• News
    The following story by Alexa Jay was originally posted on the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) news blog. In a variable and changing climate, information may be the key to unlocking successful ...
  • Staff Profile
  • IFPRI Briefs
    One of the lingering effects of the food price crisis of 2007–08 on the world food system is the proliferating acquisition of farmland in developing countries by other countries seeking to ensure their food supplies. Increased pressures on ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Contents: 1.The Changing Profile of Poverty in the World/Shaohua Chen and Martin Ravallion. 2.Characteristics and Causes of Severe Poverty and Hunger/Akhter U. Ahmed, Ruth Vargas Hill, Lisa C. Smith, and Tim Frankenberger. 3.The Poorest and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper presents the latest Social Accounting Matrix of Pakistan (SAM) for the year 2007–08. Our proposed approach to estimating SAMs is motivated by an information theoretic approach to estimation (Judge & Mittelhammer, 2012) that takes a ...
  • Archive
    The 2020 vision for South Asia aims to (1) ensure the minimum food and nutrition needs of the population through entitlement programs and income-augmenting agricultural technologies that are environmentally friendly; (2) eliminate severe ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Agricultural practices have dramatically altered the Earth’s land cover, but the spatial extent and intensity of these practices is often difficult to catalogue. Cropland accounts for nearly 15 million square kilometers of Earth’s land ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The regulatory approval of genetically modified crops in the field initially requires small, restricted experimental trials known as confined field trials. These small scale experiments provide researchers with important information on ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “The paper extends the household hedonic model, as a non-market valuation tool, by estimating a supply function for variety attributes of a subsistence crop in a developing country. The model is applied to bananas in Uganda, making use of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study explores consumer acceptance and valuation of a genetically modified (GM) staple food crop in a developing country prior to its commercialization. We focus on the hypothetical introduction of a disease-resistant GM banana variety in ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Climate change increasingly affects the livelihoods of people, and poor people experience especially negative impacts given their lack of capacity to prepare for and cope with the effects of a changing climate. Among poor people, women and men ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper reviews the key policies with regard to agriculture inputs such as seed, fertilizer, water, agricultural equipment, research, extension, and agricultural credit. It also provides an overview of the policies and programs related to ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study examines the existing status, policies, and institutions for promoting agricultural output in Nepal, in particular cereals. In this context, it reviews the policies on agricultural input such as seed, fertilizer, water, agricultural ...
  • News
    The following story, by IFPRI Research Fellow Timothy Thomas, was originally published by the Huffington Post. Before the age of the GPS, people relied on paper roadmaps when journeying to places they had never been before. It wasn’t always ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper examines differences in the spatial and temporal variations of rice yields in China and Brazil. Our analysis indicates that, in China, rice yields have converged over time and rice production has become increasingly homogeneous. In ...
  • Infographic
    Infographic on global investment in agricultural R&D, including global public spending, global private spending, why research investment matters. Download Hi-res PDF (2.2 M) | Low-res PNG (900K)
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Brief 4 of the Research at a Glance series, “Biotechnology and Genetic Resource Policies”
  • Discussion Papers
    As patents and other forms of intellectual property become more pervasive in the next generation of biotechnologies, designing polices and practices to ensure sufficient freedom to operate (i.e., the ability to practice or use an innovation) will ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Overview Ruth Meinzen-Dick and Monica Di Gregorio; Understanding Collective Action Elinor Ostrom; Understanding Property Rights Ruth Meinzen-Dick, Rajendra Pradhan, and Monica Di Gregorio; Local-Level Public Goods and Collective ...
  • Staff Profile
    Adam joined the International Food Policy Research Institute in 2014 as a Research Fellow in the Environment and Production Technology Division. His current research focuses on developing and applying bio-economic models to test outcomes and ...
  • 2020 Focus
    2020 Focus 16 Brief 12 Climate change will bring with it increased frequency of two types of natural disasters that affect agriculture and rural households: droughts and floods. It will also alter rainfall patterns, thereby changing farming ...
  • Food Policy Reports
    After a decade of stagnation during the 1990s, investments and human resource capacity in public agricultural research and development (R&D) averaged more than 20 percent growth in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) during 2001–2008. In 2008, the ...
  • Press Release
    Johannesburg, South Africa, 26 November, 2014 – African countries south of the Sahara will need to double their investment in agricultural research and development if ambitious United Nations and African Union targets are to be achieved, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Despite the fact that agricultural R&D spending in SSA increased by more than 20 percent during 2001–08, overall investment levels in most countries are still well below the levels required to sustain agricultural R&D needs. In 2008, SSA ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Agricultural biodiversity is an environmental resource. Much of the agricultural biodiversity remaining in situ today is found on the semi-subsistence farms of poorer countries and the small-scale farms or home gardens of more industrialized ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Si se espera alcanzar las metas fundamentales de mitigación y adaptación del cambio climático, la agricultura debe ser parte integral de las negociaciones internacionales sobre clima. El cambio climático y la agricultura están conectados en ...
  • Booklets
    “…Hoy día, 1.100 millones de personas viven con menos de un dólar estadounidense al día (el umbral de pobreza reconocido internacionalmente): 430 millones en Asia meridional, 325 millones en África al sur del Sahara, 260 millones en ...
  • Press Release
    September 29, 2014—Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire—Africa must embrace agricultural innovations to better compete in an evolving global bio-economy, according to findings from a new report issued by the African Development Bank (AfDB) and the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Changes in the agriculture sector are essential to mitigate and adapt to climate change, ensure food security for the growing population, and improve the livelihoods of poor smallholder producers. What agricultural strategies are needed to meet ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper analyzes the effect of agricultural R&D investment on growth and poverty alleviation in developing regions to simulate how much investment is required, and how it can be allocated among different regions to maximize agricultural ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The promise and challenges inherent in agricultural development in Sub-Saharan Africa prompted the conference, “Agricultural R&D: Investing in Africa’s Future—Analyzing Trends, Challenges, and Opportunities,” which was convened by the ...
  • Food Policy Reports
    “Sustained, well-targeted, and effectively used investments in R&D have reaped handsome rewards from improved agricultural productivity and cheaper, higher quality foods and fibers. As we begin a new millennium, the global patterns of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Using a similar analytical approach to a study in China, this paper analyzes the impact of agricultural research on urban poverty reduction in India. State level data from 1970 to 1995 were used in the empirical analysis. It is found that in ...
  • Books and Monographs
    Those who study global poverty and ways to reduce it face a perennial set of questions: Do advances in knowledge, research, and technology make a real difference in the lives of poor people? What effect does research have on the poor? Who ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    2020 Focus 16 Brief 2 Higher temperatures, more variable precipitation, and changes in the frequency and severity of extreme climate events will have significant consequences for food production and food security. However, the frequency of ...
  • General Information
    A Closer Look at the 11 Agricultural Technologies Examined in the Book “Food Security in a World of Natural Resource Scarcity: The Role of Agricultural Technologies” Crop Protection - The practice of managing pests, plant diseases, weeds, and ...
  • Press Release
    February 12, 2014, Washington D.C.–Increased demand for food due to population and income growth and the impacts of climate change on agriculture will ratchet up the pressure for increased and more sustainable agricultural production to feed the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “During the past several decades dramatic improvement has occurred in agricultural productivity and livelihoods in South and East Asia, stimulated by the Green Revolution and supported by several other factors. Nevertheless, hundreds of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    There are a number of potential opportunities associated with agricultural, food, and water nanotechnology for the poor, but to achieve such opportunities a number of challenges need to be overcome. This paper first provides a rapid assessment of ...
  • Books and Monographs
    Executive Summary Relationship Between Agriculture and the Millennium Development Goals In 2000 the member states of the United Nations adopted the Millennium Declaration as a renewed commitment to human development. The Declaration includes ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Bangladesh is extremely vulnerable to the impact of climate change because it is a low-lying, flat country subject to both riverine flooding and sea level rise, and because a large portion of its population is dependent on agriculture for its ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Agriculture and climate change are inextricably linked. Agriculture is part of the climate change problem, contributing about 13.5 percent of annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (with forestry contributing an additional 19 percent), compared ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    2020 Focus 16 Brief 1 If fundamental climate change mitigation and adaptation goals are to be met, international climate negotiations must include agriculture. Agriculture and climate change are linked in important ways, and this brief ...
  • 2020 Focus
    2020 Focus 16 • Note d’inf ormation 1 Si l’on veut atteindre les objectifs fondamentaux d’atténuation des changements climatiques et d’adaptation à ces changements, il faut y inclure l’agriculture. En effet, il existe des liens importants ...
  • Booklets
    "...Today, 1.1 billion people live on less than one US dollar per day (the internationally recognized poverty threshold)-430 million in South Asia, 325 million in Sub-Saharan Africa, 260 million in East Asia and the Pacific, and 55 million in ...
  • Booklets
    “…Today, 1.1 billion people live on less than one US dollar per day (the internationally recognized poverty threshold)-430 million in South Asia, 325 million in Sub-Saharan Africa, 260 million in East Asia and the Pacific, and 55 ...
  • Booklets
    “…Today, 1.1 billion people live on less than one US dollar per day (the internationally recognized poverty threshold)-430 million in South Asia, 325 million in Sub-Saharan Africa, 260 million in East Asia and the Pacific, and 55 ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “Nanotechnology is research and development that involves measuring and manipulating matter at the atomic, molecular, and supramolecular levels at scales measured in approximately 1 to 100 nanometers (nm) in at least one dimension.” Materials at ...
  • Booklets
    “…Today, 1.1 billion people live on less than one US dollar per day (the internationally recognized poverty threshold)-430 million in South Asia, 325 million in Sub-Saharan Africa, 260 million in East Asia and the Pacific, and 55 ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Nepal is a landlocked country of 27 million people residing across a land area of more than 147,000 km2. Nepal is divided into three major geographic regions: the Terai and inner Terai; (34,000 km2); the Hills (61,000 km2); and the Mountains ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In this paper we describe how biophysical data can be used, in conjunction with agroecological concepts and multimarket economic models, to systematically evaluate the effects of agricultural R&D in ways that inform research priority setting ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Staff Profile
    Agricultural Economist at the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) since 2005. His research topics are development, economic growth and growth linkages and poverty, agricultural productivity and trade. He has also worked in ...
  • Staff Profile
    Dr. Alessandro (Alex) De Pinto received his Ph.D. in Agricultural and Consumer Economics from the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign where he specialized in Environmental and Natural Resource Economics. Prior to joining IFPRI he was ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Coffee is the most important export crop in Uganda and an important source of income among smallholder farmers in large parts of the country. The Robusta type dominates coffee production and Ugandan Robusta is demanded by roasters as a component ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This paper reviews current trade-related regulations of genetically modified (GM) food and discusses their effects on developing countries. There is a large heterogeneity in current import approval and marketing policies of GM food ...
  • Discussion Papers
    We investigate the impacts of sustainable land management practices on soil carbon stocks and also impacts of soil carbon on the mean and variance of crop production using econometric tools. Using a cross-sectional plot-level dataset collected ...
  • This research report highlights findings from a set of studies applied economists have undertaken on the impact that improved banana cultivars and management practices have had on farmers in the Lake Victoria region of Tanzania and Uganda. A ...
  • Books and Monographs
    This research report highlights findings from a set of studies undertaken by applied economists on the impact of improved banana cultivars and recommended management practices in the East African highlands. A particular focus of the analysis is ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The productivity gains associated with improved cultivated varieties (cultivars) tend to break down over time as they lose the genetic advantages conferred by breeding. Cultivar depreciation, in turn, can increase the vulnerability of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study addresses three main research questions: 1) What projects are most successful in promoting the objectives of raising agricultural productivity, improving natural resource management and reducing poverty? 2) What approaches enable them ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Almost two decades have passed since China first enacted legislation to protect farmland from conversion to nonagricultural use. Yet hundreds of thousands of hectares of agricultural land are still developed to urban area each year, raising the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “CORPOICA and IFPRI implemented a research project in Ventaquemada, Colombia. The project’s goal was to asses the benefits of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) practices and the potential of Genetically Modified insect resistant (Bt) ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This study examines the poverty reduction implications of the introduction of three different agricultural technologies by government and NGOs in three rural sites across Bangladesh. The first is new vegetable seeds developed by AVRDC ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “This study examines the poverty reduction implications of the introduction of three different agricultural technologies by government and NGOs in three rural sites across Bangladesh. The first is new vegetable seeds developed by AVRDC ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This study examines the poverty reduction implications of the introduction of three different agricultural technologies by government and NGOs in three rural sites across Bangladesh. The first is new vegetable seeds developed by AVRDC ...
