasing adoption of modern inputs (chemical ...
  • Discussion Papers
    United Kingdom (UK) demand for carnations by exporting country was estimated using a production version of the Rotterdam model, and model estimates were used to assess the effects of EU preferential trade agreements on import demand. Of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Despite years of development interventions, agricultural productivity in Africa south of the Sahara still trails far behind all other continents, leaving many rural populations in dire poverty. This suggests that our understanding of the impacts ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This study assessed four major subsidy and credit facilitation initiatives implemented by the Ministry of Food and Agriculture (MoFA) to guide government policy and improve performance.
  • Discussion Papers
    It is widely agreed that reducing poverty in Africa south of the Sahara (SSA) depends largely on stimulating growth in agriculture. To this end, heads of state in Africa rallied to form the pan-African Comprehensive African Agriculture ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Traditional authorities are powerful leaders alongside the state in Ghana. The chieftaincy has been resilient to “modernization”—maintaining land rights, allegiance from citizens, and influence in rural communities. Nonetheless, there are few ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Recent findings in the growth literature suggest that developing countries need to keep a devalued exchange rate to stimulate their economic growth. Building on these findings, we econometrically evaluate to what ex-tent the real exchange rate of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The Malawian economy has in recent months been plagued by a severe foreign exchange crisis, fueled in part by a steadily rising import bill, sharp successive declines in tobacco export prices, the suspension of direct government budget support ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Removing subsidies that have been applied to agricultural inputs and closing down subsidy programs, once introduced, have proved difficult to do in many countries, whether the subsidies are for irrigation, seed, or fertilizer. Long‐running ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Considering the heterogeneity of the countries of southern Africa and the presence of South Africa and other middle-income countries in the region, southern Africa has a unique opportunity to exploit agricultural potential and regional ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Identifying growth poles in the SSA region, strengthening linkages and generating mutual benefits across African countries is an important part of the strategy to promote agriculture-led growth at the Africa-wide scale. Using agricultural ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Agriculture plays a dominant role in nearly all the countries of East and Central Africa, and many face similar agroecological, climatic, and development challenges. As a result, significant scale economies can be made through the regionalization ...
  • Discussion Papers
    An in-depth quantitative analysis is undertaken in this paper to assist the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Secretariat, member countries, and development partners in setting future regional investment priorities for agricultural ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The East African Community (EAC) was revived in July 2000. Since then, there has been some progress registered in expansion of trade between the five member countries, especially with the Customs Union that brought together Kenya, Tanzania and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Climate change leads to more frequent and more intense droughts in Somalia. In a global context, weather shocks have been found to perpetuate poverty and fuel civil conflict. By relating regional and temporal variations in violent conflict ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper investigates the factors influencing the effectiveness of second-tier rural producer organizations (RPO) in linking their members to output markets in Uganda. Effectiveness of an RPO is expressed as the percentage of farmer members who ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In recent years, there has been renewed interest among both public and private organizations to establish farmer based organizations (FBOs) in Ghana. This interest is based on the premise that FBOs give farmers bar-gaining power in the market ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Farmer groups are considered potentially effective mechanisms to increase farmer livelihood by reducing information asymmetries and transaction costs. In many countries, farmers are coordinated in groups for participation in poverty reduction ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The timely availability of seeds at planting time is considered one of the important factors for faster improved seed adoption in Nigeria. There is a lack of empirical information on how much more farmers are willing to pay (WTP) for seeds at ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    In the 1970s and 1980s, most African countries sold fertilizer at subsidized prices through state-owned enterprises. In response to the fiscal cost and ineffective implementation of these subsidies, as well as pressure from international ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The traditional literature emphasizes the causal role of finance in promoting industrial growth. China’s rapid industrialization over the past several decades, which has occurred in the absence of well-functioning financial markets, seems ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Discussion Papers
    While, politically speaking, China has a centralized government structure with strong top-down mandates, under the country’s current fiscal system, local governments are responsible for providing most local public goods and services. Large ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Food aid remains significant for food availability in many low-income countries in sub-Saharan Africa, helping to reduce the gap between food consumption needs and supply from domestic production and inventories and commercial imports. ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Ethiopia has made considerable progress toward food security since the 1984 famine captured worldwide media attention. Almost 30 years after that calamity, Ethiopian per capita income has increased, poverty has fallen, food security has improved, ...
  • Books and Monographs
    The perception of Ethiopia projected in the media is often one of chronic poverty and hunger, but this bleak assessment does not accurately reflect most of the country today. Ethiopia encompasses a wide variety of agroecologies and peoples. Its ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Yemen has been facing severe development challenges in recent years, but rapidly depleting oil and water resources combined with large population increases and a lack of job-creating growth are making a difficult situation even more complicated. ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This study aims to investigate how households have adjusted their demand for various food and non-food items to changes in price and income. The Quadratic Linear Almost Ideal Demand Model (AIDM) was used on the Household Income Consumption ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    How households adjust their consumption in response to changes in prices and income is crucial determinant of the effects of various shocks to market prices and commodity supplies. These adjustments in demand are particularly significant in ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In Ghana, tomato is important both as a cash crop and in diets. Yet despite its importance, tomato production in the country appears to have stalled or even declined, while imports of tomato paste surged in the 2000s and continue to increase. As ...
  • Discussion Papers
    A rapidly changing world combined with mounting domestic challenges is prompting many Middle East and North African (MENA) countries to rethink their development models and to initiate economic and social reforms. Taking this new momentum as a ...
  • Press Release
    May 21, 2013, CAIRO – Poverty and food insecurity in Egypt have risen significantly over the last three years according to joint reports released today by the UN World Food Programme (WFP), the government’s Central Agency for Public Mobilization ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Both availability and access issues underpin Ethiopia’s food security challenges. The country is mostly dependent on drought-exposed, rain fed agriculture, and high transaction costs inhibit trade in staples. Most of the population lives in rural ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Both availability and access issues underpin Ethiopia’s food security challenges. The country is mostly dependent on drought-exposed, rain fed agriculture, and high transaction costs inhibit trade in staples. Most of the population lives in rural ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Food security is back on the global agenda, triggered by alarm over the international food price surges of 2007-08. The international price of rice temporarily tripled, and wheat and maize prices more than doubled. For those poor people who are ...
  • News
    Statistics are sounding a warning bell about the state of Egypt’s food security, poverty, and malnutrition. The number of food insecure Egyptians has increased about 21 percent from 2009 to 2011, according to a 2011 analysis of household incomes, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The study of value chains comprises of two key concepts: value and chain. The term value is synonym to “value added” in the Value Chain Analysis (VCA) as it characterizes the incremental value of a resultant product produced from processing of a ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Food-for-Education (FFE) programs can help Uganda fight malnutrition and hunger while broadening access to primary education. Whether these programs involve in-school feeding or take-home rations, they have the potential both to improve student’s ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Levels and composition of food consumption are major determinants of the nutritional wellbeing of individuals, which in turn, have important implications for health, productivity, and income. Analyzing food consumption patterns in poor countries, ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Foreign aid to developing countries is a subject of heated debate among politicians, economists, and development specialists. Does aid promote economic growth and reduce poverty? Some argue that foreign aid has no effect on growth and may ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In spite of remarkable growth in Ethiopia’s agricultural production and overall real incomes (GDP/capita) from 2004/05 to 2008/09, prices of major cereals (teff, maize, wheat and sorghum) have fluctuated sharply in both nominal and real terms. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Foreign inflows are important sources of income that many African governments use to finance public investments and to support the development of manufacturing or export-oriented service sectors. Yet the recent growth experience of many African ...
  • Discussion Papers
    South Africa’s high involuntary unemployment and small informal sector are attributed to an underperforming formal sector and barriers to entry in the informal sector. This paper examines the economywide linkages between the formal and informal ...
  • Staff Profile
    Frances joined IFPRI as a Research Analyst in 2011. She conducts research on economic transformation in Ghana and works on agricultural policy in DRC. She comes to IFPRI from the World Bank, where she was a Junior Professional Associate with the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The paper develops a framework for the design and analysis of pluralistic agricultural advisory services and reviews research methods from different disciplines that can be used when applying the framework. Agricultural advisory services are ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “Agricultural advisory services play an important role in supporting the use of the agricultural sector as an engine of pro-poor growth and enabling small farmers to meet new challenges, such as accessing export markets, adopting ...
  • Books and Monographs
    The community-driven development (CDD) approach has become increasingly popular because of its potential to develop projects that are sustainable, are responsive to local priorities, empower communities, and more effectively target poor and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Poverty remains entrenched in Nigeria, where 70 percent of the rural population lives below the poverty line. In response, the Nigerian government launched the Second National Fadama Development Project (Fadama II) in 2005. Based on the ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The community-driven development (CDD) approach has become increasingly popular because of its potential to develop projects that are sustainable, are responsive to local priorities, empower local communities, and more effectively target poor and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The community-driven development (CDD) approach has become increasingly popular because of its potential to develop projects that are sustainable, are responsive to local priorities, empower local communities, and more effectively target poor and ...
  • Press Release
    April 7, 2014, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan— A conference organized by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and the University of Central Asia (UCA) to be held from April 8-9 will explore how Central Asian countries can best meet the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Based on the 2011 Global Hunger Index, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has the most severe level of hunger and malnutrition. There is growing recognition that development in the agriculture sector and increasing productivity will be ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper contributes new empirical evidence and nuanced analysis on the gender difference in access to extension services and how this translates to observed differences in technology adoption and agricultural productivity. We employ a ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Gender analysis focuses on the different roles and responsibilities of women and men and how these affect society, culture, the economy and politics. For example, important differences exist between women and men in their quality of life; in the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In Nigeria, women are often marginalized in their access to economic, political, and social resources compared to men, rendering them relatively poorer than their male counterparts. Important differences also exist between women and men in their ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper uses an asset-base framework to analyze the determinants of rural growth and sustainable poverty reduction for the three poorest countries in Central America: Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua…Using a combination of GIS mapping ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Ghana’s seed sector has undergone some significant changes in the past few years, including the establishment of a new seed law and regulations, the appointment of a National Seed Council, and the emergence of a more diversified commercial seed ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Ghana’s agriculture sector accounts for 35 percent of the country’s gross domestic product (GDP) and nearly two thirds (60 percent) of the employment (Breisinger et al. 2011). Ghana is one of the top five performers in the world in terms of ...
  • Staff Profile
    Gissele Gajate Garrido received her PhD in Economics from University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) on June 2010. She also holds a Masters in Economics from UCLA and graduated with honors from Universidad del Pacífico (Peru). She has worked ...
  • Discussion Papers
    There is broad consensus among scientists that climate change is altering weather patterns around the world. However, economists are only beginning to develop tools that allow for the quantification of such weather changes on countries’ economies ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Large gaps in labor productivity between the traditional and modern parts of the economy are a fundamental reality of developing societies. In this paper, we document these gaps and emphasize that labor flows from low-productivity activities to ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Project Papers and Notes
    When it comes to governance, the best policy practices may depend on a country’s stage of development… The same conditions apply for the governance of agriculture, nutrition, and health. Here the best approach may largely depend on a ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In an effort to inform strategic options to improve agricultural productivity, we examine the impact of social service expenditures on the marginal productivity of agricultural inputs. Increasing agricultural productivity is often advocated as a ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Poverty in rural India has declined substantially in recent decades. This steady decline in poverty was strongly associated with agricultural growth, particularly the green revolution, which in turn was a response to massive public investments in ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    With renewed interest in technical change and productivity growth in the African agricultural sector, interest is growing in the lessons of Asia’s Green Revolution and in the implementation of input promotion and subsidies to promote agricultural ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Public investment, together with institutional and policy reforms, has contributed substantially to rapid economic growth in rural China since the late 1970s. This rapid growth has also led to dramatic reductions in rural poverty. In this study ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    During the 2003/04–2008/09 period agricultural production in Ethiopia grew annually at 9.3 percent while cultivated area expanded at 4.7 percent. The remaining growth resulted from intensive use of other inputs, increased productivity, increased ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Nutrition is increasingly recognized as an important dimension of economic development, yet relatively little is known about the relationship among development policies, economic growth, and nutrition outcomes. Advancing the knowledge in this ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    While it is generally agreed that growth is a necessary precondition for reducing poverty, relatively little is known about the relationship between economic growth and nutrition and, hence, how economic policies can be leveraged to improve ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This study assesses which agricultural subsectors have the strongest capacity to drive economic growth and poverty reduction in Ethiopia, and what kind of agricultural and nonagricultural growth is needed to achieve the millennium ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Staff Profile
  • Staff Profile
  • Discussion Papers
    “Trade liberalization is a central part of South Africa’s post-Apartheid development strategy. However, despite considerable reforms, the country has failed to generate pro-poor growth, with both unemployment and inequality worsening ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    More than one-third of Yemen’s population is food insecure. Food security means that there is enough food for everyone in the country and that the available food provides the right nutrients to ensure a healthy population. In order to guarantee ...
  • Food Policy Reports
    “This report spells out the benefits to the United States from its partnership with the CGIAR. Using wheat and rice to illustrate the gains from international research on important food crops, the report shows that U.S. investments in CGIAR ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Rising world prices for fuel and food represent a negative terms-of-trade shock for Mozambique. The impacts of these price increases are analyzed using various approaches. Detailed price data show that the world price increases are being ...
  • Staff Profile
    Hiroyuki Takeshima joined IFPRI in January 2009 as a postdoctoral fellow of IFPRI Nigeria office, and joined IFPRI Washington office as a research fellow in 2012. Hiroyuki has conducted research on market participation, transaction costs, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper estimates the economic impact of HIV/AIDS on KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) and the rest of South Africa (RSA). We extend previous studies by employing an integrated analytical framework that combines the following: firm-level surveys of workers’ ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Staff Profile
    More about Hosaena Ghebru Hagos in IFPRI eBrary
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Land degradation and water shortages are major issues in developing countries, contributing to reduced economic output, lower growth potential and increased poverty. The immediate trade-off between short-term welfare and long-term agricultural ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This study examines the impact of sustainable land and watershed management (SLWM) on value of agricultural production and livestock holdings. Analysis suggests that plots that received investment in the first period (1992) experience a 20.6 ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper estimates hedonic models of rental prices to investigate household preferences regarding water services in rural Guatemala. Estimated values for water services are compared across municipal, private, and community-managed water ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper develops a framework to measure the impact of agricultural research on urban poverty. Increased investments in agricultural R&D can lower food prices by increasing food production, and lower food prices benefit the urban poor ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Vietnam is likely to be among the countries hardest hit by climate change, threatening its legacy as a champion in leveraging agriculture for development. This paper examines how a changing climate may affect rice production and how Vietnamese ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Over the past few years, Malawi made remarkable progress toward increasing its national maize production and achieving food security owing to its Farm Input Subsidy Program (FISP). Likewise, the implementation of the subsidy program is ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study constructs a regional CGE model of China to analyze the differential regional impacts of China’s WTO accession on agricultural production, trade, and farmers’ income. The results show that China’s WTO accession will ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Mechanization is a key to agricultural productivity growth in developing countries. Farm implements, ranging from hand tools to draft animals to milling machines to power tillers and tractors, often play complementary roles with each other, and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    We develop a detailed trade analysis to assess the potential welfare impacts of a free trade agreement (FTA) on the agricultural sector of southern African countries and to determine opportunities and challenges faced by the region as a ...
  • Discussion Papers
    There have been competing arguments about the effect of public infrastructure on productivity in the literature. Level-based regressions generally show a much higher return to public capital than private capital, while difference-based ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Rural households in developing economies frequently use precautionary saving to cope with income risk. Such prudent behavior can be strengthened in transition economies where more risks are typically faced by households during and after reforms. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Many countries have recognized the need to revive agricultural advisory or extension services (the terms are used interchangeably here) as a means of using agriculture as an engine of pro-poor growth; reaching marginalized, poor, and female ...
  • 2020 Focus
    While the role of public investment in promoting economic growth and poverty reduction is widely recognized, it is not clear how governments can mobilize these resources and use them efficiently and effectively. Exploring these issues in the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Large-scale social safety net programs such as India’s National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) are difficult to implement due to governance challenges related to elite capture, leakages, and corruption. The ability to identify how the ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Staff Profile
    Hyacinth joined IFPRI, Abuja Office in April 2011 as a Senior Research Assistant. He got his undergraduate degree in Agricultural Economics in 2000 from the Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ESUT). In 2008, he graduated with an ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    According to the International Water Management Institute (IWMI), the Blue Nile basin is one of the least planned and managed sub-basins of the Nile (IWMI, 2008). Previous studies have examined the impact of investments in sustainable land and ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Recent increases in cereals prices raise questions about agricultural priorities in Ghana. This report presents an application of the Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM) to the problem of identifying opportunities to enhance agriculture’s ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The overall objective of this paper is to develop an appropriate conceptual and analytical framework to better understand how prospects for growth and poverty reduction can be stimulated in rural Honduras. We employ complementary quantitative and ...
  • General Information
    This brochure highlights some of IFPRI’s activities in South Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia, Central Asia, and across the continent.
  • General Information
    Despite remarkable economic growth in the past 30 years, China remains a developing nation. More than 135 million people live on less than $1 a day, with the majority of those living in rural areas. Emerging challenges include increased regional ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Project Papers and Notes
    We examine whether and how much previous fertilizer subsidy schemes in Nigeria crowded-in or crowded-out the privatesector fertilizer. We apply a system of endogenous Tobit regressions which account for interlinkages between the subsidized ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Under the Agricultural Transformation Agenda (ATA), the government of Nigeria is implementing a new fertilizer program in which the government will withdraw from fertilizer marketing and distribution to promote the development of the private ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The global food crisis of 2007–2008 was characterized by a sharp increase in food and other commodity prices on world markets. Between January 2007 and March 2008, the prices of wheat and rice doubled while the price of maize rose 42 percent. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Use of mechanization in African agriculture has returned strongly to the development agenda, particularly following the recent high food prices crisis. Many developing country governments—including Ghana, the case study of this paper—have resumed ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This study analyzed the impact of off-farm earnings on the intensity of adoption of improved maize varieties and the productivity of maize farming in Uganda in the years 2005/06 and 2009/10. Summary statistics show significantly higher adoption ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Previous studies implicitly assume uniform price-effects across regions or provinces within countries. They also do not address the issue of integration between the world food market and local markets. Instead, they assume a complete transmission ...
  • Books and Monographs
    In Uganda, agricultural extension has been hotly debated since the implementation of the National Agricultural Advisory Services (NAADS) program in 2001. Conceived as a demand-driven approach and largely publicly funded with services provided by ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Vietnam is likely to be among the countries hardest hit by climate change, mainly through rising sea levels and changes in rainfall and temperatures. Agriculture can be extensively affected by climate change, and designing effective adaptation ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Numerous studies indicate that agricultural production is sensitive to climate variability, and lack of infrastructure in developing countries increases vulnerability to extreme climate events. In Ethiopia, the historical climate record indicates ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Yemen is an oil-exporting and food-importing country on the Arabian Peninsula with persistently high levels of poverty. The impacts of the food, fuel, and financial global crises are likely to further complicate preexisting conditions of internal ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper provides details of the analysis done for Ethiopia’s background study for its implementation of the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP). The analysis provides an assessment of agricultural growth options ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Ethiopia’s national development strategy, A Plan for Accelerated and Sustained Development to End Poverty for 2005/06 to 2009/10 (PASDEP) places a major emphasis on achieving high rates of agricultural and overall economic growth. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Kenya is vulnerable to avian flu given its position along migratory bird routes and proximity to other high-risk countries. This raises concerns about the effect an outbreak could have on economic development. We use a dynamic computable general ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Rural-urban linkages (RUL) and rural-urban migration are key components in rural transformation – an important step toward industrial growth. Post-Keynesian development theory has recognized the central role of intersectoral linkage between ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Public investments and policies under Pakistan’s new Framework for Economic Growth are expected to lead to substantial gains in productivity, especially in the industrial and service sectors of Pakistan’s economy. Computable General Equilibrium ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Seed is an important input in agriculture. Appropriate seed policy enables the supply of good varieties to farmers at a low cost. Thus, improved seed-sector functions, including seed subsidies, effective regulations, certifications, and efficient ...
  • Discussion Papers
    There is limited empirical evidence on the linkages between agrotechnologies, poverty reduction and the pathways to better nutrition outcomes. The introduction and dissemination of improved dairy cow breeds in Uganda is arguably the most ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The improved performance of the agricultural sector in Africa south of the Sahara during the most recent decade (2000–2010) has raised questions about the drivers behind the growth. Skeptics argue that rising commodity prices, as world markets ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The recent drought in the Horn of Africa has again generated widespread pessimism about the future of pastoralism in the re-gion. In this paper we argue that a much more balanced development strategy needs to be adopted in pastoralist areas. ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Why has eradicating hunger and poverty proved difficult despite its being a declared goal of the international development community for more than half a century? Why has the number of hungry people increased in recent years? Why is poverty ...
  • In sum, it is crucial to alter the perception that undernutrition is part of the normal order of things. Advocacy groups should generate a perception of crisis related to undernutrition in order to foster significant, urgent, high-profile action ...
  • Books and Monographs
    Undernutrition remains a major source of human suffering and an obstacle to national economic and human development in many African countries. This report investigates undernutrition’s persistence, drawing on case studies of the public ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    When there is disconnect between research and policy, high quality research-based information can be produced without impact on policy dialogue and action. This often results in policy actions lagging far behind scientific and academic knowledge, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Although food security measurement has been substantially expanded in recent decades, there persists significant dissatisfaction with existing measurement systems, especially in the wake of the global food and financial crisis. In this paper we ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Decentralization reforms have been the overwhelming response to failures in the targeting of public resources by the central state in developing countries. The policy debate on decentralization typically revolves around several a priori ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    In this brief, the authors suggest five areas for action to put rural India on a higher growth trajectory that would cut hunger, malnutrition, and unemployment at a much faster pace than has been the case so far. The five areas for action are ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper evaluates the impacts of access to infrastructure on development of handloom weaving clusters in Ethiopia based on a survey collected in both urban and rural areas. Geographical clustering enables entrepreneurs with limited capital to ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Rural nonfarm development plays a key role in generating employment in many developing countries. Clustering is an important form of industrial organization in the rural nonfarm sector. Based on a primary survey of both urban and rural handloom ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Rural non-farm development plays a key role in generating employment in many developing countries. Clustering is an important industrial organization in the rural non-farm sector. Based on primary surveys of both urban and rural handloom weaver ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agriculture is at the core of the livelihoods of most rural households in Uganda. It is a major engine for overall economic growth and possibly the single most important pathway out of poverty in the rural space. Although measures to enhance the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper is an exploratory study that looks at early stages of the decentralization and other reforms in the policymaking and planning processes in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The paper develops a conceptual framework and adopts an ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The need for agricultural ministries to have the capacity to develop appropriate policies and effectively implement them is becoming increasingly important as African countries, following on their commitment to Comprehensive Africa Agriculture ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    An agricultural system consists of production, processing, storage, marketing, extension, research, and training. While production is a result of land, labor, capital, and entrepreneurship, its magnitude and efficiency from the farm to the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This study assessed the capacity for designing and implementing agricultural and rural development policies, strategies, and programs in Nigeria. Data for this study were derived from initial consultations at the Federal Ministry of Agriculture ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The institutional change in rural Kyrgyzstan during the transition period included farm reorganization, land reform, building markets, and community institutions. The land reform established private property rights to land, including the rights ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In Nigeria, conventional financial institutions serve only about 35 percent of the active population, and the poor, especially women, have limited access to financial services. Private sector-led microfinance institutions (MFIs) are increasingly ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Executive Summary The major objective of this study was to examine the relationship between the institutional environment of microfinance and access of rural women to microfinance. Focus group sessions were held with groups of rural women ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The Plan for Modernisation of Agriculture (PMA) Secretariat has played an important and vital role in the design and delivery of agriculture policy and planning services in Uganda since 2000. Originally established as a mechanism for cross- and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper draws together findings from different elements of a research project examining critical components of pro-poor agricultural growth and of policies that can promote such growth in poor rural economies in South Asia and Sub-Saharan ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper tests a series of prominent hypotheses regarding how institutions, geography, and trade interact to influence income per capita using a novel spatial econometric approach to control for both spillovers among neighboring countries and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The economic characteristics of subsidized inputs affect how the benefits of the subsidy on the input are distributed between farmers and input suppliers. However, how the benefits are distributed across the population of farmers in a country ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Migration and remittances can be used by rural households as a means of insurance, investment, and income augmentation. Ample attention has been given to studying international remittance flows, since for many countries such transfers comprise a ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Migration and remittances can be used by rural households as a means of insurance, investment, and income augmentation. Ample attention has been given to studying international remittance flows, since for many countries such transfers comprise a ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Weather risk remains a major challenge to farming in poor countries that face frequent droughts. Recent evidence on index-based weather insurance points to low take-up rates largely due to basis risk (i.e. residual risk left uninsured by the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Researchers and policymakers increasingly recognize that the livestock sector supports the livelihoods of a large proportion of rural households in Africa and may have an important role to play in rural poverty reduction strategies. In order to ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This study examines the magnitude of the macro and welfare effects generated by a realistic acceleration in the productivity growth of the Ethiopian livestock sector, as compared to historical trends and to alternative scenarios of productivity ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Cereal price variability in Ethiopia has worsened in recent years, and some of the earlier liberalizations are being reversed due to the unacceptable economic and political costs of increased price variability. The challenge now is to achieve ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper uses a two-stage conditional maximum likelihood procedure and new data from Ghana to identify the determinants of rural-urban migration at the individual, household and community levels, with a particular focus on rural services. The ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    En muchas partes del mundo, el aumento del crecimiento agrícola tendrá un papel clave contribuyendo a superar la actual crisis alimentaria mundial, aportando al crecimiento económico general, y ayudando a lograr el primer Objetivo de Desarrollo ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper proposes a simple methodology to estimate the agricultural spending that will be required to achieve the Millennium Development Goal of halving poverty by 2015 (MDG1) in 30 sub-Saharan African countries. This method uses growth-poverty ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    In many parts of the world, increased agricultural growth will play a key role in addressing the current world food crisis, in contributing to overall economic growth, and in helping to achieve the first Millennium Development Goal of halving the ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Public investments have contributed significantly to agricultural growth and rural poverty reduction in rural areas, and to urban poverty reduction through growth in the national economy and lower food prices. Without such investments, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper reviews the trends in government subsidies and investments in and for Indian agriculture; develops a conceptual framework and model to assess the impact of various subsidies and investments on agricultural growth and poverty reduction; ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agriculture has a central socioeconomic position in Ghana. This sector accounts for about 65 percent of the work force, about 40 percent of the gross domestic product, and about 40 percent of foreign currencies acquired through exports. Although ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The majority of farmers in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) lack the means to mitigate the impact of risks associated with rainfall and commodity prices due to financial constraints and the imperfect insurance markets in these countries. Because most SSA ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Despite its strong growth record, Botswana faces two prominent development challenges: the onslaught of HIV/AIDS and the slowdown in diamond mining. This study estimates the growth and distributional impact of the HIV/AIDS pandemic and considers ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Since 2007, the Government of Ghana (GoG) embarked on a bid to transform agriculture under its Medium Term Agricultural Investment Plan (METASIP) and Accelerated Agricultural Modernization Policy. This policy has been translated into the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    There have been intensive debates on the role of aid in promoting economic development in developing countries by using cross-country analyses. Cross-country regression assuming linear relationship between aid and growth and without taking into ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Rapidly increasing mobile phone coverage, cheaper technology, and an open platform that allows for the development of applications that extend the use of mobile devices provide new ways to reach farmers in isolated places. We investigate the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Strategies for boosting the agricultural economies of developing countries usually focus on small farms, attempting, for example, to link smallholders with markets through production chain development. However, such strategies often fail to ...