  • Discussion Papers
    ” Meeting the food needs of the world’s growing population while reducing poverty and protecting the environment is a major global challenge. Genetically modified crops appear to provide a promising option to deal with this challenge. ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Ethiopia’s agricultural sector, which is dominated by smallscale, mixed-crop, and livestock farming, is the mainstay of the country’s economy. It constitutes more than half of the country’s gross domestic product, generates more ...
  • Staff Profile
    Andrew received his Ph.D. in Natural Resource Management and a certificate in Complexity Science from the University of Michigan, USA, a M.Sc. in Environmental Engineering from Waseda University, Japan, and a B.Sc. in Environmental Engineering ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Discussion Papers
    In many African countries, governments are re-thinking the role of the state in centrally providing certain goods and services. The rights and responsibilities for providing various public goods are being decentralized to lower levels of ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Discussion Papers
    Kenyan horticultural exports are often cited as a success story in African agriculture. Fruit and vegetable exports from Côte ‘Ivoire have received less attention, but the export value is similar to that of Kenya. This paper focuses on ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Developing countries allocate scarce government funds to investments in rural areas to achieve the twin goals of agricultural growth and poverty alleviation. Choices have to be made between different types of investments, especially ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The agricultural sector in developing countries is particularly vulnerable to the adverse impacts of climate change. Given Ethiopia’s dependence on agriculture and natural resources, any adverse agricultural effects will pose serious risks to ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Debates around Common Property Resources and Intellectual Property Rights fail to consider traditional and indigenous rights regimes that regulate plant resource exploitation, establish bundles of powers and obligations for heterogeneous groups ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Este documento pretende apresentar uma análise das dimensões referentes ao género no crescente debate dos negócios de terras em grande escala. Aborda a actual lacuna de informação acerca dos diferentes efeitos dos negócios de terras em grande ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Quer sejam vistos como “desapropriação de terras” ou como investimentos agrícolas para o desenvolvimento, os negócios de terras em grande escala efectuados por investidores em países em desenvolvimento estão a gerar uma atenção considerável. No ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In general, reported rates of return to agricultural R&D are high, but questions have been raised about upward biases in the evidence. Among the reasons for this bias, insufficient attention to attribution aspects. Matching of research ...
  • Books and Monographs
    We estimate that Brazil received $16 of benefit from every dollar invested by Embrapa in improving upland rice, edible beans, and soybean varieties. The total research benefits over the period 1981–2003 amounted to $14.8 billion in present value ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    E thiopia remains one of the least-developed countries in the world: 50 percent of the population lives in abject poverty, and average life expectancy is only 43 years. Agriculture—the main sector of the Ethiopian economy—employs about 80 percent ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study measures the vulnerability of farmers to climatic extremes such as droughts, floods and hailstorms, by employing the “vulnerability as expected poverty” approach. This approach is based on estimating the probability that a given shock ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study was conducted with the objective of determining the returns to sustainable land management (SLM) at the national level in Bhutan. The study first uses satellite data on land change (Landsat) to examine land use change in 1990–2010 and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper examines the performance of rural groups in Kenya and addresses the methodological issues and challenges faced in doing this, and presents the empirical evidence regarding various hypothesized explanatory factors for relative ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    As the goals of international agricultural research move beyond increasing food production to the broader aims of reducing poverty, both agricultural research and studies of its impact become more complex. Yet examining the magnitude and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    As the goals of international agricultural research move beyond increasing food production to the broader aims of reducing poverty, both agricultural research and studies of its impact become more complex. Yet examining the magnitude and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    As the goals of international agricultural research move beyond increasing food production to the broader aims of reducing poverty, both agricultural research and studies of its impact become more complex. Yet examining the magnitude and ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    One of 8 briefs in Research at a Glance — Genetic Resource Policies: Promising crop biotechnologies for smallholder farmers in East Africa. Briefs 19-26
  • Discussion Papers
    The National Agricultural Advisory Services (NAADS) program of Uganda is an innovative public-private extension service delivery approach, with the goal of increasing market oriented agricultural production by empowering farmers to demand and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In many countries, economic considerations are an important factor in government decision making on the introduction of genetically modified (GM) products. However, reliable information on their actual or likely economic impact is often lacking. ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In many countries, economic considerations are an important factor in government decisionmaking on the introduction of genetically modified (GM) products. However, reliable information on their actual or likely economic impact is often lacking. ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Ghana Study Case Agriculture in Ghana is characterized by low yields and productivity, which are compounded in the long run by production shocks due to environmental stresses such as drought, pests, and diseases. Vegetables are more ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Ghana Study Case Agriculture in Ghana is characterized by low yields and productivity, which are compounded in the long run by production shocks due to environmental stresses such as drought, pests, and diseases. Vegetables are more ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In many countries, economic considerations are an important factor in government decision making on the introduction of genetically modified (GM) products. However, reliable information on their actual or likely economic impact is often lacking. ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Proceedings of an Interdisciplinary Research Design Workshop jointly organized by the International Network for the Improvement of Banana and Plantain (INIBAP) and the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). Equatoria Hotel, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    While agricultural production statistics are reported on a geopolitical - often national - basis we often need to know the status of production or productivity within specific sub-regions, watersheds, or agro-ecological zones. Such ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Overall, global agricultural R&D spending in the public and private sectors steadily increased between 2000 and 2008. As further proof of positive development, most of this growth was driven by developing countries, since growth in ...
  • Online
    The ASTI initiative collects substantial original data focused on low- and middle-income countries on institutional developments, investments, and capacity in agricultural R&D at national, regional, and global levels. ASTI outputs describe ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This note summarizes an economic analysis of policy options to manage the low level presence (LLP) of traded genetically modified (GM) products approved in the exporting country but not yet by the importing destination. The results emphasize the ...
  • Books and Monographs
    The work of agricultural researchers and development workers in Africa has the potential to significantly improve the lives of the poor. But that potential can only be realized with easy access to high-quality data and information. The Atlas of ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Past investments in agricultural R&D have made a large contribution to Bangladesh’s rapid growth in agricultural output over time. However, fluctuation in annual agricultural R&D spending levels in recent years may deserve attention, ...
  • News
    The following post was originally published on the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security's News Blog Kenya appears to be booming. In the last decade, shiny office buildings have sprung up along the edges of ...
  • Publication
    bEcon-a web-based bibliography developed by researchers at the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)-is a selective collection of peer-reviewed applied economics literature that assesses the impacts of genetically engineered (GE) ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Project Papers and Notes
    New quantitative evidence presented in this report demonstrates that total public agricultural R&D spending in Asia–Pacific increased by 50 percent, from $8.2 billion in 1996 to $12.3 billion in 2008 (in 2005 PPP prices). Most of this growth ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The Ugandan coffee industry is facing some serious challenges, including low international prices in the international coffee market, aging coffee trees and declining productivity, and, more recently, the appearance of coffee-wilt disease, which ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The present paper analyzes the role of discourse in conflicts concerning nature conservation in tropical countries. We focus on the contested question as to whether and to which extent local communities should be allowed to live and use resources ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Using the case of the semi-arid zone of Southern Sri Lanka as an example, the paper shows that crop damages caused by grazing livestock can constitute an important obstacle to the adoption of available technologies for more sustainable land use. ...
  • News
    Can Africa’s agricultural sector compete in the global marketplace? Consumable “niche” goods in the form of luxury coffee and teas from Africa are already on the shelves of such major US and UK retailers as Starbucks, Fortnum and Mason, and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper leverages datasets and results from two separate studies carried out across eight Kajiado group ranches and offers a unique opportunity to look at emergent pre and post subdivision trends from an interdisciplinary framework that ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper uses a longitudinal data set from rural Bangladesh to analyze the factors that affect men’s and women’s ability to participate in groups and to engage in relationships with powerful and influential people. Unlike studies from other ...
  • CD-Roms
    BioConserv is a unique collection of literature that reflects the emerging interest of applied economists in plant and livestock biodiversity. The web-based bibliography is organized by themes and is also a complete searchable database. The ...
  • CD-Roms
    This is the second edition of the CD-ROM. The first was published in 2005. Search the BioConserv database More about BioConserv BioConserv is a unique collection of literature that reflects the emerging interest of applied economists in plant ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    One of 8 briefs in Research at a Glance — Genetic Resource Policies: Promising crop biotechnologies for smallholder farmers in East Africa. Briefs 19-26
  • Publication
    Testimony for the U.S. Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, May 7, 2008 Recent dramatic increases in food prices are having severe consequences for poor countries and poor people. The Food and Agriculture ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    One of 8 briefs in Research at a Glance — Promising crop biotechnologies for smallholder farmers in East Africa. Briefs 19-26
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This brief summarizes a study on commercial risks and the role of GM-free private standards in biosafety decisionmaking in developing countries. The findings are used to suggest a straightforward decisionmaking framework to help separate real ...
  • Discussion Papers
    South Africa is the only country in Africa that has both adopted genetically modified (GM) crops and developed a functional biosafety system to manage any risks related to the use of GM products. But it is also one of the only countries that ...
  • Discussion Papers
    We herein investigate the observed discrepancy between real and perceived commercial risks associated with the use of genetically modified (GM) products in developing countries. We focus particularly on the effects of GM-free private standards ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Briefs 7-12 of the Research at a Glance series, “Biotechnology and Genetic Resource Policies: What Is a Genebank Worth?”
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Briefs 1-6 of the Research at a Glance series, “Biotechnology and genetic resource policies” List of Briefs: 1. Policy, National Regulation, and International Standards for GM Foods. / Peter W. B. Phillips 2. Biotechnology, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Close to one billion people worldwide depend directly upon the drylands for their livelihoods. Because of their climatic conditions and political and economic marginalization drylands also have some of the highest incidents of poverty. Pastoral ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Botswana’s agricultural R&D capacity and investments rose rapidly during 1995–2007. However, inflationary pressures and a considerable exodus of R&D staff from DAR, the country’s principal public agricultural R&D agency, caused ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Muchos países desarrollados y en desarrollo registran niveles de inversión en investigación agropecuaria pública que permanecen estancados o incluso disminuyen. La inversión aumenta solamente en algunos de los países en desarrollo más avanzados y ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Muitos países em desenvolvimento e desenvolvidos estão enfrentando estagnação e até diminuição do investimento público em pesquisa agrícola. Os gastos estão aumentando em apenas alguns dos maiores, e muitas vezes, dos mais avançados países em ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Many developing and developed countries are experiencing stagnant and even declining investment in public agricultural research. Expenditure is increasing in only a few of the larger and often more advanced developing countries. Brazil ranks ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper seeks to identify the factors which are responsible for successful management of natural resources when communities are given opportunities to manage those resources. Applying the social capital framework, it analyzes empirical data ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Suicides in general, including farmers’ suicides, are a sad and complex phenomenon. Hence, their underlying causes need to be addressed within an equally complex societal framework. Here, we provide a specific case study on the potential ...