  • Staff Profile
    James Thurlow is a development economist whose research focuses on the interactions between policies, economic growth and poverty, primarily using computable general equilibrium and micro-simulation modeling. Past research focuses on evaluating ...
  • Staff Profile
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  • Staff Profile
  • Staff Profile
    Jean-Francois Maystadt is an Associate Research Fellow in the Development Strategy and Governance Division at the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), where he joined as a postdoctoral fellow in September 2010. More about Jean ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Staff Profile
    John Mazunda, a Malawian national, joined IFPRI’s Malawi Strategy Support Program (MaSSP) in February 2013. He is currently a Policy Analyst and coordinates work under an Irish Aid funded project “Supporting Agriculture Sector Wide Approach ...
  • Press Release
    14 January 2014, Rome Italy—On 16 January, Ambassadors and representatives from Arab countries, researchers, and development partners will gather in Rome, Italy to discuss how the Arab region can work to reduce the impact of crises like conflict, ...
  • Staff Profile
    Josée Randriamamonjy joined the Development Strategy and Governance Division of IFPRI in 2006. Her research topics cover the driving forces affecting the global food system, their links to agricultural production, and related policy options to ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Staff Profile
    Kamiljon Akramov is a Research Fellow at Development Strategy & Governance Division. He conducts research on governance and development policy issues using applied econometric analysis. His focus is on aid effectiveness, institutional change, ...
  • Staff Profile
    Karl Pauw, a South African national, joined IFPRI in June 2009. He is currently the country program leader of IFPRI's Malawi Strategy Support Program (MaSSP) based in Lilongwe. His work involves research and policy analysis, technical assistance, ...
  • Staff Profile
    Katrina is a Research Fellow in the Development Strategy and Governance Division at the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). She is an applied microeconomist working at the intersection of development economics, political ...
  • Staff Profile
    In 2009, Kevin Chen (陈志钢) joined IFPRI as China Program Leader and Senior Research Fellow, based in Beijing, China. He is also Director of the Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (ICARD), jointly established by the Chinese Academy of ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Ajaikaiye and Olusola (2003) observed that the knowledge system of any progressive society performs a pivotal function in its development. However, they note that “in spite of this recognition, the attention given to Nigeria’s knowledge system ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The Nigerian situation presents a paradox because the country is rich but the people are poor, with the poverty experienced by Nigerians being pervasive, multifaceted and chronic, affecting the lives of a large proportion of the populace. On the ...
  • Staff Profile
    Kristin Davis, a U.S. national, is seconded to the Global Forum for Rural Advisory Services based in Zurich, Switzerland. She joined IFPRI in November 2004 as a postdoctoral fellow. Prior to joining IFPRI, she worked in agricultural development ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Despite the economic transformation of Peru’s coastal economy, the country’s inland region remains poor and underdeveloped. We herein examine the economic linkages between the two regions using a multi-regional computable general equilibrium ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Highland Ethiopia is one of the most densely populated regions of Africa and has long been associated with both Malthusian disasters and Boserupian agricultural intensification. This paper explores the race between these two countervailing ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Highland Ethiopia is one of the most densely populated regions of Africa and has long been associated with both Malthusian disasters and Boserupian agricultural intensification. This paper explores the race between these two countervailing ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The impact of land tenure systems in sub‐Saharan Africa on agricultural investment and productivity continues to be the subject of intense scrutiny. Recent food security crises in Africa have revived the debate over whether current land tenure ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Uganda’s significant economic growth over the last twenty years seemed to create favorable conditions for increased agricultural productivity, but agricultural productivity has failed to increase concordantly. As a result, most increases in ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    One of the key activities of the Agricultural Policy Support Facility (APSF) is to improve communication linkages and consultations between policymakers, policy analysts, and policy beneficiaries on agricultural and rural development policy ...
  • News
    IFPRI’s new strategy features Strengthening Institutions and Governance as one of six key research areas and emphasizes the cross-divisional nature of this important topic. In order to enhance awareness of ongoing work in this area, a ...
  • News
    Public resources are limited and determining how to best allocate finite funds to achieve the greatest impact on poverty reduction and economic development requires credible public expenditure data. However, due to a lack of systematic collection ...
  • Books and Monographs
    “This research report on India addresses an important policy issue faced by policy-makers in many developing countries: how to allocate public funds more efficiently in order to achieve both growth and poverty-reduction goals in rural ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agricultural trade policies, in particular import tariffs to protect domestic production, constitute a highly contested field of agricultural policy. In view of the recent focus on “evidence-based policy making” in the international development ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Access to guaranteed markets for produce and for the acquisition of inputs is a major problem confronting smallholders… The questions addressed by this research are: (a) how can agricultural contracts be enforced in the face of Ghana’s weak ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    While there exists ample studies that evaluate the impacts of land reform on household investment behavior, land productivity, and land rental market activities, the literature is thin in terms of showing the direct food securities impacts of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    While numerous studies exist that evaluate the impacts of land reform on household investment behavior, land productivity, and land rental market activities, the literature is thin in terms of showing the direct food securities impacts of land ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Livestock are an important element of the livelihoods of many Ugandan households, and considerable efforts at economic development by the government of Uganda have focused on the livestock sector. However, these development efforts have suffered ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The livestock is an important sub-sector within Ethiopia’s economy in terms of its contributions to both agricultural value-added and national GDP. Between 1995/96 and 2005/06, the livestock sub-sector’s share averaged 24 percent of agricultural ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In developing countries, identifying the most effective community-level governance structure is a key issue and, increasingly, empirical evaluation of the effects of democratization on the provision of local public goods is needed. Since the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper takes a local perspective on global food price shocks by analyzing food price transmission between regional markets in Ghana. It also assesses the impacts of differential local food price increases on various household groups. Taking ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Recent increases in cereals prices raise questions about agricultural priorities in Ghana. This report presents an application of the Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM) to the problem of identifying opportunities to enhance agriculture’s ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper examines how political institutions and local power structures interact with and influence local public resource allocation in the Indian state of Karnataka. We use data from 80 village councils and 225 villages to examine how this ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Weather shocks and natural disasters, it has been argued, represent a major threat to national and international security. Our paper contributes to the emerging micro-level strand of the literature on the link between local variations in weather ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Using agricultural household survey data and claim records from insurers for the year 2009, this paper analyzes hog producers’ choice of means of loss prevention and identifies the relationships among biosecurity practices, vaccination, and hog ...
  • Staff Profile
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  • Project Papers and Notes
    Food security in Malawi is generally equated with adequate maize production, the country’s main staple crop, which accounts for more than 60 percent of total food production. However, reliable estimates of maize consumption are also useful ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This study tests the long-run and short-run integration of maize markets in Malawi using the co-integration approach within the Vector Autoregressive modeling framework. The analysis is extended to Wald-F Granger Causality tests to see the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Extreme poverty and chronic malnutrition are widespread in rural Tanzania, where smallholder agriculture dominates the economy. Given the sector’s role as the main source of food and livelihood for many malnourished people, agriculture has ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Over the last several years, the Ethiopian government has committed substantial resources for the expansion of public services and infrastructure in rural areas. To what extent do these investments and services reach different social and economic ...
  • General Information
    Program Brochure Malawi ranks among the world’s most densely populated and least developed countries. Although gross domestic product (GDP) growth has increased in recent years, poverty and hunger are still widespread, with more than half of ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Malawi’s Farm Input Subsidy Program (FISP) has dominated the agriculture and food security policy landscape in the country since its inception in 2005/06. FISP is now credited—or blamed, depending on one’s viewpoint—for a revival of agricultural ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Despite the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement, which brought to an end 20 years of civil war in the Sudan, this country continues to experience smaller-scale conflicts, particularly around access to and control of natural resources. Some ...
  • Discussion Papers
    With the recent discovery of crude oil reserves along the Albertine Rift, Uganda is set to establish itself as an oil producer in the coming decade. Total oil reserves are believed to be two billion barrels, with recoverable reserves estimated at ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Contemporary policy debates on the macroeconomics of resource booms often concentrate on the short-run Dutch disease effects of public expenditure, ignoring the possible long-term effects of alternative revenue-allocation options and the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    With an average growth rate of 5 percent and a reduction of poverty by one-half over the past two decades, Ghana is a recent success story and a rising star in African development. Yet the country remains dependent on relatively few external ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper has been produced to support the Government of Yemen and the international community in designing a transition plan for the country. The political crisis and conflict situation in Yemen has led to a sharp decline in economic output ...
  • Discussion Papers
    A major rationale for conducting policy research is the contribution the results can make to policy improvement efforts. Over the years, funders of international policy research have placed increasing emphasis on making sure that the research ...
  • Discussion Papers
    How research contributes to the policy process in developing countries in general, and in Nigeria more specifically, is not well understood. Yet such understanding is a critical part of doing effective policy research. This has become especially ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    How research can feed into the policy process in developing countries in general, and in Nigeria more specifically, is not very well understood. Yet, this understanding is a critical part of doing effective policy research. This has become ...
  • 2020 Focus
    A key consideration in planning action to assist poor and hungry households is simply to have a good understanding of where they live and the characteristics of those locations. For the past 10 years, poverty researchers at the World Bank, ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Staff Profile
    Margaret McMillan is an associate professor of economics at Tufts University. She has published widely in the areas of international trade and investment focusing primarily on developing countries. Understanding the distributional consequences of ...
  • Staff Profile
    Mariam Mapila is a Malawian national. She currently works as a Associate Research Fellow in the Malawi Strategy Support Program (MaSSP). Her current areas of research include analyzing the socio-economic impacts of the Farm Input Subsidy Program ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The majority of African farmers lack the means to mitigate the impact of risks such as those associated with rainfall and commodity prices. Because most farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa are risk-averse, they may be willing to invest in productive ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    A well-integrated market system is central to a well-functioning market economy (Dercon, 1995). As production decisions are based on observed prices, the most efficient allocation of resources would come about when prices represent scarcity ...
  • Books and Monographs
    This report focuses on demand-side constraints on agricultural growth and their implications for three broad alternative agricultural development strategies: promoting traditional exports, developing nontraditional exports, and increasing food ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Rapid growth in the agricultural sector is central to any strategy for slashing poverty and hunger on the African continent. Yet investments aimed at increasing agricultural productivity need to be linked to market opportunities if they ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Discussion Papers
    Parallel to the growing attention being devoted to the relationship between empowerment and development, an increasing number of tools are being developed to measure empowerment and determine the link between these two phenomena. This paper ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Individuals’ aspirations and their consequences for future-oriented behavior have received increased attention in devel-opment economics literature in recent years. At this stage, however, each study relies on ad hoc empirical instruments to ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Individuals’ aspirations and their consequences for future-oriented behavior have received increased attention in development economics literature in recent years. At this stage, however, each study relies on ad hoc empirical instruments to ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper examines a subjective measure of child labor as an alternative to hours data for eliciting the distribution of children’s time between work, school, and leisure. The subjective child labor questions that were developed have two primary ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Addressing emerging global poverty, hunger, and malnutrition challenges requires prudent evidence-based policymaking at the country level. Capacity for generating evidence remains a major constraint in the policy process in developing countries. ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Small-scale private irrigation schemes (SPRI) have been the driving force behind the expansion of irrigated areas in Nigeria, despite government efforts to promote large-scale public irrigation schemes. SPRI allows adjustment of irrigation ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Little has been written in recent literature regarding the role of mechanization in agricultural transformation in Africa. Government-led mechanization schemes in the 1970s and 1980s proved unsustainable after structural adjustment policies ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Mechanization has received less attention in academic literature, international policy dialogue and program formulation than other modern inputs to agricultural transformation (Pingali 2007). Demand for mechanized services by smallholder farmers, ...
  • Staff Profile
    Mehrab Malek joined the Development Strategy and Governance Division as a Senior Research Assistant in August 2010. He received his Master of Public Policy in June 2010 from the Harris School of Public Policy Studies at the University of Chicago. ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Capacity strengthening programs often do not achieve their intended objectives due to poor targeting of the participants and mismatch between the capacity needs and the capacity development activities. It is increasingly recognized that assessing ...