  • Books and Monographs
    The ADB-sponsored agriculture sector study, carried out by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), uses predictions of global climate models to develop scenarios to 2050 for Asia and to derive implications for food security. The ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    En 2008, le Burkina Faso investissait 3,9 milliards de francs CFA dans la R&D agricole, soit 19,5 millions de dollars (en prix de 2005); ce total incluait les salaires, les frais de fonctionnement et les coûts de programmes couverts par le ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In 2008, Burkina Faso’s investments in agricultural R&D totaled 3.9 billion CFA francs, or 19.5 million dollars (both in 2005 prices). This amount included the salary, operational, and program costs that were covered through government ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Les événements politiques de 1993 ont eu un impact néfaste sur la R&D agricole burundaise. L’infrastructure de recherche a été en grande partie détruite ou endommagée, les bailleurs de fonds étrangers ont suspendu leur assistance et les ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The political turmoil that hit Burundi in 1993 wreaked havoc on the country’s agricultural R&D. Much of Burundi’s research infrastructure was damaged or destroyed, donors withdrew, and overall investment and capacity levels plummeted. It was ...
  • Food Policy Reports
    Bajar El texto completo El reto El aumento irrestricto de las emisiones de gases está subiendo la temperatura del planeta. Las consecuencias incluyen el derretimiento de glaciares, el aumento de las precipitaciones y de la frecuencia ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Cambodia has been identified as one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change, given the predicted changes in temperature and precipitation, the share of labor in agriculture, and the country’s low adaptive capacity due to widespread ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Providing the poorest with safety nets and some form of social protection is becoming part of the agenda of the majority of developing countries. And while cash transfer programs started 15 years ago with experiments and pilot projects, there is ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In 1999, the Government of China enforced a cross-provincial, quota-based Water Allocation Agreement that was developed in 1987 and titled Unified Water Flow Regulation (UWFR) to ensure that flow to the Yellow River mouth would not be cut off. ...
  • CD-Roms
    CAPRi conferences
  • CD-Roms
    CAPRi conferences
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The System-wide Program for Collective Action and Property Rights (CAPRi) sponsored a workshop on Watershed Management Institutions, March 13-16, 1999 in Managua, Nicaragua. The workshop focused on methodologies for undertaking research on ...
  • Staff Profile
    Carlo Azzarri is a current member of the HarvestChoice team. Prior to joining IFPRI, Carlo was a team member of the Living Standard Measurements Study (LSMS) of the research group (poverty and inequality) at the World Bank. He was also a member ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper reports on outcomes and lessons learned from a 15-month initiative aimed at strengthening collective action to address natural resource conflict in Cambodia’s Tonle Sap Lake. Employing the Appreciation-Influence-Control (AIC) model of ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Staff Profile
    Cecile Martignac, a geographer, is a member of the HarvestChoice team as a visiting research fellow from CIRAD (French Agricultural Research for Development). More about Cecile Martignac in IFPRI eBrary Prior to her time at IFPRI, Cecile ...
  • News
    This Saturday marks International Women’s Day. The theme this year is “equality for women is progress for all,” and IFPRI’s gender work is essential to its larger mission of achieving food and nutrition security for all and reducing poverty ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Efforts to unlock the genetic potential of both rice and fish, when combined with efforts to improve the management of rice–fish systems, have considerable proven potential for increasing agricultural productivity and food security. In ...
  • Food Policy Reports
    Téléchargez Texte complet Le défi La croissance incontrôlée des émissions de gaz à effet de serre est en train de réchauffer la planète, avec pour conséquences la fonte des glaciers, l’augmentation des précipitations, la ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Evidence suggests that changing priorities and strategies among bilateral, multilateral, and philanthropic donors are channeling more resources into agricultural R&D. The trend is a welcome reversal of the downturns in funding for ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    After three decades of reform, agricultural R&D in China has made considerable progress. Total public expenditures on agricultural R&D doubled from 2001 to 2008, and private expenditure on agricultural R&D grew at an even faster ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Staff Profile
    Claudia Ringler was appointed Deputy Division Director of IFPRI’s Environment and Production Technology Division in 2011. From 1996 until her current appointment, she served in various other research positions in that division. She currently ...
  • Staff Profile
  • General Information
    Global climate change poses great risks to poor people whose livelihoods depend directly on agriculture, forestry, and other natural resource uses. IFPRI’s climate change research focuses on the assessment of, adaptation to, and mitigation of ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Climate change results from an increased concentration of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane associated with economic activities, including energy, industry, transport, and land use patterns. Rich countries emit the ...
  • News
    The southern region of Africa could be the hardest hit by rising temperatures from climate change, leaving many to wonder what this means for agriculture. Will some areas become unsuitable for farming? Will farmers face lower yields, or turn to ...
  • Press Release
    September 3, 2013, Maseru, Lesotho— The southern region of Africa could be the hardest hit by rising temperatures from climate change, leaving many to wonder what this means for agriculture. Will some areas become unsuitable for farming? Will ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Due to its arid to semi-arid climate, water is the single most constraining factor to Pakistani agriculture. Water resources are heavily appropriated for productive uses, and agriculture is the main user of water resources. Over eighty percent of ...
  • Books and Monographs
    This report reviews current knowledge of the effects of climate change on hunger. It summarizes knowledge from global studies completed and provides an overview of actions that can be taken to address the challenge. We believe that unless ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Two factors critical to assuring food security, whether at the local or the global level, are increasing crop productivity and increasing access to sustainable water supplies. These factors are also vital to the economic success of agriculture, ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    According to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, warming in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is expected to be greater than the global average, and rainfall will decline in certain areas. Global circulation ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Climate change impacts vary significantly, depending on the scenario and the Global Circulation Model (GCM) chosen. This is particularly true for Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper uses a comprehensive climate change scenario (CCC) based on ensembles ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper analyzes the effects of climate change on hydrology and water resources in the Limpopo River Basin of Southern Africa, using a semidistributed hydrological model and the Water Simulation Module of the International Model for Policy ...
  • Food Policy Reports
    Download Report (updated November 6, 2009) Appendix 1: Methodology (updated October 7, 2009) Appendix 2: Results by World Bank Regional Grouping of Countries The Challenge Related Event Agricultural Adaptation to Climate Change in the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Empirical evidence has shown that farmers can adapt to climate change by using sustainable land and water management (SLWM) practices that provide local mitigation benefits, reducing or offsetting the negative effects of climate change at the ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Maize is the primary food staple in southern Africa, and 50 percent of the total maize output in the area is produced in South Africa, where maize constitutes approximately 70 percent of grain production and covers 60 percent of the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper investigates the impact of climate variability on maize yield in the Limpopo Basin of South Africa using the Generalized Maximum Entropy (GME) estimator and Maximum Entropy Leuven Estimator (MELE). Precipitation and temperature were ...
  • News
    The following story was originally published on the BioMed Central blog. The piece highlights research findings from a recent Open Access article that was coauthored by IFPRI senior research fellow Siwa Msangi. Climate change is already putting ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In this paper, we develop an empirical model of an agro-pastoral system subject to high climatic risk to test the impact of rainfall variability on livestock densities, land allocation patterns and herd mobility observed at the community level. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Strengthening the abilities of smallholder farmers in developing countries, particularly women farmers, to produce for both home and the market is currently a development priority. Although value chain analysis has increasingly incorporated ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Decentralization implies an increase in the number of stakeholders involved in the design and implementation of interventions. This paper draws upon the experience of a multi-stakeholder program in India which has sought to increase the ...
  • News
    When it comes to enacting climate change policy in agriculture, policymakers are often challenged by a range of information and input from different sectors: the research community, the private sector, and the public and policymaking community. ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Millions of the rural poor now participate in collaborative forest management schemes under a variety of tenurial and organizational arrangements.We examine those arrangements and ask whether local people have indeed gained more access to ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Minor millets are examples of underutilized plant species, being locally important but rarely traded internationally with an unexploited economic potential. In the Kolli hills of Tamil Nadu, India, a genetically diverse pool of minor millet ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Collective action and property rights are two institutions that can significantly contribute to poverty reduction. Collective action aids in the efficient use and protection of natural resources and helps the poor secure land rights by advocating ...
  • Books and Monographs
    Edited by Esther Mwangi, Helen Markelova, and Ruth Meinzen-Dick To improve their well-being, the poor in developing countries have used both collective action through formal and informal groups and property rights to natural resources. Collective ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    While much attention has been given to examining various aspects of poverty, a number of studies have shown that institutional environment in which the poor exist conditions welfare outcomes, thus highlighting the inherently crucial importance of ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Overview Ruth Meinzen-Dick and Monica Di Gregorio; Understanding Collective Action Elinor Ostrom; Understanding Property Rights Ruth Meinzen-Dick, Rajendra Pradhan, and Monica Di Gregorio; Local-Level Public Goods and Collective ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Institutions of collective action and systems of property rights shape how people use natural resources, and these patterns of use in turn affect the outcomes of people’s agricultural production systems.Together, mechanisms of collective action ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Fisheries are complex and interdependent ecological and social systems that require integrated management approaches. The actions of one person or group of users affect the availability of the resource for others. Managing such common pool ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The adoption of intensified cattle-feeding techniques by smallholders in Sub-Saharan Africa has been slower than anticipated. This study seeks to better define and understand the role of local collective action in conditioning the strategies that ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Collective action can help individuals, groups, and communities achieve common goals, thus contributing to poverty reduction. Drawing on longitudinal household and qualitative community data, the authors examine the impact of shocks on household ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The role of well-functioning markets for development is now widely recognized, however the challenge remains to make these markets benefit the poor and the environment. Increasing attention is being given to the potential role markets can play ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Issues concerning farmers with small land holdings figure prominently in global discussions about poverty reduction, as the majority of the world’s poor belong to such households. Most of these households are linked to the market in one way or ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This project explored the possible role of collective action among small-scale farmers in managing and maintaining genetic resources in a center of crop diversity. It focused on the local institutions that ensure the supply of seed of diverse ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Water and watersheds are difficult to separate for management purposes. Providing irrigation as a supplement to rainfall for crop production requires considerable collective action at the watershed level to mobilize labor and other resources, as ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Leaf-cutting ants (Atta. cephalotes) represents a serious problem to farmers in many parts of Latin America and accounts of ants eating up a whole cassava plot or destroying one or more fruit trees overnight are not uncommon. Ants do not respect ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Since crop and animal pests destroy farmers’ production, this brief looks at the ways pests can be controlled either by individual farmers, by public programmes, or by “neighbors working together”. This brief examines those ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Collective action aims at the joint management of common pool resources. Agrobiodiversity at the community level is conceptualized as a collective resource requiring the management of varieties, species and their interrelations within a ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper develops and applies a new approach for analyzing the spatial aspects of individual adoption of a technology that produces a mixed public-private good. The technology is an animal insecticide treatment called a “pouron” ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The primary inquiry of this study is to identify and understand the underlying factors that enable smallholder farmer groups to improve their market situation. The specific objective of this paper is to examine to what extent certain group ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This study presents an approach to analyzing decentralized forestry and natural resource management and land property rights issues, and catalyzing collective action among villages and district governments. It focuses on understanding the current ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Households face many collective action situations, with members working together to produce livelihoods and allocate goods. But neither unitary nor bargaining models of the household provide frameworks to analyze the conditions under which ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Policies to devolve responsibility for natural resource management to local bodies have become widespread in the past 20 years. Although the theoretical advantages of user management have been convincing and the impetus for devolution policies ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Policies to devolve responsibility for natural resource management to local bodies have become widespread in the past 20 years. Although the theoretical advantages of user management have been convincing and the impetus for devolution policies ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Recomendações para os Delegados do UNFCCC in Durban de cientistas líderes dos BRICS, Indonésia e Estados Unidos da América Mudança climática é a maior ameaça para segurança alimentar sustentável. Temperaturas estão aumentando, os padrões de ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Hungarian home gardens are small-scale farms managed by farm households using traditional management practices and family labor. They generate private benefits for farmers by enhancing diet quality and providing food when costs of transacting in ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In this paper we examine the impact of commodity price volatility on calorie attainment and its variability for households at the nutritional poverty line in Bangladesh. We focus on the first two moments of the distribution of calorie consumption ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    A functioning natural resource base plays a significant role in the livelihoods of people of the Mekong Delta who rely heavily on agriculture and fishing. The harvest of aquatic animals as a source of protein is essential to the countries, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper examines the nature of community management of woodlots and investigates the determinants of collective action and its effectiveness in managing woodlots, based on a survey of 100 villages in Tigray, northern Ethiopia. We find that ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Spatial and temporal attributes of watersheds and the associated market failures that accelerate degradation of agricultural and environmental resources require innovative institutional arrangements for coordinating use and management of ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In communities hit hard by HIV and AIDS, households not directly incurring a death may nevertheless be affected by taking in orphans, losing access to resources owned by kin-related afflicted households, or transferring resources to afflicted ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the fundamentals of community-based adaptation (CBA) efforts. To start, it develops and describes a framework on adaptation to climate change used as the basis for this research. The paper then ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This paper analyzes the current and proposed biosafety systems in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda using a set of components and characteristics common to functional and protective biosafety regulatory systems. It also assesses how those ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “The purpose of the research paper is to characterize biological diversity related to millets in the semi-arid regions of India at various spatial scales of analysis (e.g., farm household versus community levels) and place that evidence in ...