  • Staff Profile
    Michael Johnson, a research fellow in the Development Strategy and Governance Division, joined IFPRI in 2002 after serving two years at the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) as an American Association for the Advancement of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper studies the effect of local off-farm employment and migration on rural households’ technical efficiency of crop production using a five-year panel dataset from more than 2,000 households in five Chinese provinces. While there is not ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Civil wars inflict considerable costs on countries which may be trapped in vicious cycles of violence. To avoid these adverse events, scholars have attempted to identify the roots of civil wars. Valuable minerals have been listed among the main ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) is a critical aspect of agricultural input subsidy policy and programs. The M&E of subsidies should not only focus on implementation issues such as targeting effectiveness, but also on the key development ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study explores the differences between mountain and non-mountain countries in food security and its determinants. Econometric analysis shows that mountain regions are likely to have lower food security. The findings suggest that people in ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The fertilizer subsidy, reintroduced in Ghana in 2008, seems to have led to increased fertilizer use and use intensity among farmers, but there is limited empirical evidence as to whether this increased fertilizer use has reached the optimal ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Do the countries which grow share the same features as those which decline? How can some countries achieve such long-term sustainable growth while others fail so badly? This paper builds on the emerging literature on growth asymmetries by ...
  • Staff Profile
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    More about Nassul Kabunga in IFPRI eBrary
  • Discussion Papers
    The study attempts to measure the total benefits from rice varietal improvement research in China and India using variety adoption and performance data over the last two decades. It then uses genetic or pedigree information to partition the total ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The closely interlinked food, fuel and financial crises pose a significant new challenge to the global effort to reduce poverty. In short run, the oil-biofuels nexus was clearly the driving force behind the surge in food prices, but export ...
  • Staff Profile
    Nazaire Houssou is an agricultural economist and postdoctoral fellow in the Development Strategy and Governance Division (DSGD), which he joined in 2012. Nazaire received his PhD in Agricultural Economics from the University of Hohenheim, Germany ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Fiscal mimicking and yardstick competition among neighboring jurisdictions have been widely documented in developed countries with long histories of democracy. However, there is very little empirical evidence concerning these practices in ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This empirical study uses data from 1970 to 2010 to estimate levels of neopatrimonialism in Malawi. We then test how neopatrimonialism has affected policy-induced agriculture producer incentives. Three dimensions are used to measure ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This paper describes the dramatic cassava transformation that has taken place in Nigeria and Ghana over the past 50 years. From a rural subsistence crop, cassava has become a major cash crop sold in urban markets, a source of livestock ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agriculture is a precarious business in which farmers face a host of market and production risks that make their incomes volatile from year to year. These risks include yield losses due to bad weather, pests and diseases, postharvest losses ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Ghana is widely regarded as an African success story due to its impressive achievements in accelerating growth and reducing poverty and hunger in line with the Millennium Development Goals. Strong agricultural output growth (4.5 percent annually ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Most of Nigeria’s poor reside in rural areas and gain their livelihood from agricultural work. If the government’s poverty reduction goals are to be achieved, Nigeria will need an adequate level of strategically targeted investments ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Nigerian farmers have been slow in adopting improved seeds due to constraints in both supply and demand. Demand-side constraints pertain to farmers’ characteristics, while supply-side constraints are related to capacity. Farmers’ seed demand is ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Discussion Papers
    Recent research on the intertemporal dynamics of poverty using microeconomic data often hints at the existence of poverty traps, where some find themselves trapped at a low-level stable equilibrium while others enjoy a higher stable equilibrium. ...
  • Staff Profile
    Noora-Lisa Aberman is the Country Program Coordinator for IFPRI's Malawi Strategy Support Program (MaSSP). She largely focuses on enhancing the role that research plays in the policy dialogue through improving communications tools, developing ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Malnutrition remains one of the major obstacles to human well-being and economic prosperity in developing countries.1 There are strong normative and instrumental reasons related to human and economic development to address the burden of ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Discussion Papers
    Despite their disappointing performance in the recent past, fertilizer subsidies have re-emerged as a tool in the agricultural strategies of many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. The new paradigm for fertilizer subsidies calls for use of such ...
  • Staff Profile
    Olivier Ecker is a Research Fellow in the Development Strategy and Governance Division at the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). Olivier is an economist specializing in development strategy and policies for poverty reduction ...
  • Staff Profile
    Oluyemisi Kuku joined IFPRI in February 2012 as a postdoctoral fellow in the IFPRI Nigeria office. Her research is focused on food insecurity, nutrition and health, as well as issues pertaining to social capital and technology adoption. Her most ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Onset risk, the uncertainty in the onset of rainy season, is an important element of weather risk for African farmers with little access to formal insurance who engage in traditional rainfed farming. A knowledge gap still exists empirically on ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In July 2008, the government of Ghana instituted a country-wide subsidy on 50Kg bags of four types of fertilizer in an effort to mitigate the effect of rising energy and food prices. Farmers received the subsidy in the form of fertilizer- and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The purpose of the research summarized in this paper is to provide policy-relevant knowledge on the governance of rural services in Guatemala and thus to contribute to improving the provision of services that are essential for agricultural and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This study analyzes growth options in agricultural sub-sectors to accelerate overall economic growth and reduce poverty in Nigeria in the next nine years (2009-17) using an economy-wide, dynamic computable general equilibrium (DCGE) model. The ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Since 2003, economic growth in Nigeria has been strong. Annual GDP grew by 9.1 percent per annum between 2003 and 2005 and by 6 .1 percent per annum between 2006 and 2008. Much of this growth can be attributed to the non-oil economy which has ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This report provides some reflections and insights on the level of awareness, practices, and organizational and institutional issues being faced by countries as they adapt to climate change, based on interviews with 87 practitioners working in ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Recently discourse has grown about the importance of partnerships for adding value to agriculture research, strengthening policy capacities, and enhancing food policy impact on global food security and poverty reduction. However, the literature ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Although the role of industrial policy in economic development is a frequent topic of debate in both the literature and the political arena, most such discussions focus on industrial policymaking at the national level. Using a case study of a ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The National Food Security Strategy addresses food security at the national level (macrolevel food security) and at the household and individual levels (microlevel food security), emphasizing that improving food security is a cross-sector ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Knowledge of the characteristics and size of the agricultural input sector of a country is critical for policymakers to design appropriate interventions that not only foster growth in the sector, but also support the agricultural development ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The Pakistan Strategy Support Program (PSSP) conducted this Rural Household Panel Survey (RHPS) during March-April 2012 in three provinces of Pakistan (Punjab, Sindh, and KPK). The survey aims to provide the quantitative basis to identify and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This report presents the results of household data collected during the Rural Household Panel Survey (2012). The household survey collected information on a large number of topics, such as education, nature of employment, sources of income, time ...
  • General Information
    Responding to a request from the Government of Pakistan, the Pakistan Strategy Support Program (PSSP), launched in July 2011, is a flexible country-led and country-wide policy analysis and capacity strengthening program. The program provides ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The paper extends the methodology of parametric decomposition of the Malmquist productivity index using an output distance function. This approach addresses common methodological issues in total factor productivity estimation to produce credible ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study develops an analytical framework to account for sources of rapid economic growth in China. The traditional Solow approach includes only two sources, i.e. increased use of inputs and technical change. We expanded the approach to include ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Despite the fact that nonincome dimensions of well-being such as nutrition and health are now placed on the global development agenda, substantial gaps remain in our knowledge about patterns and trends in nutrition inequalities in many developing ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The average maize yield in Ghana is estimated to be 1.7 metric tons/hectare (MOFA 2009–2011), whereas achievable yields based on on-farm trials are between 4 and 6 tons/hectare. Low adoption of inputs and improved technologies is often cited as ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The average rice yield in Ghana is estimated to be 2.5 tons/hectare (MOFA 2009–2011), while the achievable yield based on on-farm trials is 6–8 tons/hectare. Low adoption of inputs and improved technologies is often cited as the major reason for ...
  • Staff Profile
    Paul A. Dorosh is the Division Director of the Development Strategy and Governance Division. He was the Deputy Division Director of IFPRI’s Development Strategy and Governance Division from June 2010 to April 2011. From August 2008 through June ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Le potentiel agricole de la République démocratique du Congo (RDC) est immense. Un calcul rapide indique si les rendements des 80 millions d’hectares de terres cultivables de la RDC venaient à s’aligner sur ceux des frontières de production ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Given its vast land resources and favorable water supply, the Democratic Republic of Congo’s (DRC’s) natural agricultural potential is immense. However, the economic potential of the sector is handicapped by one of the most dilapidated transport ...
  • Discussion Papers
    It has been widely documented that the poor spend a significant proportion of their income on gifts even at the expense of basic consumption. We test three competing explanations of this phenomenon—peer effect, status concern, and risk ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In recent years, there has been renewed interest among both public and private organizations to establish farmerbased organizations (FBOs) in Ghana (Salifu et al. 2010). This interest is based on the premise that FBOs give farmers ...
  • Staff Profile
    Perrihan Al-Riffai joined IFPRI in September of 2009. She is a Senior Research Analyst in the Development Strategy and Governance. She received an MPhil in Economics from George Washington University and an M.A. in Economics from the American ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Petroleum subsidy reform is increasingly seen as an opportunity for consolidating public finances and fostering sustainable economic development. Yemen, as the country with the lowest per capita income in the group of countries with a high level ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The 2007–08 global fuel crisis was a stark reminder of the fact that petroleum subsidies strain public finances, distort markets, and provide only a blunt tool for improving food security and fighting poverty. As a consequence, several ...
  • News
    The following story was originally published on the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) website. ICARDA is a member of the Consortium of International Agricultural Research Centers, supported by the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Cereal production and marketing is the single largest sub-sector within Ethiopia’s agriculture. It dominates in terms of its share in rural employment, agricultural land use, and calorie intake, as well as its contribution to national income. The ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Despite more than a decade of policies placing high priority on cereal intensification, backed by one of the highest rates of public expenditures on agricultural in Africa, Ethiopia has yet to see payoffs in terms of higher and more stable cereal ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Although the Nigerian economy depends significantly on the oil sector, agriculture remains its mainstay. Agriculture contributed 42 percent of Nigeria’s gross domestic product (GDP) in 2008 (National Bureau of Statistics). Agriculture is the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study evaluates the potential impact of the recent rise in world food prices on the Moroccan economy and possible policy options to respond to it. The study focuses mainly on the poverty effects of such an external shock and the possible ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The Nigerian government has embarked on an ambitious plan to make the country self-sufficient in rice production by 2015 under its current Agricultural Transformation Agenda (ATA). The plan is in response to the perceived threat to the Nigerian ...
  • Discussion Papers
    A primary motivation for this study is to identify a key set of policy options for improving fertilizer markets in West Africa (among Economic Community of West African States member countries) in ways that ultimately will help improve the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Nigeria is the world’s largest cassava producer and Africa’s largest rice importer. The government and private sector should figure out ways to enhance cassava’s competitiveness in the international market and improve the efficiency of domestic ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper is an attempt to provide initial discussion points that may be useful in considering the types of policies that can support the development of Ghana’s commercial seed sector.
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The donor response to CAADP has developed and grown over the past decade CAADP’s clear continent‐wide ambitions and the ability of CAADP to draw in solid African government financial and political commitments at head‐of‐state level are attractive ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Public investments in agriculture in Africa can have profound effects on productivity in the sector. It is therefore important to understand how budgetary allocation decisions are made. For example, what are the reasons for persistent ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Malawi has struggled to achieve sustained agricultural growth over the last four decades. As such there is need for in-creased investment and supportive policies if greater success is to be realized. As a prerequisite to identifying the role that ...
  • Booklets
    The Population and Housing Census Atlas of Ethiopia 2007 comprises maps presenting a wide-ranging collection of data for different administrative levels. The maps provide information on biophysical environment, demographic characteristics, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Focusing on a remote area in rural China, we use a panel census of households in 26 villages to show that socially observable spending has risen sharply in recent years. We demonstrate that such spending by households is highly sensitive to ...
  • News
    Decades of conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) have led to an estimated death toll of 5.4 million and rising, decimated rural infrastructure and institutions, and a chronically underperforming agricultural sector. In 2011, the DRC ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Rising demand both for organic tropical products and for year-round supply of some organic temperate products has encouraged organic activists and some donors to promote certified organic export production in a number of tropical African ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Poverty and malnutrition in Nigeria are widespread and severe, and therefore continue to be at the center stage of the development discourse. Sixty-four percent of all rural Nigerians have a consumption level below the basic-needs poverty line, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    As in many developing countries, poverty reduction is a primary development goal in Malawi. The country is committed to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which seek, among other things, to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger. Over the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The role of migration in reducing poverty in developing countries has been investigated mainly from the perspective of migrants and their relatives. This paper exploits the time and spatial variations in the way households in the region of Kagera ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Despite the promise of many new farm technologies, technology adoption rates in Ethiopia remain low. This paper studies the impact of social networks on technology adoption through social learning. In addition to geographic networks, intentional ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The development of effective and sustainable economic policies for Tanzania requires access to appropriate databases. One such database is a social accounting matrix (SAM) that details the structure of the entire economy, taking into account the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper uses a computable general equilibrium approach to simulate two opposing views describing regional trade agreements either as building blocks for or stumbling blocks to multilateral trade liberalization. This study focuses on the free ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Migration can serve as an outlet for employment, higher earnings, and reduced income risk for households in developing countries. We use the 2004-2005 Human Development Profile of India survey to examine correlations between the receipt of ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The Ghanaian cocoa sector is considered a successful case of agricultural development in Africa. Sector reforms in the 1990s resulted in increased production that reached 1 million tons, making Ghana the second largest cocoa producer in the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper investigates price transmission for agricultural commodities between world markets and the Ugandan market in an attempt to determine the impact of world market prices on the Ugandan market. Based on the realization that price formation ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    We study food retail in Addis Ababa based on a large survey of food retail outlets selling cereals, fruits and vegetables, and pro-cessed foods. The study shows high variation in quality and prices in the city and an increasing differentiation in ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Public investment in agriculture and rural infrastructure is an important driver of agricultural growth and has a significant bearing on poverty outcomes. Determining the right levels and types of investments requires that policymakers have ...
  • Discussion Papers
    We identify a set of development priorities for agriculture that cut across West Africa, at both the country and the regional level, to achieve economy-wide growth goals in the region. To do this, we adopt a modeling and analytical framework that ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) is assisting the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources (FMAWR) in facilitating the process of updating Nigeria’s agricultural strategy with inputs from academia, the private ...
  • News
    Every year, 1 in 10 child deaths—approximately 800,000—are the direct result of diarrhea. Of these deaths, 88 percent are preventable by guaranteeing access to safe drinking water and sanitation supplies. The situation is particularly dire in ...
  • General Information
    As policymakers decide how to allocate public spending to achieve higher growth and poverty reduction, they need a clear understanding of how public investments translate into development outcomes. In many cases policymakers also need better ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Recent trends in Ugandan agriculture indicate output is increasing for most crops but at a declining rate. The pervasive decline in output per unit of input (factor productivity) threatens the economic well-being and food security of producers ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In recent years, Brazil has become a considerable player in agricultural markets for a number of commodities. Such agricultural growth in Brazil has largely been the result of gains in productivity over the last several decades. Still, there ...
  • General Information
    Para decidir cómo asignar el gasto público de manera de lograr un mayor crecimiento económico y la reducción de la pobreza, los responsables de formular las políticas deben comprender cabalmente cómo la inversión pública se traduce en ...
  • General Information
    Lorsque les décideurs arrêtent une répartition des dépenses publiques permettant d’augmenter la croissance économique et de réduire la pauvreté, ils ont besoin de bien comprendre comment les investissements publics se traduisent en termes ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In view of the market failures and the state failures inherent in providing agricultural extension, community-based approaches, which involve farmers‘ groups, have gained increasing importance in recent years as a third way to provide this ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Zambia is one of the poorest countries in Africa. Despite substantial reform during the 1990s, the economy has remained heavily dependent on urban-based mining. Copper’s long-standing dominance led to a strong bias against ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agriculture has been the backbone of a Ghanaian economy that has recorded positive per capita GDP growth over the last 20 years. The agriculture sector has grown rapidly at an average annual rate of 5.5 percent in recent years, benefiting from ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Using district-level data for 1992, 1995, and 1999, the study estimated effects of different types of government expenditure on agricultural growth and rural poverty in Uganda. The results reveal that government spending on agricultural ...
  • Books and Monographs
    Whereas there is plenty of work looking at macroeconomic effect of public spending on growth and poverty in Africa as well as studies of the impact of spending or investment in one economic sector on outcomes in that sector or on broader welfare ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper undertakes a two-pronged investigation of agricultural public investments in Mozambique. Firstly, it estimates the public resources required in the agricultural sector—both in magnitude and in type or composition—in order for the ...
  • Books and Monographs
    Public Expenditures, Growth, and Poverty assesses the efficacy of poverty reduction programs in Latin America, Africa, and Asia by synthesizing studies conducted by the International Food Policy Research Institute over the past ten years. ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    During the past several decades, developing countries have had mixed results in reducing poverty. While East Asia (particularly China) has achieved astonishing progress in eradicating severe poverty through strong agricultural and overall ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Using Tanzania as a test case, this study demonstrates how household survey data can be used to assess the impacts of public investments on growth and poverty. A two step procedure is used. First, household survey data are used to link ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper develops a method for decomposing the contributions of various types of public investment on regional inequality and applies the method to rural China. Public investments are found to have contributed to production growth in both the ...
  • General Information
    As policymakers decide how to allocate public spending to achieve higher growth and poverty reduction, they need accurate information to provide a clear understanding of how public investments translate into development outcomes. To help meet ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This paper studies the relevance of agricultural policies for avoiding Dutch Disease, which affects many less developed countries experiencing a resource boom. Using a computable general equilibrium model calibrated for Chad, we study the ...
  • Books and Monographs
    Poverty in the Arab region garners little international attention because poverty rates there are far lower than in other regions like South Asia or Sub-Saharan Africa. However, high aggregate wealth hides significant pockets of hardship. The ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study is part of a collaborative project between the International Food Policy Research Institute and the Arab Planning Institute in Kuwait on public policy and poverty reduction in the Arab region. The purpose of this paper is to assess ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Public spending may influence poverty alleviation objectives at several levels including overall spending plans of government (aggregate fiscal policy), policy decisions funded in the budget and the flow of budgeted resources to Ministries, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The objective of this paper is to review trends in government expenditures in the developing world, to analyze the causes of change, and to develop an analytical framework for determining the differential impacts of various government ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Ghana’s Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy (GPRS II; November, 2005) which spans the period 2006 – 2009 intends to shift the strategic focus of the country’s development agenda from the direct anti-poverty objectives of the GPRS I to a more ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Water resources are rapidly dwindling in Yemen, and Sana’a might be the first capital city in the world to go dry. Groundwater levels in many regions are falling rapidly and many households lack sufficient water for drinking, washing, and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In spite of Nigeria’s abundant natural and human resource endowment, poverty remains pervasive, multifaceted, and chronic. Given the most recent data available, it is estimated that approximately 69 million (or 54.4 percent) Nigerians lived in ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Poverty in Nigeria is pervasive although the country is rich in human and material resources that should translate into better living standards. According to the most recent survey (2004 National Living Standards Survey) presented by the National ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper estimates required investment and its allocation among different regions to maximize agricultural output gains and poverty reduction. The analysis uses a social welfare function to simulate the optimal allocation of research and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Fiscal federalism has been argued to intensify regional competition and promote economic growth. This paper is the first, to our knowledge, to empirically assess the patterns and extent of strategic tax competition between geographically ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The Government of Ghana has identified accelerated growth in agriculture as the source of its overall Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy (GPRS II) and reaching middle-income status by 2015. Using data from the recent Ghana Living Standards ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Using district-level data on public expenditures from 2000 to 2006, and household-level production data from the 2005/06 Ghana Living Standards Survey, this paper estimates the returns to different types of public investments across four ...
  • News
    Although the level of food insecurity in Yemen is alarming, it is also declining. In 2011, Yemen was among the bottom 10 countries of the world in terms of food security, but by the end of 2012, food security levels had almost reached pre-crisis ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Most conflicts in the developing world take place in rural areas, displacing large numbers of civilians and disrupting their agricultural livelihoods. Rebuilding agriculture is an important strategy for post-conflict reconstruction. Agriculture ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The 1990’s dealt a blow to traditional Heckscher-Ohlin analysis of the relationship between trade and income inequality, as it became clear that rising inequality in low- income countries and other features of the data were inconsistent ...
  • 2020 Focus
    After 30 years of dynamic growth and substantial poverty reduction in Asia, do agriculture and rural development still have a role to play in that region? The policy briefs in this collection provide abundant evidence that they do. Although the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The country strategy support programs are burdened by having to demonstrate that they have influenced the policies and strategies of the countries they serve. The task is particularly onerous as it calls for influencing a particular client. This ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In order to realize agricultural potential and to increase agricultural yields, India’s extension system has experienced major conceptual, structural, and institutional changes since the late 1990s. This paper reviews existing reform ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Strategies to reform rural service provision in India have focused on improving people‘s capacity to demand better services from government agencies. However, efforts to reform the public-sector agencies that provide essential rural services have ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Many developing countries are currently in the process of designing regulatory systems that should allow them to use genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for agricultural development, while also managing the food safety and environmental risks ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper sets out to identify avenues for pro-poor growth in Ghana, focussing on agricultural opportunities, particularly in northern Ghana. Using an economywide, multimarket model and based on time series production data between 1991 and 2000 ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The development pattern in Ghana is characterised by a north-south divide in which the north lags far behind the south. This paper sets out to identify avenues for pro-poor growth in Ghana, focussing on agricultural opportunities, particularly in ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The recent floods in Pakistan have had a devastating effect on the Pakistani population. The Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA 2010) estimates that, as of early September 2010, more than 20 million people had been ...
  • General Information
    Established in 2006, the Regional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System (ReSAKSS) provides policy-relevant analysis, data, and tools necessary to support the formulation and implementation of evidence-based agricultural sector policies ...
  • General Information
    Créé en 2006, le Système régional d’analyse stratégique et de gestion de connaissances (Regional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System, ReSAKSS) fournit des analyses, des données et des outils adaptés aux politiques étudiées, et ...
  • News
    ReSAKSS-Africa (Regional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System) website is now ready with enhanced features to track progress in implementing the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP), including the target of ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The Agricultural Sector-Wide Approach (ASWAp) aims to support priority activities in the agricultural sector in Malawi that would increase agricultural productivity, reduce hunger, enable people access to nutritious foods, and increase the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The International Food Policy Research Institute has been undertaking policy research and capacity strengthening activities in Uganda since about 1998. A broad range of research reports, discussion papers, project reports, and other documents ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The average smallholder farmer in Malawi is tasked to feed a family of five on a farm of less than one hectare in size (NSO, 2008). The intensification of land through, for example, fertilizer use plays a prominent role in Malawi’s policy to ...
  • News
    Could building Somalia’s resilience to weather shocks help bring an end to its civil war? That’s precisely what researchers Jean-Francois Maystadt, Olivier Ecker, and Athur Mabiso discuss in their paper “Extreme Weather and Civil War in ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Over the past several decades, China has made tremendous progress in market integration and infrastructure development. Demand for natural resources has increased from the booming coastal economies, causing the terms of trade to favor the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Endowed with 80 million hectares of arable land (of which only 10 percent are used), diverse climatic conditions, and abundant water resources, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has the potential to become the breadbasket of the entire ...
  • Discussion Papers
    It has been argued in the literature that China is underurbanized in large part because of restrictions on migration. While the presence of migration barriers can help explain why existing cities fail to achieve their optimal size, it cannot ...
  • Discussion Papers
    From 2003 to their peak in mid 2008, the nominal prices of maize and wheat roughly doubled, while those of rice tripled in a matter of months rather than years. Although fundamental factors were clearly responsible for shifting the world to a ...
  • Discussion Papers
    While there are ample empirical studies that claim the potential disincentive effects of sharecropping arrangements, the existing literature is shallow in explaining why share tenancy contracts are prevalent and diffusing in many developing ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The marketing of farm inputs and outputs has become a major problem for farmers in Pakistan. Farm input supplies are irregular, characterized by shortages and high prices at critical times. This report reviews the input and output policies for ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Despite the rapid pace of urbanization taking place in Nigeria, half of Nigerians (approximately 70 million individuals) still live in rural areas; most of them engaged in smallholder semi-subsistence agriculture. Agriculture remains a crucial ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Use of agricultural input and farm support subsidies in Africa has returned strongly to the development agenda, particularly following the recent high food and input prices crisis. Many of the donors who opposed them in the past and subsequently ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Due to their highly democratic and locally autonomous nature, cooperatives have a potentially strong role in reducing poverty and social exclusion, and promoting rural and national development (Develtere et al. 2008; Birchall 2004, 2003). ...
  • Staff Profile
    More about Ricardo Hernandez in IFPRI eBrary
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper analyzes how Cambodian farmers and the Cambodian government can respond to increasing rice prices. The study estimates rice production responses in Cambodia using the Cambodian Socio-Economic Surveys (CSES) conducted in 2004 and 2007. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Using data from multiple sources, we show that in Bangladesh, the increase in real wages, particularly female wages, has accelerated since the late 2000s, suggesting that the Lewis turning point (the point at which the labor market starts to ...
  • Since 1985, the Chinese government has given high priority to building roads, particularly high-quality roads that connect industrial centers. This report evaluates the contribution roads have made to poverty reduction and economic growth in ...