  • Books and Monographs
    Bangladesh has some social safety net programs that transfer food to the poor, some that transfer cash, and some that provide a combination of both. This study evaluates the relative impacts of food and cash transfers on food security and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This first in a series of regional conferences on this subject brought together more than fifty agricultural scientists and policymakers from China, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, and from international agricultural ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Sustaining the environmental, social, and economic development in Manupali watershed in southern Philippines is highly dependent on equitable allocation of water use rights and judicious utilization of water as a scarce resource. There are many ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Intensive double or triple monocropping of rice has caused degradation of the paddy micro environment and reductions in rice yield growth in many irrigated areas in Asia. Problems include increased pest infestation, mining of soil micronutrients, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Since 1996, a growing coalition of stakeholders from the private sector, government and donor communities has promoted a new package of agronomic practices for smallholders in Zambia. The conservation farming (CF) system they advocate involves: ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Brief 6 of the Research at a Glance series, “Biotechnology and Genetic Resource Policies”.
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agriculture is the principal source of food and livelihood in Nigeria, and employs nearly three-quarters of the nation’s work force. Over the past two decades, agricultural yields have stayed the same or declined. Although there has been a ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper develops a model of differentiated consumers to examine the consumption effects of genetic modification (GM) under alternative labeling regimes and segregation enforcement scenarios. Analytical results show that if consumers perceive ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper presents a detailed description of the applied methodology used to study collective action in natural resource management (NRM). Data were collected in 48 villages in northeastern Burkina Faso, at the community, institutional, ...
  • Books and Monographs
    Rural producer organizations, such as farmers’ organizations or rural cooperatives, offer a means for smallholder farmers in developing countries to sell their crops commercially. They hold particular promise for Sub-Saharan Africa, where ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Spending per scientist declined precipitously within African agricultural R&D agencies over the past several decades. In 1991, average cost per researcher across 147 R&D agencies was $119,300 in 1985 international dollars - or US$59,500 ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Worldwide, the number of genebanks and the amount of seed stored in them has increased substantially over the past few decades. Most attention is focused on the likely benefits from conservation, but conserving germplasm involves costs whose ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Au cours des années 90, la recherche agricole en Côte d’Ivoire connut d’importants changements avec le lancement du PNASA, projet en grande partie financé par un prêt de la Banque mondiale et qui aboutit à la création du CNRA. Le coup d’État de ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    During the 1990s, agricultural research in Côte d’Ivoire underwent major changes, following the launch of PNASA II, a project that was largely funded through a World Bank loan and which led to the establishment of CNRA. The December 1999 coup ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Costa Rican coffee farmers are almost fully exposed to world price variability. Yet, despite small farm sizes, specialization in coffee, and a marketing system that prolongs uncertainty and aggravates cash flow problems, this study finds that ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Although several institutional and management approaches that address the degradation of the rangelands have been tested in the dry areas of Central and West Asia and North Africa (CWANA), impact has been limited. Nonetheless, the development of ...
  • General Information
    *All data related to investment and spending patterns are adjusted for inflation. BENIN Agricultural R&D expenditures have gradually increased since 2000, reflecting enhanced government funding and greater involvement by the higher ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Since the 1970’s, the worldwide capacity of genebanks for ex situ conservation of crop genetic resources has increased greatly. This has increased the accessibility of landraces and wild and weedy relatives to crop breeders; in situ ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Brief 20 of the Research at a Glance series, Genetic Resource Policies: Promising Crop Biotechnologies for Smallholder Farmers in East Africa: Bananas and Maize.
  • Discussion Papers
    Ethiopia holds large potential for dairy development due to its large livestock population, the favorable climate for improved, high-yielding animal breeds, and the relatively disease-free environment for livestock. Given the considerable ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Discussion Papers
    To support gender analysis in agriculture, household surveys should be better designed to capture gender-specific control and ownership of agricultural resources such as male-owned, female-owned, and jointly owned assets. This paper offers ...
  • Staff Profile
    David J. Spielman, a U.S. national, joined the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) in 2004, and is currently a senior research fellow based in Washington, DC. His research agenda covers a range of topics including agricultural ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Staff Profile
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper analyzes how women’s participation affects institutional outcomes related to the decentralized governance of community forests in Madhya Pradesh, India. The analysis is based on data from a representative sample of 641 cases of ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Decentralized approaches to development are gaining increasing prominence. Land tenure reform policy has been affected by many different types of decentralization. However, the literature on land tenure reform rarely explicitly addressed the ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Small-scale, resource-poor farmers in developing countries face daily stresses, including poor soils, drought, and lack of inputs. Ongoing trends such as climate change and population growth will likely exacerbate binding stresses. A new ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper attempts to project the future supply and demand up to the year 2025 for rice and wheat, the two main cereals cultivated and consumed in India. A review of studies that forecast the supply and demand of Indian agriculture commodities ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In this paper, we derive estimates for willingness to pay for rainfall-index based insurance contracts. Surveys were undertaken in four regions in Morocco, representing different mean and variability of rainfall conditions. Results indicate ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Although there is growing evidence of the increasing role of nonfarm activities in rural livelihoods, there is still relatively little empirical evidence regarding the factors that influence smallholder farmers to diversify into nonfarm ...
  • Discussion Papers
    En este informe se discuten los principales resultados de los diagnósticos participativos realizados durante el período comprendido entre junio de 2001 y mayo de 2002 en 95 comunidades (aldeas) en las zonas rurales de ladera en Honduras. El ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “On farm conservation of crop diversity poses obvious policy challenges in terms of the design of appropriate incentive mechanisms and possible trade-offs between conservation and productivity. This paper compares factors explaining the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study identifies the major methods used by farmers to adapt to climate change in the Nile Basin of Ethiopia, the factors that affect their choice of method, and the barriers to adaptation. The methods identified include use of different crop ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Ethiopia’s agricultural sector, which is dominated by smallscale, mixed-crop, and livestock farming, is the mainstay of the country’s economy. It constitutes more than half of the country’s gross domestic product, generates more ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper explores the determinants of farmers’ investments in indigenous soil and water conservation measures in the semi-arid tropics of India. Many types of indigenous conservation measures are observed in three study villages, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study investigates the micro-determinants of land use change using community, household and plot histories, an ethnographic method that constructs panel data from systematic oral recalls. A 20-year historical timeline (1975-1995) is ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In this paper, we develop a theoretical farm household model of food crop production and marketing decisions, derive testable hypotheses concerning the determinants of these decisions, and test these hypotheses, using data on cereal production ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “The paper discusses the application of the Water Poverty Index (WPI) as a monitoring tool for Benin’s water sector. Benin is currently in a process of political decentralization shifting responsibility for and administration of rural ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “The choices that smallholder farmers are able to make are strongly conditioned by the geographic conditions in which they live. The importance of this fact for rural development strategy is not lost on policy makers. For example, the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper describes an action research process undertaken with four African agricultural carbon projects—CARE’s Sustainable Agriculture in Changing Climate Initiative in Western Kenya; World Vision’s Assisted Natural Regeneration Project in ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper investigates the patterns and determinants of change in livelihood strategies (“development pathways”), land management practices, agricultural productivity, resource and human welfare conditions in Uganda since 1990, based ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    2020 Focus 16 Brief 4 Many opportunities exist for mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through better management of trees and soils. There is potential for both direct mitigation through better management of carbon in agricultural ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In 2013 the Bureaus of Agriculture in the regional states of Amhara, Oromia, and Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples of Ethiopia supported a program of direct marketing of certified seed by seed producers to farmers across 31 woredas ...
  • Discussion Papers
    With growing water scarcity and increasing competition across water-using sectors, the need for water savings and more efficient water use has increased in importance in water resources management. Improvement in the physical efficiency of water ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Because land is scarce, farmers in China increasingly have to rely on nonfarm activities to enhance their incomes. The functioning of rural nonfarm labor markets is therefore crucial in determining who has access to nonfarm employment. Previous ...
  • Discussion Papers
    It is widely believed that land tenure insecurity under a customary tenure system leads to socially inefficient resource allocation. This article demonstrates that land tenure insecurity promotes tree planting, which is inefficient from the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper investigates the long–term impact of agricultural technologies, disseminated using different implementation modalities, on men’s and women’s asset accumulation in rural Bangladesh. Data were collected in 1996–97 to examine the effects ...
  • News
    As the world’s population continues to expand, ensuring that food production can meet the growing demand is an ever-mounting challenge. Climate change, soil degradation, and volatile food prices further threaten food security at a time when ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This report is a component of the Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security (CCAFS)–-funded project “Impacts of Climate Extremes on Future Water and Food Security in South Asia and East Africa.” The goal of the project ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In a climate of rapid technological change, it is important to evaluate policies on the innovation incentives that result from the introduction of intellectual property rights as they relate to agricultural genetic resources. In this paper, we ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The scale of innovation required to face up to Africa’s challenges, more than ever, will involve multiple actors within and beyond the agricultural sector to coordinate their learning and action in order to improve management of natural resources ...
  • CD-Roms
    DREAM, or Dynamic Research EvaluAtion for Management, is a menu-driven software package for evaluating the economic impacts of agricultural research and development (R&D). Users can simulate a range of market, technology adoption, research ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Econometric studies of the effects of research on productivity have typically imposed arbitrary restrictions on the length and shape of the R&D lag profile. These restrictions are likely to have biased up both the measured effects of R&D ...
  • Books and Monographs
    The second of three books in IFPRI's climate change in Africa series, East African Agriculture and Climate Change: A Comprehensive Analysis examines the food security threats facing 10 of the countries that make up east and central Africa - ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Agriculture is essential to the economies of East African countries. Climate change, with its effects on temperature and precipitation, threatens this important economic activity. How to foster agricultural development and food security in East ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This summary note is an excerpt from the chapter on Burundi that will appear in the peer-reviewed IFPRI monograph, East African Agriculture and Climate Change: A Comprehensive Analysis. The research, produced in collaboration with scientists from ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This summary note is an excerpt from the chapter on Democratic Republic of the Congo that will appear in the peer-reviewed IFPRI monograph, East African Agriculture and Climate Change: A Comprehensive Analysis. The research, produced in ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This summary note is an excerpt from the chapter on Eritrea that will appear in the peer-reviewed IFPRI monograph, East African Agriculture and Climate Change: A Comprehensive Analysis. The research, produced in collaboration with scientists from ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This summary note is an excerpt from the chapter on Ethiopia that will appear in the peer-reviewed IFPRI monograph, East African Agriculture and Climate Change: A Comprehensive Analysis. The research, produced in collaboration with scientists ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This summary note is an excerpt from the chapter on Kenya that will appear in the peer-reviewed IFPRI monograph, East African Agriculture and Climate Change: A Comprehensive Analysis. The research, produced in collaboration with scientists from ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This summary note is an excerpt from the chapter on Madagascar that will appear in the peer-reviewed IFPRI monograph, East African Agriculture and Climate Change: A Comprehensive Analysis. The research, produced in collaboration with scientists ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This summary note is an excerpt from the chapter on Rwanda that will appear in the peer-reviewed IFPRI monograph, East African Agriculture and Climate Change: A Comprehensive Analysis. The research, produced in collaboration with scientists from ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This summary note is an excerpt from the chapter on Sudan* that will appear in the peer-reviewed IFPRI monograph, East African Agriculture and Climate Change: A Comprehensive Analysis. The research, produced in collaboration with scientists from ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This summary note is an excerpt from the chapter on Tanzania that will appear in the peer-reviewed IFPRI monograph, East African Agriculture and Climate Change: A Comprehensive Analysis. The research, produced in collaboration with scientists ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This summary note is an excerpt from the chapter on Uganda that will appear in the peer-reviewed IFPRI monograph, East African Agriculture and Climate Change: A Comprehensive Analysis. The research, produced in collaboration with scientists from ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Phytoremediation is the use of living plants, known as hyperaccumulators which absorb unusually large amounts of metals in comparison to other plants. The use of classical plant breeding and new molecular techniques offers great potential ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    In recent years, prices of agricultural land have increased quickly, actually doubling and tripling in many parts of the world. This land value reassessment has been prompted by rising crop prices and perceived land scarcity. But even as the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    When a new technology consists of sequences of innovations that culminate in a final consumer product, the balance between successive innovators is one of the main concerns in the design of the patent system. While intertemporal aspects of ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Approximately 80 percent of poor people in Sub-Saharan Africa continue to depend on the agricultural sector for their livelihoods, but—unlike in other regions of the world—agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa is characterized by very low yields due ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Two possible adaptation options to climate change for Sub-Saharan Africa are analyzed under the SRES B2 scenario. The first scenario doubles the irrigated area in Sub-Saharan Africa by 2050, compared to the baseline, but keeps total crop area ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The number of higher-education institutions and the students enrolled in them has grown rapidly throughout Africa since the early 1960s. The number of universities increased from less than 20 in 1960 to nearly 160 by 1996; student numbers grew ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Project Papers and Notes
    “The role of various stakeholders in the management of natural resources is not clear in the West African countries. This paper discusses the historical changes in power delegation from central origins to peripheral institutions. The ...
  • Staff Profile
    Elizabeth Bryan is a Senior Research Analyst in the Environment and Production Technology Division where she focuses on climate change adaptation and mitigation and water resourced management. Prior to joining IFPRI, she worked as a consultant ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper explores how and to what extent women and men have benefited from the build-up of social capital in technology uptake, and the role of women in this process. Using a case study on Groundnut Production Technology (GPT) in Maharashtra, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The role of local and external institutions in natural resource management (NRM) is gaining attention in the literature, fostering greater understanding of the relationship between collective action and poverty, collective action and equity, and ...
  • Books and Monographs
    At a time in history when conflict erupts daily in far-flung corners of the world, ending severe deprivation may be critical to global peace and stability. Yet we are far from reaching the goal of reducing hunger by 2025. The authors of this book ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The 11 CGIAR genebanks conserve over 660,000 accessions (plant or seed samples) of crops grown mainly by poor people (such as cassava, millet, sorghum and cowpea), staple food crops grown throughout the world (such as rice, wheat and maize), and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper makes a case for gender equity in the agricultural R&D system. It reviews the evidence on exactly why it is important to pay attention to gender issues in agriculture and why it is necessary to recognize women’s distinct ...
  • Books and Monographs
    Research has shown that women, when given the capital and opportunity, make unique, positive contributions to development outcomes ranging from agricultural productivity to poverty reduction. It comes as little surprise, then, that agricultural ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    While the three programs reviewed in this paper emphasize local production of capacities through building local institutions, they continue to depend on external sources of funding. The recent economic growth in several African countries could ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The most recent (2010–2011) drought in the arid and semiarid lowlands (ASAL) of the Horn of Africa has rendered over 13 million people in need of food, and caused a devastating famine in southern Somalia. The drought has also raised concerns that ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    As the population continues to grow and natural resources become scarcer, the need to shift toward an environmentally responsible, socially accountable, more equitable, and “greener” economy has become increasingly apparent. Despite differing ...
  • General Information
    Agriculture is vitally important to poor and vulnerable people in developing countries, the majority of whom live in rural areas and depend on the land as a source of both food and income. Unpredictable weather, unstable markets, fragile natural ...
  • Staff Profile
    Ephraim Nkonya, a senior research fellow, conducts research on land management and natural resources in sub-Saharan countries and central Asia. More about Ephraim Nkonya in IFPRI eBrary Google Scholar RePEc Ephraim, a citizen of Tanzania, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper introduces and applies an analytical framework to study how formal and informal institutions influence socio-economic change and poverty reduction in rural Cambodia, giving specific reference to property rights and collective action. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    A Generalized Maximum Entropy (GME) approach is adapted to empirically estimate crop-specific production technologies in Chinese agriculture. Despite a modest behavior assumption about equal marginal returns of non-land inputs among crops, this ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Increasingly, research has indicated that in more risky production environments, genetic variation within species and within population increases the ability to respond to the increasing challenges of environmental stress. This paper analyses the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agricultural R&D investment and human resource capacity have both grown since the early 1990s in Ethiopia. Agricultural research spending doubled between 1993 and 2000, and then doubled again during 2000–01. The 2008 value of investment at ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    With a per capita income of only about 20 percent of the African average, Ethiopia is one of the world’s poorest countries. More than 85 percent of the country’s population lives in rural areas, where agriculture is the main economic activity and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The theorized impact of land tenure and titling on access to credit has produced mixed results in the empirical literature. Land tenure and titling is hypothesized to increase access to credit because of the enhanced land security provided and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Watershed projects play an increasingly important role in managing soil and water resources throughout the world. Research is needed to ensure that new projects draw upon lessons from their predecessors’ experiences. However, the technical ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Progressive legislative actions in Uganda and Tanzania have improved women’s legal rights to land, however significant gender disparities persist in access, control, inheritance, and ownership of land at the grassroots level. One promising ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper examines fifteen cases of collective action in six villages in rural Bangladesh. Collective action was defined broadly and identified from significant episodes in previous life-history research in the same villages. The types of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Agriculture plays a dominant role in nearly all the countries of East and Central Africa, and many face similar agroecological, climatic, and development challenges. As a result, significant scale economies can be made through the regionalization ...
  • Discussion Papers
    An in-depth quantitative analysis is undertaken in this paper to assist the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Secretariat, member countries, and development partners in setting future regional investment priorities for agricultural ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The indigenous people of Talaanding in Basac village, Bukidnon, the Philippines, had to deal with a high occurrence of disease and a high number of malnourished children in their village. This situation was due to the inability of the local ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Food security in Africa has substantially worsened since 1970. Although the proportion of malnourished individuals in Sub-Saharan Africa has remained in the range of 33-35 percent since around 1970, the absolute number of malnourished people in ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study adopted the multinomial logit model to analyze factors affecting the choice of coping strategies in response to climate extreme events for the Ethiopian Nile River Basin. Results from the multinomial logit model show that different ...
  • General Information
    In 2005, the Nigerian government launched Fadama II, a World Bank-funded project intended to increase the income of farmers, fishers, and other poor people in the low-lying floodplains, or fadama areas, where poverty is concentrated. The project ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper uses farm survey data from Eastern Province, Zambia to show that regional income multipliers arising from agricultural growth may be stronger than previously thought for Sub-Saharan Africa. However, the growth multipliers are driven ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    There are some apparently successful cases of collective marketing with staple food commodities (grains and root crops), but these are less common than cases involving higher value agricultural products. These can be attributed to the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper investigates the effects of wheat genetic diversity and land degradation on risk and agricultural productivity in less favored production environments of a developing agricultural economy. Drawing production data from household survey ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Recent efforts to develop rice cultivars with drought-tolerance (DT) traits have resulted in the release of several varieties that demonstrate significant resilience to drought stresses. This paper addresses the previously unanswered question of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Maize, the second most globally important staple crop after wheat, originated in Mexico, where it is typically grown as part of a set of associated crops and practices called the milpa system. This ancient mode of production is practiced today in ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    In this brief, we learn that “combining technical innovations with collective action initiatives has been shown to lead to substantial farmer benefits. A number of farmer-led research and extension (FRE) approaches incorporate collective ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “A typical private good is defined by its excludability and rivalry characteristics. Information embodied in a technology might not generate rivalry among its users. By contrast, excludability is certainly a characteristic of this kind of ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Although achieving in situ conservation is possible without changing farmers’ customary management of crops as common pool resources, an alternative approach is to negotiate a bioprospecting contract with providers of the resource that ...
  • Staff Profile
    Fatima Zaidi joined the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) in 2011, and is currently a Research Analyst based in Washington, DC. She works on the Pakistan Strategy Support Program (PSSP) and the Cereal Systems Initiative for ...
  • News
    By 2050, global agricultural production will need to increase by at least 60 percent from 2006, according to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Both CGIAR and FAO are in the midst of priority setting efforts to identify ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper explores the nature of several key drivers of change in food systems and examines a number possible entry points for policy intervention to determine their effect on food prices and other market-driven outcomes. Among the drivers of ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This brief explores the nature of several key drivers of change in food systems and examines a number possible entry points for policy intervention to determine their effect on food prices and other market-driven outcomes.
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Recommendations for the UNFCCC Delegates in Durban from Leading Scientists in the BRICS Countries, Indonesia, and the United States Climate change is a major threat to sustainable food security. Temperatures are rising, precipitation patterns are ...
  • News
    Environmental land degradation is one of the most serious threats to the environment worldwide. It is a threat to biodiversity, human health, and the crops upon which many people depend on for survival. Earlier this month, IFPRI Videographer Milo ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Governments around the globe are trimming their support for agricultural R&D, giving greater scrutiny to the support that they do provide, and reforming the public agencies that fund, oversee, and carry out the research. These contemporary ...
  • Press Release
    February 5, 2014, Washington D.C.–Aquaculture–or fish farming–will provide close to two thirds of global food fish consumption by 2030 as catches from wild capture fisheries level off and demand from an emerging global middle class, especially in ...
  • Books and Monographs
    The seemingly inexhaustible oceans have proved to be finite after all. Capture of wild fish have leveled off since the mid-1980s, and many stocks of fish are fished so heavily that their future is threatened. And yet the world’s appetite for fish ...
  • News
    Amid a future of growing populations, economies, and changing diets, questions arise as to how current practices can meet future food demands. Aquaculture, also known as fish farming, may be key: It is expected that as much as two-thirds of all ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The Agroforestry Tree Seeds Association of Lantapan (ATSAL) in Bukidnon province, southern Philippines was organized in 1998, facilitated by the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF). Farmers were trained on germplasm collection, processing and ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Tabla de matieras: Tecnologias para las tierras altas del este de Africa;tecnologias para las zonas tropicales de los Andes; Tecnologias para las tierras altas del sudeste de Asia; Utilidades de la inversion publica: datos de la India y China; ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The first decade of the 21st century has brought harbingers of a troubled future for global food security. The food-price spike of 2008 led to food riots and political change in several countries. In 2010, the excessive heat and drought in Russia ...
  • Online
    An interactive visualization tool, developed in partnership with StatPlanet, to provide detailed information about a diversity of indicators, including subnational crop area and yields, national average calorie availability, and international ...
  • Event
    An IFPRI Agricultural Technology Summit More information Media materials Report Issue Brief Online Tool Infographic Video Powerpoints Mark Rosegrant Judy Chambers Guillaume Gruere Johannes Linn Ruth Meinzen-Dick On February 12th, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Updated January 2014 This study compares the effects that different technologies have on crop yields and resource use, particularly arable area, water, and nutrients. By modeling technology-induced changes in crop yields, the analysis also helps ...
  • Books and Monographs
    Download book (PDF 6M) Download appendices (PDF 16M) The world’s population is expected to reach 9 billion by 2050. Climate change, population, and income growth will drive food demand in the coming decades. Baseline scenarios show food prices ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Feeding the world in the decades leading up to 2050—decades that will see an increase in food demand spurred by population and income growth and stronger impacts of climate change on agriculture—will require increased and more sustainable ...