  • Books and Monographs
    Since 1985, the Chinese government has given high priority to building roads, particularly high-quality roads that connect industrial centers. This report evaluates the contribution roads have made to poverty reduction and economic growth in ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Since 1985, the Chinese government has given high priority to building roads, particularly high-quality roads that connect industrial centers. This report evaluates the contribution roads have made to poverty reduction and economic growth in ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Recent attempts to quantify the sources of growth in Chinese agriculture have attributed an exceptionally large share of this growth to the contemporary institutional and market reforms within China. To analyze this important issue we use a newly ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Like many developing countries, China and India followed development strategies biased in favor of the urban sector over the last several decades. These development schemes have led to overall efficiency losses due to misallocation of resources ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This paper explores the dynamic relationship between the rural and urban sectors and the consequent impact on poverty in China and India, both of which followed aggressive urban industrialization paths in the mid-twentieth century. The bulk of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper uses historical census data from Burkina Faso to characterize local demographic pressures associated with internal migration into river valleys after onchocerciasis eradication, combined with a new survey of village elders to document ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Kenya’s economy is relatively diverse, with both agricultural and industrial potential. However, the economy has performed poorly over the last decade, and poverty and inequality have risen. This paper examines the impact of alternative ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The dynamic rural nonfarm sector in China has been a major contributor to the country’s remarkable growth, while in India the growth in output and employment in this sector has been rather stagnant. The paper argues that the observed ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper investigates the contribution of rural non-farm income to income inequality by examining the contribution of specific income sources (farm income from irrigated agriculture, farm income from rainfed agriculture and non-farm income) to ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Uganda over the last twenty years has maintained high economic growth rates, increasing urbanization and shifting pat-terns in sectoral contribution to overall development. An increasing proportion of the wealth generated by Uganda’s economy is ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Discussion Papers
    In much of rural Africa, high transaction costs limit farmers’ market participation and thus their potential for income growth. Transaction costs can affect not only whether a farmer sells product but also whether sales occur at the farm gate on ...
  • Staff Profile
    Sam is a graduate of University of Ghana, Legon (BS, 1988), University of Massachusetts, Amherst (MS, 1993) and University of California, Davis (PhD, 1998), with specialty in econometrics, natural resource economics and development economics. Sam ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The policy of mandated representation (reservation) for disadvantaged social groups in Indian village councils or Gram Panchayats has been the subject of numerous studies. The implicit, and often unstated, assumption that underlies most of these ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Adoption of yield-increasing technologies is seen as a key driver to increase agricultural production in Sub-Saharan Africa. There is, however, a lack of empirical evidence on the impact of programs aiming to scale-up the adoption of improved ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Since the early 1990s, Uganda has been one of Africa’s fastest growing countries. However, at the sub-national level, growth has been uneven due to civil conflict in the northern region. Using a panel of household and community level ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Decisionmakers in Ethiopia have pursued a range of policies and investments to boost agricultural production and productivity. An important tool has been to increase the availability of improved seed, chemical fertilizers, and extension services ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Over the past four decades, decision-makers in Ethiopia have pursued a range of policies and investments to boost agricultural production and productivity, particularly with respect to the food staple crops that are critical to reducing poverty ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    We preliminarily find that providing sustainable land management (SLM) training to standard contact farmers and having them maintain demonstration plots within the community on a whole had low impact on the knowledge and adoption of SLM ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper discusses the application of the equilibrium displacement model (EDM) to estimate ex-ante the welfare effects of biological productivity growth for semi-subsistence crop and its impact on poverty reduction. The conventionally used EDM ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Agriculture and rural development must play a central role in stimulating economic growth, reducing poverty, and improving food and nutrition security in Africa. The food price crisis of 2007-08 highlighted the dramatic implications of world ...
  • News
    Some of the world’s fastest growing economies are in Asia. Yet the region is still home to two-thirds of the world’s poor and the highest proportion of undernourished children. The sustainability of the region’s growth and development is ...
  • Staff Profile
    Shashidhara Kolavalli is a Senior Research Fellow and Leader of the Ghana Strategy Support Program in the Development Strategy and Governance Division. An agricultural economist with a Ph. D. from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper uses household survey panel data of 416 rural households to study livestock asset dynamics in the north-east of Ethiopia. The period under examination (1996-2003) was marked by severe environmental shocks, including a series of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Droughts, hurricanes and other environmental shocks punctuate the lives of poor and vulnerable populations in many parts of the world. The direct impacts can be horrific, but what are the longer-term effects of such shocks on households and their ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Natural disasters have particularly devastating impacts on economic growth in developing countries because they impede the accumulation of capital. The resilience of labor markets is crucial especially for the poor who rely only on labor to ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Developing countries have to allocate limited government resources for rural areas among different investment activities and regions to achieve the twin goals of productivity growth and poverty alleviation. This is particularly important at a ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Discussion Papers
    In contrast to uniformly pessimistic assessments about Sub-Saharan Africa’s (hereafter Africa) ability to meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), this paper examines recent trends in poverty, malnutrition, and growth to delineate ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In recent years, agricultural growth in Ghana has been positive overall. However, much of this growth has resulted from area expansion rather than increased yield. Furthermore, growth patterns have not been uniform across commodities or ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper examines the impact of cooperatives on smallholder commercialization of cereals, using detailed household data from rural Ethiopia. We review the involvement of cooperatives, in terms of who participates and where they are located. We ...
  • Technical Guides
    This training guide introduces development practitioners, policy analysts, and students to social accounting matrices (SAMs) and their use in policy analysis. There are already a number of books that explain the System of National Accounts and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper explores the idea of how wealth is distributed across social groups (ethnic or language groups, gender, etc.) and how such distribution fundamentally affects the evolution of economic inequality. By providing microfoundations suitable ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Studying the sources of growth in agricultural production, examining the extent of inefficiency, and identifying the sources of such inefficiency, is an important step forward to improve the livelihood of subsistence farm households in developing ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The livestock sector is a large contributor to the Ethiopian economy as well as a mainstay in the livelihoods of many Ethiopians. It comprised 11 percent of national GDP and 24 percent of agricultural GDP between the years of 1995/96 and 2005/06 ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This study looks at the extent of and changes in spatial integration of cereal markets in Ethiopia over the last ten years. Based on weekly wholesale prices of the Ethiopian Grain Trade Enterprise (EGTE) and covering all major cereals in the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “From a theoretical perspective crop yields should tend to converge over time and space as: growth in yield potential exhibits diminishing returns; an increasing share of farmers shift to using high yielding varieties (HYVs); barriers to ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Though there is increasing evidence of the availability and potential of new agricultural technologies in Africa south of the Sahara, effective demand for them is still low. A recent refocus on increasing farmers’ use of modern technologies such ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Technical Guides
    In this technical guide we describe the Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System (SAKSS) concept developed by the International Food Policy Research Institute in response to the capacity gaps typically found in many African countries for ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “While greater growth in agriculture and the broader rural sector is crucial for ameliorating Africa’s high levels of poverty and malnutrition, developing strategies to achieve these objectives is hindered by a number of factors, ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Meeting the food needs of the world’s growing population while reducing poverty and protecting the environment is a major global challenge. Private- and public-sector organizations must decide how to spend limited agricultural research funds in ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Designing agricultural strategies requires an understanding of the options for dealing with growth in the sector, its impact on targeted beneficiaries, and the investment required to achieve the growth. IFPRI’s recent study identified ...
  • “Agricultural development strategies delineate priorities for actions to enhance agricultural and overall development. They are usually put forward by individual countries based on assessments of national needs. Seldom are attempts made to ...
  • Books and Monographs
    Agricultural development strategies delineate priorities for actions to enhance agricultural and overall development. They are usually put forward by individual countries based on assessments of national needs. Seldom are attempts made to ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The 2000s were Africa’s “decade of growth.” Countries in Africa south of the Sahara reached milestones in the 21st century’s first decade that once seemed impossible, achieving improved governance, macroeconomic stability, and sustained economic ...
  • Books and Monographs
    In the first decade of the twenty-first century, countries within Sub-Saharan Africa reached milestones that seemed impossible only ten years ago: macroeconomic stability, sustained economic growth, and improved governance. Continuing this ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In spite of its oil wealth, poverty plagues Nigeria. The Federal Government of Nigeria has recognized that improved agricultural performance is critical to poverty reduction, since the majority of the nation’s poor depend on agriculture for ...
  • General Information
    The centrality of sound institutions and good governance in improving agricultural productivity and reducing rural poverty, hunger, and malnutrition has become widely recognized in recent years. Institutions are the systems of rules that ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The Computable General equilibrium (CGE) model has been successfully used to inform macro and micro policymaking in many developed countries. In developing countries like Nigeria, their influence on policy is limited - in spite of their proven ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper investigates structural change in Argentina between 1935 and 1960, a period of rapid industrialization and of relative decline of the agricultural sector. This has been the subject of a long-running debate that has exercised Argentine ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    We document that structural change accounts for approximately one-fifth of the total change in labor productivity in Nigeria between 1996 and 2009. Labor moved out of the agricultural and wholesale and retail trade sectors into manufacturing, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    We study cereal wholesale markets in Ethiopia in the last decade (2001–2011), a period that has been characterized by important local changes affecting agricultural markets, including strong economic growth, urbanization, improved road and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    We study cereal wholesale markets in Ethiopia in the last decade (2001–2011), a period that has been characterized by important local changes affecting agricultural markets, including strong economic growth, urbanization, improved road and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    For more than two decades, the United States has been an important player in a global partnership for agricultural research through its investments in the work of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), a network of ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Since the year 2000, Pakistan’s population has been growing at a rate that is higher than domestic food grain production. In view of the importance of wheat and rice in the human diet in Pakistan, it is extremely important to estimate the future ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study aims to understand the implications of stricter food safety regulations and certification systems to the food industry and to find ways to manage risks and costs associated with these regulations and systems. This paper empirically ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The Federal Government of Nigeria has demonstrated a strong commitment to achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the NEEDS Targets. Recognizing the importance of agriculture, as well as the challenges faced by the sector, in ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The Ethiopian Strategy Support Program (ESSP-II) Conference on “Accelerating Agricultural Development, Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction in Ethiopia” was held at the Addis Ababa Hilton Hotel from October 22-24. This conference was organized ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Owing to a succession of crises and worsening poverty, food security in Egypt started to deteriorate as early as 2005. These crises included the avian influenza epidemic in 2006; the food, fuel, and financial crises of 2007–2009; a further ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Though input vouchers are being publicized as a mechanism to simultaneously target subsidies and develop demand in private markets, limited empirical evidence of their effect on private input demand exists. Few empirical studies, if any, exist on ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In Ethiopia, as in many other African countries, there is a pressing need to improve household food security. An emerging consensus suggests that this is most easily accomplished through two development strategies with two complementary ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP) is targeted towards households that are both food-insecure and poor. Overall the targeting principles laid out in the Project Implementation Manual are being followed, but with some regional variation. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper develops a frontier shadow cost function approach to estimate empirically the effects of technological change, technical and allocative efficiency improvement in Chinese agriculture during the reform period (1980-93). The results ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Alors que certains pays de l’Afrique Subsaharienne sont en mesure d’atteindre les objectifs du millénaire pour le développement (OMD) en 2015, les défis de développement auxquels fait face la République Démocratique du Congo (RDC) ne lui ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Poor agricultural productivity and food insecurity are persistent features of many less developed countries. Governments and international development agencies have therefore rightly considered agricultural intensification as the primary means ...
  • Staff Profile
    Tewodaj Mogues is a Senior Research Fellow in IFPRI. She joined the DSG division in February 2005, and undertakes research on public investment for poverty reduction, local public finance and decentralisation, governance, and in the past has ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Books and Monographs
    During the past decade and a half, Ethiopia’s approach to promoting development and improving the lives of the country’s rural population has been driven by a government strategy called Agricultural Development-Led Industrialization ...
  • During the past decade and a half, Ethiopia’s approach to promoting development and improving the lives of the country’s rural population has been driven by a government strategy called Agricultural Development-Led Industrialization ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper explores and compares the impact of different types of public spending on rural household welfare in Ethiopia. The analysis of public financial and household-level data reveals that returns to road investments are significantly higher ...
  • Discussion Papers
    There is a vigorous debate on liberalization of the heavily regulated agricultural markets in India. A crucial institutional characteristic is the role of state-regulated brokers in wholesale markets. Relying on data from a unique survey in ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Recognition that policies aimed at ‘getting prices right’ in less-developed countries have not been successful due to incomplete markets has spurred a new wave of reforms aimed instead at ‘getting markets and institutions right’. Previous studies ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Ghana’s commitment to the tomato sector has its roots in the 1960s when three large tomato processing plants were established in the country. Though set up as part of President Nkrumah’s development plan for Ghana, the current rationale for these ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In Ghana, the agricultural sector in general and the tomato sector in particular have not met their potential. In the tomato sector, production seasonality, the dominance of rainfed agriculture, high perishability of the fruits combined with no ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Processing of highly perishable non-storable crops, such as tomato, is typically promoted for two reasons: as a way of absorbing excess supply, particularly during gluts that result from predominantly rainfed cultivation; and to enhance the value ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The tomato sector in Ghana has failed to reach its potential, in terms of attaining yields comparable to other countries, in terms of the ability to sustain processing plants, and in terms of improving the livelihoods of those households involved ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Years of continuous cultivation with little or no use of external inputs to restore soil nutrients has resulted in a situation in which crop production in a number of African countries is now limited by nutrient deficiencies – nitrogen, in ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Identifying policies which can improve water sector management is critically important given the global burden of water-related disease. Each year, 1 in 10 child deaths—roughly 800,000 in total—is the direct result of diarrhea. Can private-sector ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) was designed to promote the transformation of agriculture in SSA. Under this program, African countries have committed to seek development through agriculture led growth by ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program (CAADP), an initiative of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), was developed in response to the neglect of the agricultural sector by African governments as well as donors. ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper uses spatially-explicit analyses of climate change effects on selected key sectors of Ethiopia’s economy to estimate both sector-wise and economy-wide estimates of impacts and adaptation costs. Using four IPCC-vetted Global Circulation ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Achieving food security is high on the agenda of the Malawi government. Notably, Malawi’s Growth and Development Strategy (MGDS) recognizes that food security is a prerequisite for sustained economic growth and poverty reduction. However, a good ...