  • Books and Monographs
    As the global population grows and incomes in poor countries rise, so too, will the demand for food, placing additional pressure on sustainable food production. Climate change adds a further challenge, as changes in temperature and precipitation ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Forest conflict in Asia is on the rise as various stakeholders have different views about and interests in the management of increasingly scarce resources. Unfortunately, in many instances, local communities and indigenous peoples suffer the most ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Forest sector governance reform is frequently promoted as a policy tool for achieving favorable livelihood outcomes in the low income tropics. However, there is a dearth of empirical evidence to support this claim, particularly at the household ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The last decade has seen the emergence of a number of innovative community level initiatives in Asia, Africa and Latin America for agrobiodiversity development and conservation. Traditional knowledge systems form and integral part of many of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The paper develops a framework for the design and analysis of pluralistic agricultural advisory services and reviews research methods from different disciplines that can be used when applying the framework. Agricultural advisory services are ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “Agricultural advisory services play an important role in supporting the use of the agricultural sector as an engine of pro-poor growth and enabling small farmers to meet new challenges, such as accessing export markets, adopting ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Building on ongoing research, this paper aims at suggesting alternative ways to conventional IPR systems to promote local varieties and related knowledge in developing countries. Many attempts to protect genetic diversity and local knowledge ...
  • Books and Monographs
    The community-driven development (CDD) approach has become increasingly popular because of its potential to develop projects that are sustainable, are responsive to local priorities, empower communities, and more effectively target poor and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Poverty remains entrenched in Nigeria, where 70 percent of the rural population lives below the poverty line. In response, the Nigerian government launched the Second National Fadama Development Project (Fadama II) in 2005. Based on the ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The community-driven development (CDD) approach has become increasingly popular because of its potential to develop projects that are sustainable, are responsive to local priorities, empower local communities, and more effectively target poor and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The community-driven development (CDD) approach has become increasingly popular because of its potential to develop projects that are sustainable, are responsive to local priorities, empower local communities, and more effectively target poor and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Au cours de ces dernières décennies, les dépenses consacrées à la recherche agricole au Gabon ont témoigné d’une très grande volatilité. En 2008, le pays investissait 406 millions de francs CFA à la R&D agricole, soit 1,6 million de dollars ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Over the past few decades, Gabon’s agricultural research spending levels have exhibited a highly volatile trend. In 2008, the country invested 406 million CFA francs, or 1.6 million dollars (in PPP 2005 prices), which represents an extremely low ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Brief 21 in the Research at a Glance series— Genetic Resource Policies: Promising crop biotechnologies for smallholder farmers in East Africa: Bananas and Maize.
  • Staff Profile
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper presents a framework for investigating the intersection of collective action and gender; i.e. how gender-oriented analysis can foster more effective collective action in the context of agriculture and natural resource management and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    “Collective action plays a vital role in many people’s lives, through such areas as income generation, risk reduction, public service provision, and the management of natural resources. However, men’s and women’s interests ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Floodplain wetlands are the major common pool natural resource in Bangladesh. Mostly men fish, and both men and women collect aquatic plants and snails. Case studies contrast a women-only, men-only, and mixed community based organization (CBO), ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Men and women participate in collective action for different purposes in northern Nigeria. Field work conducted in six villages show that while men engage in community activities such as road repairs, maintenance of schools and hospitals, refuse ...
  • Books and Monographs
    About the Book Summarizes women’s contributions to agriculture and food security and the obstacles to their broader participation Draws on data at the micro, census and national levels Challenges conventional story lines on women ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Being able to access, control, and own productive assets such as land, labor, finance, and social capital enables people to create stable and productive lives. Yet relatively little is known about how agricultural development programs can most ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper seeks to contribute to the literature on village governance and local public goods provision. Using data from 144 village-level governments in India’s Tamil Nadu state, we examine whether the gender and caste of village ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper analyzes the ways in which gender issues affect property rights and the use of natural resources in developing countries. It examines the informal practices of resource use, usually involving multiple uses by multiple users. ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Changing agricultural research and extension systems mean that informal mechanisms of information diffusion are often the primary source of information about improved seed and practices for farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. This paper investigates ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    TA mixed-methods, multiple-stage approach was used to obtain data on how gender and wealth affected participation in community groups in Meru, Kenya, and how men and women farmers obtain and diffuse agricultural information. Research techniques ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Agricultural production statistics reported at country or sub-national geopolitical scales are used in a wide range of economic analyses, and spatially explicit (geo-referenced) production data are increasingly needed to support improved ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Includes briefs 19-26: 19- Assessing the Impact of Crop Genetic Improvement in Sub-Saharan Africa: Research Context and Highlights By Melinda Smale 20- Crucial Determinants of Adoption: Planting Material Systems for Banana and Maize By ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Briefs 13 - 18 of the Research at a Glance series, “Genetic Resource Policies: What is Diversity Worth to Farmers?” 13- Introduction: On-Farm Genetic Resources and Economic Change 14- Traits and Taxonomies—Building Blocks for ...
  • Books and Monographs
    A variable climate, political instability, and other constraints have limited agricultural development in African countries south of the Sahara. Genetically modified (GM) crops are one tool for enhancing agricultural productivity and food ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Genetically modified (GM) food crops have the potential to raise agricultural productivity in Asian countries, but they are also associated with the risk of market access losses in sensitive importing countries. We study the potential effects of ...
  • Staff Profile
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Human activities such as fossil fuel burning and deforestation have significantly increased the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases (GHG) leading to global climate change. Global climate change and its associated weather extremes pose ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Global climate change poses great risks to poor people whose livelihoods depend directly on the use of natural resources. Mitigation of the adverse effects of climate change is a high priority on the international agenda. Carbon trading, under ...
  • Books and Monographs
    CONTENTS: Table of Contents, Foreword and Acknowledgements Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: Recent Trend in Food Supply and Demand Chapter 3: The IMPACT Model Chapter 4: Projections of Global Food Supply and Demand and Child ...
  • Report
    Agricultural biotechnology has been used to address constraints in agriculture and has the potential to make a major contribution to the overall goal of sustainable intensification. The adoption of agricultural biotechnology, and specifically ...
  • For thousands of years, the Yellow River Basin (YRB) has been the cultural and economic center of China. The nutrient-rich soils transported by the river from the Loess Plateau have supported an economy largely based on agriculture—and ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Land is still among the most important assets of the rural population in the developing world. Land resources are governed by a variety of tenure systems based on statutory, customary, or religious law. At the same time, many national, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Poverty in rural India has declined substantially in recent decades. This steady decline in poverty was strongly associated with agricultural growth, particularly the green revolution, which in turn was a response to massive public investments in ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Qu’elles soient considérées comme « accaparements de terre » ou comme investissements agricoles pour le développement, les grandes transactions foncières, réalisées par les investisseurs dans les pays en développement, font l’objet de beaucoup ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Ce document propose une analyse de la dimension de genre dans le débat croissant sur les grandes transactions foncières. Il répond au manque d’information actuel sur l’impact différent que les grandes transactions foncières peuvent avoir ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Water scarcity is an increasingly critical issue for food production around the world. This is particularly true for the world’s poorest region, Sub-Saharan Africa, due to its growing malnutrition and almost complete dependence on rainfed ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Globally, most food is produced using soil moisture that comes from precipitation (i.e., “green” water). Moreover, most of the water that reaches plants in irrigated systems also stems from precipitation. Despite this, irrigation (or “blue”) ...
  • Discussion Papers
    By some estimates, agricultural practices account for 20 percent of India’s total greenhouse gas (GSG) emissions; thus, cost-effective reductions in agricultural emissions could significantly lower India’s overall emissions. We explore mitigation ...
  • Books and Monographs
    In Pakistan, where agriculture is heavily dependent on irrigation, informal water markets are an increasingly important way to provide small farmers and tenant farmers with access to ground- water. The public canal irrigation system provides ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper explores the determinants of group membership and social networks of rural households using a unique longitudinal data set from the rural Philippines. We investigate two types of social capital: membership in groups (production, ...
  • News
    This blog story featuring commentary by IFPRI Senior Research Fellow Siwa Msangi and other experts was originally posted on The Guardian’s Development Professionals Network. Meghan Sapp, secretary general, Pangea, Brussels, Belgium. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Public investment, together with institutional and policy reforms, has contributed substantially to rapid economic growth in rural China since the late 1970s. This rapid growth has also led to dramatic reductions in rural poverty. In this study ...
  • Online
    An initiative, jointly led with the University of Minnesota’s International Science and Technology Practice and Policy program, to generate knowledge products to help guide strategic investments to improve the well-being of poor people in ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The current food price crisis has received widespread attention, but discussions to date have largely overlooked the gender dimensions of the crisis. More than 15 years of rigorous research on gender and intrahousehold resource allocation suggest ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study compares the impacts of integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) on crop production with use of either mineral fertilizer or organic manure alone. We also investigate the conditions under which .ISFM technology has greater ...
  • Food Policy Reports
    “This report spells out the benefits to the United States from its partnership with the CGIAR. Using wheat and rice to illustrate the gains from international research on important food crops, the report shows that U.S. investments in CGIAR ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Staff Profile
    Ho-Young joined IFPRI as a Research Fellow of EPTD in March 2013. He received his Masters in Environmental Management from Duke University at Durham, NC and PhD in Environmental Sciences from University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL. Prior ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper develops a framework to measure the impact of agricultural research on urban poverty. Increased investments in agricultural R&D can lower food prices by increasing food production, and lower food prices benefit the urban poor ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Vietnam is likely to be among the countries hardest hit by climate change, threatening its legacy as a champion in leveraging agriculture for development. This paper examines how a changing climate may affect rice production and how Vietnamese ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Table of Contents Brief 1: The Impact of Climate Variability and Climate Change on Water and Food Outcomes: A Framework for Analysis by Claudia Ringer Brief 2: Vulnerability and the Impact of Climate Change in South Africa’s ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Output in Chinese agriculture has grown rapidly for the last several decades, as reported by the Statistical System in China. However, reported total output is aggregated using constant prices, which has been proven to be inappropriate by many ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Reflections on the Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI) “The [Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture] Index is designed to be comparable across countries and to track changes over time so we can see whether there has ...
  • Discussion Papers
    There have been competing arguments about the effect of public infrastructure on productivity in the literature. Level-based regressions generally show a much higher return to public capital than private capital, while difference-based ...
  • Staff Profile
    More about Hua Xie in IFPRI ebrary
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Growth in numbers of agricultural researchers has accelerated by roughly 20 percent since 2000. In some countries, this growth resulted from long-term recruitment bans being lifted, whereas in other countries it was due to increased involvement ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Ethiopia is susceptible to frequent climate extremes such as disastrous droughts and floods. These disastrous climatic events, which have caused significant adverse effects on the country’s economy and society, are expected to become more ...
  • General Information
    This brochure highlights some of IFPRI’s activities in South Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia, Central Asia, and across the continent.
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Well-funded and well-staffed agricultural research systems with efficient allocation of research resources are important for improving agricultural productivity and meeting other agricultural development goals. Data on agricultural research ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper reviews the literature on the subject of the role of improved agricultural technology in alleviating poverty in developing countries. Focusing primarily on improved cultivars produced by the international agricultural research system, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The Yellow River basin (YRB) is the breadbasket of China and the “cradle of Chinese civilization.” The basin is characterized by severe water scarcity; the ratio of surface water withdrawal to water resources, at 64 percent in 2008, is among the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Climate change continues to have major impact on crop productivity all over the world. While many researchers have evaluated the possible impact of global warming on crop yields using mainly indirect crop simulation models, there are relatively ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper describes the land property rights and tenure systems in the western escarpments of the Yemeni Highlands, and analyses the impact of land tenure arrangements and other socioeconomic factors on terrace maintenance. Owner-cultivated land ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper introduces a modeling method which simulates a village’s response to population and market pressure. The method combines a linear programming model with a biophysical model of soil condition and plant growth. The linear ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Land degradation, in the form of soil erosion and nutrient depletion, threatens food security and the sustainability of agricultural production in many developing countries. Governments and development agencies have invested substantial resources ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper uses an agricultural sector model to evaluate the effects of an ambitious and ongoing policy reform program on agricultural production and resource use in Egypt. The results show that Egypt has already gained from the policy reforms, ...
  • Books and Monographs
    In Uganda, agricultural extension has been hotly debated since the implementation of the National Agricultural Advisory Services (NAADS) program in 2001. Conceived as a demand-driven approach and largely publicly funded with services provided by ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This article uses combined household- and community-level data collected from the Maule Region (VII) of Chile to evaluate factors affecting the decision to participate in yearly irrigation maintenance activities, and the influence of current ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The competition for limited water resources between agriculture and more highly valued domestic and industrial water uses is rapidly increasing and will likely require the transfer of water out of agriculture. This paper reviews and synthesizes ...
  • CD-Roms
    This report of the findings of a CGIAR research project includes seven case studies of different types of agricultural research: aggregate investments in agricultural research in China and India; rice, vegetable, and fishpond technologies in ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Numerous studies indicate that agricultural production is sensitive to climate variability, and lack of infrastructure in developing countries increases vulnerability to extreme climate events. In Ethiopia, the historical climate record indicates ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Extreme interannual variability of precipitation within Ethiopia is not uncommon, inducing droughts or floods and often creating serious repercussions on agricultural and non-agricultural commodities. An agro-economic model, including mean ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper analyzes drivers of global change and their impacts on the current and future availability and accessibility of water resources in the Nile Basin. Drivers include changes in demography, climate, the socioeconomy, and politics, all of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study investigated the impacts of access to inventory credit, input supply shops, fertilizer microdosing demonstrations, and other factors on farmers’ use of inorganic fertilizer and other inputs in Niger and on crop yields. We found ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The government of Uganda is currently decentralizing many of its services including those directly related to agriculture and the environment. Non-government organizations (NGOs) and community-based organizations (CBOs) are being asked to take ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper investigates the impacts of a social forestry program in Indonesia, Hutan Kamasyarakatan (HKm), based on analysis of a survey of 640 HKm and comparable non-HKm plots in the Sumberjaya watershed of southern Sumatra, and of the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    To mitigate a drinking water crisis in Kathmandu valley, the Government of Nepal initiated the Melamchi Water Supply Project in 1997, which will divert water from the Melamchi River to Kathmandu city’s water supply network. In the first ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Improving women’s ability to securely access land is recognized as an effective means to increase gender equality and advance other key social and economic development goals. Despite progressive laws in many African countries, gender disparities ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This policy note describes the economy wide implications of public investments and policies developed under Pakistan’s new Framework for Economic Growth. Policies based on this Framework are expected to lead to substantial gains in productivity ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Public investments and policies under Pakistan’s new Framework for Economic Growth are expected to lead to substantial gains in productivity, especially in the industrial and service sectors of Pakistan’s economy. Computable General Equilibrium ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “The decline in soil fertility in smallholder systems is a major factor inhibiting equitable development in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Some areas fallow in order to strength soil fertility for later planting, but as populations increase, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This case study explores the development, dissemination, adoption, and impact of improved tree fallows in rural western Kenya. The processes of technology development and dissemination throughout the region are described and analyzed. To analyze ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “We examine access to, use of, and participation in decisions on improved water supply in the Volta basin of Ghana, one of the first countries to introduce a community-based approach to rural water supply on a large scale. While 71 percent ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper uses data collected in an extensive survey of farm costs in the Dong Nai River Basin of Vietnam to estimate the parameters of production functions for rice, vegetables, and coffee. These estimates are then combined with price ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The forest management strategy of Nepal is based on people’s participation, which is known as community forestry. This approach was formally introduced in 1978 to encourage active participation of local people in forest management ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Research on collective action confronts two major obstacles. First, inconsistency in the conceptualization and operationalization of collective action, the key factors expected to affect collective action, and the outcomes of collective action ...
  • Discussion Papers
    A lack of data often makes biological management decisions difficult and has been an area of contention in the debate over the approval of transgenic crops. Our knowledge of agricultural and natural systems is limited and our ability to gain ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Pollution of the environment by metals and organic contaminants is an intractable global problem, with cleanup costs running into billions of dollars using current engineering technologies. The availability of alternative, cheap and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    India has substantially increased its public funding of agricultural research since the late 1990s. This trend will likely continue in years to come. The Indian government’s strong commitment to agricultural R&D has been rewarded with high ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The demand for extending intellectual property protection to agriculture in developing countries has met with counterclaims for granting farmers’ rights. Developing countries are currently attempting to fulfill these demands by evolving new ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    In this brief, the authors suggest five areas for action to put rural India on a higher growth trajectory that would cut hunger, malnutrition, and unemployment at a much faster pace than has been the case so far. The five areas for action are ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Rapid industrial development and urbanization transfer more and more land away from agricultural production, threatening China’s capability to feed itself. This paper analyzes the determinants of land use by modeling arable land and sown ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper provides an assessment of information flows and the acquisition of knowledge in water governance of the Upper East Region, Ghana. These flows are patchy, often parallel, disconnected or slow. In many cases a great deal of information ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Green Revolution technologies have not been widely adopted in Africa. What are the chances that they will play a major role in the near future? This paper shows that the enabling infrastructure, especially rural roads and irrigation systems are ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Brief 5 of the Research at a Glance series, “Biotechnology and Genetic Resource Policies”.
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Dimensions of the nature, scope, and complexity of collective action in Kenya have evolved over many years. In studying collective action, the aim is to understand why and how people participate in networks of trust. The purpose of this study was ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Agricultural research and innovation has been a major source of agricultural growth in developing countries. Unlike most research on agricultural research and innovation which concentrated on the role of government research institutes and the ...
  • Books and Monographs
    International agricultural research is expanding beyond the development of annual crop technologies for individual farms to the development of longer-tern natural resource management techniques for entire landscapes. But technologies of practices ...
  • Archive
    International agricultural research is expanding beyond the development of annual crop technologies for individual farms to the development of longer-tern natural resource management techniques for entire landscapes. But technologies of practices ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Tomato, cabbage, and garden egg (African eggplant, or Solanum aethiopicum) are important crops for small-scale farmers and migrants in the rural and peri-urban areas of Ghana. Genetic modification has the potential to alleviate poverty through ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The maintenance of crop diversity on farmers’ fields in hot spots of plant genetic diversity is considered a “global life insurance policy” in the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD 2001:1). This paper provides evidence of ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This brief considers the benefits and costs of alternative tenure and institutional arrangements and the impact of existing legal and policy frameworks on the sustainability and equity of pastoral production systems under three categories of ...
  • Archive
    “Irrigation is critical to food security and economic growth in contemporary India. The performance of irrigation systems is of serious concern to farmers who rely on them for their crops and livelihoods and to governments that have ...
  • Books and Monographs
    As water resources become increasing scare in India and demand only increases, the challenge of sustaining irrigation systems and the lands they serve is a matter of crucial importance. In particular, the livelihood of millions of farmers is ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The agriculture sector has great potential to contribute to the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions through changes in agricultural management and land use. However, the technical potential for agricultural mitigation has yet to translate into ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Increasing competition for water across sectors increases the importance of the river basin as the appropriate unit of analysis to address the challenges facing water resources management; and modeling at this scale can provide essential ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Ethiopia is at a critical crossroads with a large and increasing population, a depressed national economy, insufficient agricultural production, and a low number of developed energy sources. The upper Blue Nile basin harbors considerable ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Brief 3 of the Research at a Glance series, “Biotechnology and genetic resource policies”
  • Discussion Papers
    With the growth of private investment in developing-country agriculture, new advances in the biological sciences, and rapid integration of developing countries into the global trading system, intellectual property rights (IPRs) have become an ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The role of intellectual property rights (IPRs) has been extensively debated in the literature on technology transfers and agricultural production in developing countries. However, few studies offer cross-country evidence on how IPRs affect yield ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    An international conference was held in Amman, Jordan in September 1997 to examine mounting problems of poverty and environmental degradation in the low rainfall areas (LRAs) of the eight Mashreq and Maghreb countries of West Asia and North ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The System-wide Program for Collective Action and Property Rights (CAPRi) sponsored an International Conference on Policy and Institutional Options for the Management of Rangelands in Dry Areas, May 7-11, 2001 in Hammamet, Tunisia. The conference ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Changing perceptions of resource ownership have altered international exchange of genetic resources. After summarizing the role of genebanks and issues related to property regimes, this paper presents an empirical study of one of the ...
  • Technical Guides
    The International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT) was developed at IFPRI at the beginning of the 1990s to address a lack of long-term vision and consensus among policy-makers and researchers about the ...
  • Publication
    IMPACT - the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade - was developed at IFPRI in 1990s, upon the realization that there was a lack of long-term vision and consensus among policy makers and researchers about ...
  • CD-Roms
    The IMPACT D download version of this model is no longer available. With widespread interest in the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT) projections, we developed a distributable version of ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This brief summarizes a comprehensive review of national and international trade-related regulations on the food and feed products derived from transgenic or genetically modified (GM) crops, identifies the main effects of these regulations on ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The rapid expansion of commodity agriculture in tropical forest landscapes is a key driver of deforestation. To meet the growing demand from a more prosperous and expanding global population, it is imperative to develop sustainable commodity ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Banana is a staple crop consumed by Ugandan households. The Uganda National Agricultural Research Organization has implemented conventional and biotechnology programs that seek improving bananas and address the crop’s most important pest ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Brief 7 of the Research at a Glance series, “Biotechnology and Genetic Resource Policies: What is a Genebank Worth?”
  • IFPRI Briefs
    En muchas partes del mundo, el aumento del crecimiento agrícola tendrá un papel clave contribuyendo a superar la actual crisis alimentaria mundial, aportando al crecimiento económico general, y ayudando a lograr el primer Objetivo de Desarrollo ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Over the past three decades the development of agricultural research staff in sub-Saharan Africa has been impressive. Developments in agricultural research expenditures were less positive. Many of the developments of the past decade in personnel, ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Discussion Papers
    Latin America and the Caribbean are relatively well endowed with water resources. However, population growth and rapid urbanization are putting considerable pressure on water available for irrigation. Local and regional water scarcity problems ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Governments are now shifting their role from direct management of irrigation systems to regulation of the water sector, provision of support services to water user associations, and capacity building among water user associations and irrigation ...
  • News
    The answer is—as usual—that it depends! This post is part of the CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE) website’s coverage of the recent conference on “Water in the Anthropocene: Challenges for Science and ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Staff Profile
    James Hawkins joined IFPRI in September of 2014 as a Senior Research Assistant in the Environment and Production Technology Division. His research focus is on developing and implementing bio-economic models to address issues related to the ...
  • Staff Profile
    Jawoo Koo joined IFPRI in July 2007 as a postdoctoral fellow in the Environment and Production Technology Division. He holds a B.A. in Agricultural Biology from Korea University, Seoul, Korea, and a M.S. and a Ph.D. in Agricultural and Biological ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Water management in the Pirapama River Basin in northeastern Brazil is affected by both water quantity and water quality constraints. The region is known for significant sugarcane-based ethanol production—which is key to the Brazilian economy and ...
  • Staff Profile
    José Falck-Zepeda joined IFPRI in 2004 as a Research Fellow. His work at IFPRI focuses on the economics and impact assessment of biotechnology, biosafety and emerging technologies. In addition, José focuses on agricultural R&D policy and ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Staff Profile
    Kathleen Flaherty is a Senior Research Analyst with the Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators (ASTI) initiative. She had previously worked in the Development Strategy and Governance Division from 2006 to mid-2009 and the Environment and ...