  • Books and Monographs
    China and India are the most extraordinary economic success stories of the developing world. Both nations’ economies have grown dramatically over the past few decades, elevating them from two of the world’s poorest countries into ...
  • Discussion Papers
    China’s and India’s rapid rise in the global arena has not only captured the attention of the world but has also set into motion a rethinking of the very paradigm of economic development….Today, China and India together account ...
  • Discussion Papers
    As sex ratio imbalances have become a problem in an increasing number of countries, it is important to understand their consequences. With the defeat of the Kuomintang Party in China, more than one million soldiers and civilians, mainly young ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “In this paper we analyze the effect on output, employment and poverty of two (2) alternative versions of further trade liberalization — one representing free trade world wide (WTO) and the other a Western hemisphere free trade bloc ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In 1993, India introduced quota-based political reservations for women in rural areas with the objective to promote gender equality in human development by making rural service provision and local governance inclusive and responsive to the needs ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The Ethiopia Strategy Support Program (ESSP), the first major IFPRI country strategy support program managed by the Development Strategy and Governance Division (DSGD), was undertaken in close collaboration with the Ethiopian Development Research ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Overview of ESSP The Ethiopia Strategy Support Program, the first major IFPRI country strategy support program managed by the Development Strategy and Governance Division (DSGD), has been undertaken in close collaboration with the Ethiopian ...
  • Discussion Papers
    We use two rounds of surveys, taken in 2000 and 2008 in the Zhili Township children’s garment cluster in Zhejiang Province, to examine in depth the evolution of this industrial cluster. Firm size has grown on average in terms of output and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Township-village enterprises (TVEs) were a major engine of China’s rapid rural industrialization in the past three decades. TVEs also played a key role in fostering entrepreneurship and served as a major stepping-stone for institutional ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The modest progress in reducing malnutrition over the past two decades and the severe impacts of recent food crises have re-ignited a debate on new ways for improving food and nutrition security. This paper contributes to the discussion by ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Unemployment is currently a major policy issue in many African countries (African Development Bank 2012). As pockets of widespread unemployment often persist despite labor market expansion, there is a growing demand among policy makers for ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This study presents empirical findings on drinking water supply in Ethiopia from a set of qualitative and quantitive surveys on rural public services. Access to safe drinking water is very low: 32% of the surveyed households use safe drinking ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The evolution of development policy over time can be characterized as a faltering pursuit of inclusive growth: namely, an integrated program of achieving highest possible rate of growth of the real GDP that doubles per capita income within a ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study has been conducted in order to generate evidence of the visibility of exit from farm input subsidies in an African context. The study simulates the impact of alternative exit strategies from Malawi’s farm input subsidy program on maize ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In this paper we develop a dynamic CGE model to examine the impact of CAFTA on production, employment and poverty in Honduras. We model four aspects of the agreement: tariff reductions, quotas, changes in the rules of origin for maquila and more ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In this paper we develop a dynamic CGE model to examine the impact of CAFTA on production, employment and poverty in El Salvador. We model four aspects of the agreement: tariff reductions, quotas, changes in the rules of origin for maquila and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    We combined a hydro-crop model with a dynamic general equilibrium (DCGE) model to assess the impacts of climate variability and change on economic growth and poverty reduction in Zambia. The hydro-crop model is first used to estimate the impact ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In developing countries, all too often policies formulated in response to high food prices are inspired by ideology instead of evidence-based policy research. We look at the immediate effects of these shocks faced by households in Uganda on their ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Conditional cash transfers (CCTs) have become a popular tool to reduce poverty and inequality in the short run and to promote investments in human capital. CCTs are now present in almost all parts of the developing world, especially in Latin ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In an effort to inform social policy in Mexico, this paper analyzes the effects of a major social program on school attendance and household income distribution, accounting for its partial and general equilibrium effects. Linking a ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The International Food Policy and Research Institute (IFPRI), headquartered in Washington, D.C.and represented by an office in Central America based in RUTA, in San Jose, Costa Rica, and the Sub-regional Economic Commission for Central America ...
  • Discussion Papers
    While the Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) remains a hotly debated issue in all five Central American countries that are part of the treaty, most discussions are based on preconceived opinions rather than grounded in research-based ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    We assess the impact of the promotion of row planting at reduced seed rate on farmers’ teff yields in Ethiopia. Results indicate that the program to scale-up row planting, on average, has a positive but moderate effect on teff yield. These ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Achieving food self-sufficiency on a national basis is a high priority for the government of Malawi. The goal of the Farm Input Subsidy Program (FISP) is to enhance food self-sufficiency by increasing smallholder farmers’ access to and use of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In light of a reinvigorated policy orientation toward agriculture in developing countries following recent dramatic developments affecting food prices and agricultural land use, public resource allocation decisionmakers ought to have access to ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study estimates the impacts of different types of government expenditure on agricultural growth and rural poverty in Thailand. The results show that, despite Thailand’s middle-income status, public investments in agricultural R&D, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Increasing adoption of modern inputs remains one of the best hopes towards higher agricultural production in developing countries. Based on unique data from a quasi-experimental setting in northwestern Ethiopia, this study examines the “last ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Increasing adoption of modern inputs remains one of the best hopes toward higher agricultural production in developing coun-tries. Based on unique data from a quasi-experimental setting in northwestern Ethiopia, this study examines the “last ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Inspired by the wide adoption of rigorous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in medical research, economists and other social scientists have increasingly used RCTs in their research. As researchers pick up projects amenable to the RCT ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Healthcare financing through social health insurance has become a very important tool in providing access to and utilization of health services in most developing countries such as Ghana. Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) is a ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The cocoa sector in Ghana is one of few examples of an export commodity sector in an African country that has withstood the pressure to fully liberalize. Despite substantial government control over internal and external marketing via the Ghana ...
  • Books and Monographs
    Agricultural policy reform is one of the major challenges facing India today. Such reform is required in order to reduce poverty through faster agricultural growth and to promote more sustainable use of natural resources while ensuring food ...
  • Discussion Papers
    During the last decade, the resurgence in economic growth in Africa south of the Sahara has generated an interest in the drivers and consequences of structural change and transformation. Using the case of Zambia, this paper examines whether ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “New technologies are critical to enhancing agricultural productivity and reducing poverty in many developing countries. While public-sector investment in research has historically driven technological change in agriculture, recent trends ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In Bangladesh—one of the poorest countries in Asia, where rice accounts for almost 70 percent of consumers’ caloric intake—the share of the less expensive, low-quality coarse rice is shown to be rapidly decreasing in rice markets and the quality ...
  • Books and Monographs
    Major changes have been occurring almost unnoticed in staple value chains in Asia. The Quiet Revolution in Staple Food Value Chains documents and explains the transformation of value chains moving rice and potatoes between the farm gate and the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study presents a stylized but insightful diagnostic of the problems limiting collective action in Ghanaian farmer-based organizations (FBOs). In our analysis, we use a structure-conduct-performance framework, econometrics, and new primary ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Zambia is one of the poorest countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Almost three-quarters of the population were considered poor at the start of the 1990s, with a vast majority of these people concentrated in rural and remote areas. This extreme ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Because many rural poor live in areas far away from markets, we investigate whether better road access could help improve their livelihood and reduce rural poverty. We use three waves of a primary panel survey at the household level conducted in ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Although Sub-Saharan Africa experienced unprecedented economic growth in recent decades, this did not always translate into less poverty or improved nutrition. The Tanzanian economy is one example of a country that failed to reap the benefits of ...
  • This report provides a nuanced perspective on debates about the potential for Africa’s smallholder agriculture to stimulate growth and alleviate poverty in an increasingly integrated world. In particular, the paper synthesizes both the ...
  • Books and Monographs
    This report provides a nuanced perspective on debates about the potential for Africa’s smallholder agriculture to stimulate growth and alleviate poverty in an increasingly integrated world. In particular, the paper synthesizes both the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper provides a nuanced perspective on debates about the potential for Africa’s smallholder agriculture to stimulate growth and alleviate poverty in an increasingly integrated world. In particular, the paper synthesizes both the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Wenzhou used to be one of the poorest regions in eastern China. With limited arable land, poor road access to major cities, and little support from the upper level governments, this region seemed to lack all the conditions necessary for economic ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The recent surge in world commodity prices might alter the role of traditional export crops in African economies. While export crops have traditionally been important sources of foreign exchange earnings and government revenues, Ghana is an ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Based on primary survey data collected over two election cycles in a mountainous area in China, where an administrative village consists of several natural villages, this paper examines whether or not elected village heads and appointed Communist ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In this policy brief, we report on work by Brautigam, McMillan and Tang (2012) who study the impact of foreign investment on Ethiopia’s leather value chain. The goal is to draw policy lessons for Ghana and other African countries. While it is ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agriculture is the largest contributor to the economic well-being of most Nigerians. For the agriculture sector to continue to grow, research-based knowledge of the existing agricultural practices, the potential of the sector, the approach for ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Evidence-based policymaking relies on findings from research and analysis. The availability of information and data is the foundation for sound policy advice, but developing countries lack access to the timely knowledge and data fundamental for ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper assesses the role of rural institutions in the speedy recovery and growth of the agriculture and food sector in postconflict setting. This research was conducted to identify strategies and approaches to strengthen local institutions in ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Although Ethiopia‘s economy has grown rapidly over the past decade and urbanization is increasing, the country‘s economic and spatial transformation has only just begun. Ethiopia‘s share of agriculture in GDP in 2006 (48 percent) was the highest ...
  • Discussion Papers
    We herein investigate the short-run macroeconomic impact of aid in small developing countries (SDCs) by using a vector auto regression (VAR) model to study the impact of aid on net import (absorption) and domestic demand (spending). We focus on ...
  • Discussion Papers
    We use the concept of the product space to analyze the key features of the transformation process in Africa with a focus on the agricultural sector. Between 1962 and 2008, we find that both specialization and diversification occur for the overall ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Inorganic fertilizer is one of a handful of agricultural technologies that have immense potential for raising the productivity of poor smallholders, enabling them to increase income, accumulate assets, and set themselves economically on a pathway ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This brief presents the results of a study to investigate sup-ply-side constraints for fertilizer use by smallholder famers in Tanzania in which the government is implicated. Government actions that could constrain the supply of fertilizer ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Inorganic fertilizer is one of a handful of agricultural technologies that have immense potential for raising the productivity of poor smallholders, enabling them to increase income, accumulate assets, and set themselves economically on a pathway ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This brief presents the results of a late-2010 study of fertilizer supply to smallholder farmers in Uganda that was done to assess whether the taxes (explicit or implicit) that are applied at various points along the fertilizer importation and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Inorganic fertilizer is one of a handful of agricultural technologies that has immense potential for raising the productivity of poor smallholder farmers, enabling them to increase income, accumulate assets, and set themselves economically on a ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    We study the value chain of teff, Ethiopia’s most important staple food crop by area and value. Based on large-scale primary surveys, we find significant changes in the last decade. First, there is increasing adoption of modern inputs (chemical ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Commercial agriculture in Ghana has over the years been receiving a lot of attention from both the government and donor agencies as a way out of poverty. The focus has been on small‐scale farmers who have continued to struggle to feed themselves ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Over the past several years, the Ethiopian government has committed a substantial portion of the public budget to expanding public services and infrastructure in rural areas. This paper assesses who exactly is benefiting from this public ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Over the past several years, the Ethiopian government has committed a substantial portion of the public budget to expanding public services and infrastructure in rural areas. This paper assesses who exactly is benefiting from this public ...
  • Staff Profile
    Theodora joined IFPRI-Abuja in June 2009 as a program assistant. She got her undergraduate degree in Laboratory science with specialization in Biochemistry from the university of Jos in 1999, and in 2003 obtained an associate degree in medical ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Staff Profile
    Todd Benson, who joined IFPRI in 1999 as a Research Fellow, conducts research on poverty, poverty mitigation, and household economic vulnerability both at the scale of the household and from broader spatial perspectives (poverty and vulnerability ...
  • Staff Profile
    Tolulope Odetola joined IFPRI in January 2013 as a Senior Research Assistant. Prior to that, she worked as a Project Associate at the Nigerian Academy of Science. She holds a Bachelor’s Degree (Hons.) in Agricultural Economics and Extension from ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    On 23 April 2010, farmers, traders, processors, agribusiness, Ghanaian and international academics, donors, and officials met in Accra for an exchange of views on how to revive the strategic but ailing tomato sector. The dialogue was organized by ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The recent global food and financial crises have reversed the last decade’s progress in reducing hunger and poverty. This paper conducts a factor and sequential typology analysis to identify groups of countries categorized according to five ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agriculture remains a major sector for the Nigerian economy. The majority of Nigerians rely on agriculture for their livelihood. It is increasingly evident that improved agricultural development and growth can offer a pathway from poverty, but ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In June 2012, a Technical Working Group on Monitoring and Evaluation (TWG on M&E) was established in Malawi to track agricultural sector performance under the overarching sector strategy, the Agricultural Sector Wide Approach (ASWAP). The TWG ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Trade integration is a potentially powerful driver of economic growth in developing countries, particularly if it creates export opportunities and promotes value addition in manufacturing sectors. Given the prominence of agriculture in ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper is a description and an analysis of trade liberalization under CAFTA. It shows that in the short run the impact of the agreement is likely to be small. Since the U.S. already grants tariff-free access under the CBI, trade ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The short-run effects of the 2007/2008 global food crisis on semisubsistence farmers’ well-being in low-income countries depends on whether they are net sellers or net buyers of the affected commodities. Realizing that farmers face volatile ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Small-scale private irrigation schemes (SPRI) have been the major driving force behind the expansion of irrigated areas in Nigeria, despite government efforts to promote large scale public irrigation schemes. SPRI allows adjustment of irrigation ...
  • General Information
    Only 16 percent of Ethiopians live in urban areas, making it one of the least urbanized and most agrarian economies in the world. In 2006, agriculture’s share of GDP was 48 percent, one of the highest worldwide. Ethiopia is also one of ...
  • General Information
    Ghana has long been regarded as one of the most successful countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. It recently attained middle-income status and will likely achieve the first Millennium Development Goal of cutting poverty in half before the target ...
  • General Information
    Mozambique’s GDP grew by 8.2 percent per year from 1993-2007, albeit from a low starting point. Despite this growth, the structure of the economy has barely changed in the past 20 years. Industry and services trail far behind the farm sector as ...
  • General Information
    Nigeria’s rural-urban transformation has been atypical. From the 1960s onward, the emergence of the oil and gas sector set Nigeria down a very different path. Nigeria is one of the most urbanized countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Half its ...
  • General Information
    Uganda is a predominantly rural society. About 85 percent of the population earns most of its income from agriculture and the sector is central to poverty reduction efforts. At 3.4 percent per year, the population growth rate is among ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Rural residents across the developing world earn a large share of their income—35–50 percent—from nonfarm activities. Agricultural households count on nonfarm earnings to diversify risk, moderate seasonal income swings, and finance agricultural ...
  • Books and Monographs
    Contrary to conventional wisdom that equates rural economies with agriculture, rural residents in developing countries often rely heavily on activities other than farming for their income. Indeed, nonfarm work accounts for between one-third and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agriculture is the economic mainstay of the majority of households in Nigeria (Udoh, 2000) and is a significant sector in Nigeria’s economy (Amaza, 2000). The important benefits of the agricultural sector to Nigeria’s economy include: the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    There is a growing consensus that reducing childhood malnutrition is a critically important goal, but far less consensus on what kind of strategies can best achieve that goal. Many nutrition programs focus on quite specific interventions (food ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    There is a growing consensus that reducing childhood malnutrition is a critically important goal, but there is far less agreement on what strategies can best achieve the goal. Are more nutrition-specific interventions required, such as ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Irrigation is considered an important factor for agriculture and food security. Knowledge gaps, however, still exist with regard to how farmers in Africa south of Sahara, including Nigeria, are using irrigation. Given the diverse agroecological ...
  • General Information
    Agriculture has the potential to drive wide-reaching economic transformation in Uganda. With nearly three-quarters of Ugandan households directly dependent on farming or animal industries, the agricultural sector is central to the Ugandan ...
  • Staff Profile
    Ulrike joined IFPRI in 2012 as a Senior Research Assistant in the Markets, Trade, and Institutions division. In 2013 she took over as the Country Program Coordinator for the Nigeria Strategy Support Program. Prior to IFPRI, she worked as a data ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Like many other developing countries, Nigeria faces serious poverty challenges and it is estimated that two-thirds of Nigerians now live below the poverty line of US$1 per day, most of them in rural areas. Recognizing this challenge, the Federal ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In this paper we present the findings of a qualitative investigation into some dimensions and implications of policy volatility in the realms of natural resource (NR) governance and devolution in contemporary Sudan, with particular reference to ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Despite CAADP commitment by African governments to allocate at least 10 percent of their budgets to agriculture, this has not materialized in all countries. Why is this so? Why do public resource allocations for agriculture still lag behind the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study examines the role of research in agricultural policy making in Malawi at a time when the Africa Union and the New Partnership for Africa’s Development have been seeking to promote greater evidenced-based decision making in agriculture. ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    We study food retail in Addis Ababa, one of the biggest cities in Africa. Based on a primary survey of food retail outlets selling cereals, fruits and vegetables, and processed foods, we note high variation in quality and prices in the city and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    On the back of both a global food crisis and various domestic factors, Ethiopia has experienced one of the world’s fastest rates of food inflation in recent years. Yet the lack of high frequency survey data means that very little is known about ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This study examines the trends and behavior of urban wages in Ethiopia during the country’s recent inflationary episodes. We use the CSA Consumer Price Survey to construct a real wage series for the urban poor, and to conduct formal econometric ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Strong economic growth in urban areas has not led to rapid urbanization in Ethiopia, possibly as a result of prevailing land tenure policies. We examine the economic implications of accelerated urbanization using a rural–urban economywide model ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Fertility rates are important determinants of overall population growth and demographic transitions from high to low age dependency ratios. These in turn have important consequences for economic growth, poverty reduction, and improved health and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This study uses Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques to estimate urbanization rates in Ethiopia, using a definition of urban extents that combines city population size, along with population density and travel times in surrounding ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In comparison to other African countries, Ethiopia has a low urbanization rate. According to the World Bank World Development Report (WDR) 2009, Sub-Sahara Africa is 30% urbanized, whereas Ethiopia is only 10.9% urbanized. Urbanization rates ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Recent trends in food prices—higher levels and higher volatility—mirror trends predicted by a number of experts. Given the complex web of factors influencing global food security, governments of developed and developing countries, as well as ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Improving agricultural productivity is vital for poor rural households in Uganda to meet their food security needs and to promote sustained increases in income. Inorganic fertilizer can be a powerful productivity enhancing input. While Uganda has ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Urbanization is quickly increasing in Africa, raising important questions on how food value chains to cities function and what the implications of urban growth are for the local food trade and farm sector. We study the rural–urban value chain of ...
  • Technical Guides
    Objectives of the training course Strengthen existing capacity across sectoral ministries and agencies in data analysis, specifically poverty and nutrition policy analysis; Expand the knowledge base for developing agricultural, rural ...
  • Staff Profile
    Valerie Mueller is the co-leader of the Development Strategy and Governance Division's research under the Rural-Urban Linkages for Development Program. Prior to joining IFPRI, she was a postdoctoral fellow in the Earth Institute at Columbia ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In line with the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources (FMAWR)’s vision of ensuring access, availability, and affordability of quality foods to all Nigerians and the objectives of the USAID Global Food Security Response Project of ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The export sector of the Ugandan economy has recorded tremendous recent growth. Between 2000 and 2006, the value of exports climbed from US $401 million to US $962 million, with agricultural products accounting for 60 percent of this. The growth ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The market for food staples remains central to many agricultural-based economies because staple foods constitute such a major share of household food expenditures. Uganda is no different in this regard. Recognizing the importance of staple food ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Increased regional inequality has been a major concern in many emerging economies like China, India, Vietnam and Thailand. However, even a large inequality is observed within the lagging regions. The objective of this paper is to look into what ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Wage or employment subsidies have been used in both developed and developing countries to raise employment levels. Various advisers to the South African government have endorsed wage subsidies as a policy measure to deal with this country’s ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Have rising food prices hurt the poor, or helped them? So far, all answers to this question are based on simulation analyses by the World Bank, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), and the US Department of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Estimates by the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the World Bank concerning the welfare impact of the 2007/08 global food crisis conclude that between 75 million and 160 million people ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agriculture is the backbone of Malawi’s economy: it accounts for about 34 percent of gross domestic product (GDP), over 90 percent of export earnings, and employment of 85 percent of the population through farming, processing, transportation, and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    At the national level, dozens of African countries have pledged to implement the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) and the African Union (AU). This African-led ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper addresses the determinants of public expenditure policies, by reviewing theories and empirical investigations of what features explain the budget process and how the various attributes of actors—including politicians, bureaucrats, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The deregulation of Ghana’s domestic cocoa supply chain that took place in the early 1990s was expected to bring competition among different private buyers and to generate a number of production incentives to the farmers. Most notably, it ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study tests the null hypothesis that it is sufficient to interview only the household head to obtain accurate information on household income. The results show that using a husband’s estimate of his wife’s income does not produce ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The sector-wide approach currently dominates as the strategy for developing the agricultural sector of many African countries. Although it is recognized that agricultural research plays a vital role in ensuring success of sectorwide agricultural ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    A Social Network Analysis (SNA) of agricultural research institutions in Malawi was performed to investigate networking and knowledge sharing in relation to the implementation of the Agricultural Sector Wide Approach (ASWAp). SNA helps explain ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agricultural cooperatives in Uganda date back to 1913 as a response to the disadvantageous terms of trade imposed on smallholder farmers by colonial administrators and middlemen who monopolized both domestic and export markets for coffee and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agriculture plays a crucial role in food security and poverty reduction in Mozambique, contributing around 25 percent of the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP). However, despite the considerable agro-ecological potential and the need for ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “We examine the spatial determinants of the prevalence of poverty for small spatially defined populations in rural Malawi. Poverty prevalence was estimated using a small-area poverty estimation technique. A theoretical approach based on the ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “We examine the spatial determinants of the prevalence of poverty for small spatially defined populations in rural Malawi. Poverty prevalence was estimated using a small-area poverty estimation technique. A theoretical approach based on the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In Ethiopia, 85 percent of the population depends on agriculture for livelihood. Many are smallholder farmers who lack modern inputs and market access. Agricultural cooperatives hold much potential to enable these economically weak farmers to ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The Agricultural Policy Support Facility (APSF) is an initiative to strengthen pro-poor, gender-sensitive, and environmentally sustainable evidence-based policymaking in Nigeria in the areas of rural and agricultural development. The program is ...
  • Staff Profile
    A citizen of China, Zhang earned B.S. in mathematics from Nankai University, China; M.S. in economics from Tianjin University of Economics and Finance, China; and M.S. and Ph.D. in applied economics and management from Cornell University in ...
  • Staff Profile
    Xinshen Diao is currently the Deputy Division Director and a Senior Research Fellow in the Development Strategy and Governance Division of IFPRI and a subtheme leader for the CGIAR’s Policy, Institution, and Market Research Program (CRP2). She ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Staff Profile
  • Books and Monographs
    The authors identify a set of development priorities for agriculture that cut across West Africa at both the country and regional levels to achieve economywide growth goals in the region. To do this we adopt a modeling and analytical framework ...
  • Staff Profile
    Yifei joined IFPRI as a Senior Research Assistant in 2011. Now she is working as a Communications Specialist at Development Strategy and Governance Division. She has been assisting with developing websites, data visualization tools and ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper has been produced to support the Government of Yemen and the international community in designing a transition plan for the country. The political crisis and conflict situation in Yemen has led to a sharp decline in economic output ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The 2007–08 global fuel crisis was a stark reminder of the fact that petroleum subsidies strain public finances, distort markets, and provide only a blunt tool for improving food security and fighting poverty. As a consequence, several ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    ثمة عدد قليل من المراقبين استشرف تلك التغيرات الجذرية التي شهدها العالم العربي خلال الأشهر القليلة الماضية. بدت الحكومات العربية وقد أحكمت قبضتها على شؤون بلدانها، كما اقترب نمو عدد كبير من الاقتصادات العربية من المتوسط العالمي أو تجاوزته خلال ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    إن الدروس المستفادة من تجارب البلدان الأخرى ومحاولات إصلاح الدعم السابقة في مصر تشير إلى أن التوصل إلى تفهم (لماذا ينبغي أن يحصل الأغنياءعلى الدعم؟ )وإدارة التوقعات (ما الذي سيحصل عليه السكان في المقابل؟)هي أمور ذات أهمية حاسمة للنجاح. وبالإضافة ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    More than one-third of Yemen’s population is food insecure. Food security means that there is enough food for everyone in the country and that the available food provides the right nutrients to ensure a healthy population. In order to guarantee ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Water resources are rapidly dwindling in Yemen, and Sana’a might be the first capital city in the world to go dry. Groundwater levels in many regions are falling rapidly and many households lack sufficient water for drinking, washing, and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The National Food Security Strategy addresses food security at the national level (macrolevel food security) and at the household and individual levels (microlevel food security), emphasizing that improving food security is a cross-sector ...
  • Food Policy Reports
    إن التقرير الحالي يهدف إلى توجيه وتنشيط الجدل المثار حول أولويات السياسات الرئيسية للحد من الفقر وتحقيق الأمن الغذائي في ضوء الصحوة العربية. وتستند نتائجه إلى مزيج جديد من المجموعات البيانية والتحليل الاقتصادي الفعال. وترجح النتائج أن الفقر وعدم ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The quality of manufactured products made in China has improved tremendously in the past several decades. In this paper, we argue that crises are instruments for the upgrade of Chinese manufactured goods. We first develop a theoretical framework ...
  • General Information
    至今,中国的改革开放已将近30个春秋,在此期间中国在经 济发展和扶贫减困中取得了巨大的成就。随着中国经济持续快速 的发展(2006年经济增长超过10%),新的挑战浮出水面:地区收 入差距日益增大,弱势群体的出现,土壤退化, ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
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