  • Staff Profile
    Keith Wiebe is a Senior Research Fellow at the International Food Policy Research Institute in Washington DC, where he leads a research program on Global Futures and Strategic Foresight. Prior to joining IFPRI in October 2013, he was Deputy ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Staff Profile
  • Discussion Papers
    La biotecnología agropecuaria ha demostrado tener amplio potencial para ayudar a mejorar la eficiencia de la agricultura, el crecimiento económico y las políticas dirigidas a combatir a la pobreza, tanto en América Latina como en el resto del ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper characterizes and measures the contribution of social capital to the performance of 50 agroenterprises in Colombia. Using qualitative analysis we document how social capital performs a variety of functions in firms, including providing ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In 2006, India proposed a draft rule requiring the labeling of all genetically modified (GM) foods and products derived thereof. In this paper, we use primary and secondary market data to assess the economic implications of introducing such a ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    A multiplicity of national approaches: During the last seven years, more than forty countries have adopted labeling regulations for GM food, but the characteristics of the regulations and their degree of implementation vary greatly. Among the ...
  • News
    This post is part of the CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE) month-long series of blog stories on Ecosystem Services. Diversity in land use can support ecosystem services such as biological pest control and reduce the need ...
  • News
    Land degradation—the loss of goods and services derived from our ecosystems, such as soil, vegetation, and other plant and animal life—not only poses a serious threat to long-term food security but puts wildlife diversity in grave danger. Taking ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Successful adoption of natural resource management technologies requires that important fundamentals of property rights be established. Because disputes over property rights occur universally, the ability to successfully defend one’s rights ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper explores statistically the implications of the shift from communal to individualized tenure on the distribution of land and schooling between sons and daughters in matrilineal societies, based on a Sumatra case study. The inheritance ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper develops a theoretical model of land leasing that includes transaction costs of enforcing labor effort, risk pooling motives and non-tradable productive inputs. We test the implications of this model compared to those of the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This study analyzes the determinants of land tenure insecurity and its impact on intensity of use of purchased farm inputs among households in Southern Ethiopia. Seventeen percent of the households stated that they were tenure insecure. The ...
  • Books and Monographs
    CONTENTS: Introduction / Esther Mwangi and Eric Patrick; Land Tenure, Land Reform, and the Management of Land and Natural Resources in Africa / Joan Kagwanja; Legal Dualism and Land Policy in Eastern and Southern Africa / Martin Adams and Stephen ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    There has long been an active debate in Haiti - as in many other developing countries - over whether or not the customary tenure system constrains technology adoption and agricultural development, and whether cadaster and land titling should be ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Ethiopia experiences a fierce political debate about the appropriate land tenure policy. After the fall of the socialist derg regime in 1991, land property rights have remained vested in the state and only usufruct rights have been alienated to ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In 1987, an improved resource management system that incorporates velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis) to address soil fertility and weed (Imperata cylindrica) infestation was introduced to the small-scale farmers in a densely populated area ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Discussion Papers
    El presente trabajo busca plantear argumentos acerca de las dimensiones de género en el marco del creciente debate sobre las transacciones de tierras a gran escala. El documento hace referencia al vacío actual de información sobre los efectos ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Las transacciones para la adquisición de tierras a gran escala por inversionistas en los países en vías de desarrollo, ya sean consideradas como “acaparamiento de tierras” o como inversión agrícola, están generando mucha atención. No obstante, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Le changement climatique et la dégradation des terres constituent de très fortes menaces pour la survie de millions de personnes en Afrique sub-saharienne. Pourtant, il est d’ores et déjà réellement possible de contribuer à améliorer les ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Conventional conceptions of property rights focus on static definitions of property rights, usually as defined in statutory law. However, in practice there is co-existence and interaction between multiple legal orders such as state, customary, ...
  • News
    Technology can serve as a catalyst in agriculture, shifting farmers from subsistence to profit, and spurring dramatic quality of life improvements for the rural poor in many developing countries. New technologies can also help farmers contend ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Technology-driven gains in agricultural productivity and profitability can dramatically improve quality of life for the rural poor in developing countries. Extension efforts to disseminate agricultural technologies typically assume that farmers ...
  • Staff Profile
    Liangzhi You, a senior scientist, joined IFPRI in 2000 to conduct research on agricultural science and technology policy. Liangzhi earned a B.S. in hydraulic engineering from Tsinghua University, Beijing, and an M.S. in environmental economics ...
  • India spends more money on agriculture each year than any other developing Asian country. These expenditures (Figure 1) have contributed to the dramatic improvement in the country’s food security situation since the mid-1960s and to a ...
  • Books and Monographs
    “This research report on India addresses an important policy issue faced by policy-makers in many developing countries: how to allocate public funds more efficiently in order to achieve both growth and poverty-reduction goals in rural ...
  • Books and Monographs
    Agriculture is vital to the economies of Sub-Saharan Africa: two-thirds of the region’s people depend on it for their livelihoods. Nevertheless, agricultural productivity in most of the region is stagnant or declining, in large part because ...
  • Agriculture is vital to the economies of Sub-Saharan Africa: two-thirds of the region’s people depend on it for their livelihoods. Nevertheless, agricultural productivity in most of the region is stagnant or declining, in large part because ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This study investigates the impacts of rural poverty on farmers’ land management decisions, crop production and incomes, based upon analysis of data from the 1999/2000 Uganda National Household Survey. We find that the impacts of ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The paper draws on findings from research in South Sulawesi and Jambi Provinces, Indonesia, looking at the role of collective action in helping two local community groups enhance their bargaining power vis a vis other market players (such as ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    While clinical care providers, program managers and other stakeholders increasingly recognize the critical importance of nutrition for the treatment of HIV and AIDS, interventions that link nutritional support to treatment are relatively new. The ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study analyses seven factors used to explain the conversion of forest to pasture in Central America between 1979 and 1994: 1) favorable markets for livestock products, 2) subsidized credit and road construction, 3) land tenure policies, 4) ...
  • Discussion Papers
    A team of researchers from the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO), and the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) collaborated to produce this ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In developing countries, identifying the most effective community-level governance structure is a key issue and, increasingly, empirical evaluation of the effects of democratization on the provision of local public goods is needed. Since the ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    There are no easy solutions to the ongoing food price crisis. Maize and wheat prices doubled between 2003 and 2008, and the price of rice doubled in the first four months of 2008, rising 33 percent in a single day. Even with declines in food ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The sustainability of natural resource management depends not only on appropriate technology and prices, but also upon the institutions involved in resource management at the local level. This discussion paper aims to identify factors which ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “In the subsistence-oriented, semi-arid production systems of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, India, the environment is marginal for crop growth and often there is no substitute for millet crops. Across communities, farmers grow thirteen ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Changes in India’s seed regulations during the 1990s favored the growth of privately- as compared to publicly-funded sectors. Most advances have been made in the major millet crops, sorghum and pearl millet, as compared to finger ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    2020 Resilience Conference Brief 4 - Building Resilience for Food and Nutrition Security - May 15-17, 2014 - Addis Ababa, Ethiopia People have always faced shocks and have devised a variety of institutional responses to cope with, recover ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    According to the author, “Given the vital importance of public goods in providing basic services necessary for alleviating poverty and in managing the local natural resource base for sustainable development, this brief offers an approach to ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Payments for environmental services (PES) are increasingly discussed as appropriate mechanisms for matching the demand for environmental services with the incentives of land users whose actions modify the supply of those environmental services. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Sub-Saharan Africa is the only developing region in the world where food insecurity has worsened instead of improved in recent decades. In this discussion paper, Mark W. Rosegrant, Sarah A. Cline, Weibo Li, Timothy B. Sulser, and Rowena A. ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Disputes over land, water, forests, rangelands, and other resources, both privately and commonly-held, are omnipresent across Africa and increasing in number due to the socioeconomic and environmental changes happening on micro- and macro-levels. ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Degradation of natural resources has be come a global probelem that threatens the livelihood of millions of poor people. Many promising technologies for natural resource management are available to address these problems, but farmers and others ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This synthesis revisits the “maize success story” in Sub-Saharan Africa, drawing selectively from an extensive published literature about maize seed technical change and related policies. The review focuses on the countries of Kenya, ...
  • Press Release
    Climate change will alter future weather and change crop and animal productivity. But economic models differ on the magnitude of these changes, according to the world’s lead economic modelers. Estimates on both the direction and magnitude are ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    There is growing pressure for farmers in countries such as Uganda to accelerate their efforts to commercialize production in the face of increasing market competition from neighboring countries and across the world. To assist farmers, a new ...
  • General Information
    The Program for Biosafety Systems (PBS) is an IFPRI‐managed program that supports countries in Africa and Asia in the responsible development and safe use of agricultural biotechnology. PBS effectively addresses biosafety through an integrated ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Malaria is one of the top five causes of death worldwide, and roughly half the world’s population lives at risk of the disease. This health problem disproportionately affects the poor, particularly those in Africa south of the Sahara, where the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    malaria is still largely considered a health issue, and almost all interventions have a health focus (key interventions include insecticide treated bed nets and anti-malaria medication), even though those most at risk of malaria spend much of ...
  • News
    Africa south of the Sahara has been plagued by low agricultural productivity while at the same time fertilizer usage has remained stubbornly low in the region. In an attempt to boost output, African governments have taken to subsidizing ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Despite year-to-year fluctuations, agricultural research investment in Malaysia remained roughly constant between 2002 and 2010. Capacity levels did increase, however, primarily reflecting the recruitment of younger, BSc-qualified researchers. ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Au Mali, malgré tous les efforts que les autorités ont faits ces dernières décennies pour promouvoir le développement agricole, la R&D agricole reste largement tributaire de l’aide accordée par des bailleurs de fonds et des banques de ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Although the political authorities have taken great pains to promote agricultural development during the past few decades, Mali’s R&D remains largely dependent on the support provided by donors and development banks, in particular through a ...
  • Staff Profile
    Man Li is a Research Fellow at the Environment and Production Technology Division of the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). She is a researcher working at the intersection of land economics, spatial modeling, and economic ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Seasonal changes and ambiguity in property rights over land and natural resources create conflicts in rural communities in eastern Zambia. This study describes how rural households have minimized such conflicts and protect the economic interests ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Drought is a recurrent and often devastating threat to the welfare of countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) where three-quarters of the arable land has less than 400 mm of annual rainfall, and the natural grazings, which support a ...
  • Books and Monographs
    This study analyzes the links between risk and the kinds of property rights that have evolved to provide the mobility necessary to raise livestock in drought-prone countries—in this case Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, and Niger. The study also ...
  • News
    The following article was jointly written by IFPRI researchers Weston Anderson and Liangzhi You from the Environmental and Production Technologies Division (EPTD) and Evgeniya Anisimova, communications specialist for the CGIAR Research Program on ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper analyzes the vulnerability of South African farmers to climate change and variability by developing a vulnerability index and comparing vulnerability indicators across the nine provinces of the country. Nineteen environmental and ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    In southern Africa, by the middle of the 21st century climate change is expected to cause temperature increases of 1–3°C, broad summer rainfall reductions of 5–10 percent, and an increase in the incidence of both droughts and floods. ...
  • News
    Although Africa possesses nearly half of the world’s uncultivated arable land area, the prospect of expanding agricultural production into these zones carries significant environmental risks and is not viewed by many experts as a viable solution ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Staff Profile
    Mark W. Rosegrant is the Director of the Environment and Production Technology Division at the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) in Washington, DC. With a Ph.D. in Public Policy from the University of Michigan, he has extensive ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study analyzes how market imperfections affect land productivity in a degraded low-potential cereal- livestock economy in the Ethiopian highlands. A wide array of variables is used to control for land quality in the analysis. Results of ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This brief analyzes the past successes and recent challenges of South Africa’s trade and marketing policies on genetically modified (GM) products, with the aim of drawing lessons for countries that are designing their biosafety systems.
  • Discussion Papers
    “Modern crop production is based on only a few plant species. Particularly in marginal environments of developing agricultural economies, many less well-known agricultural or non-timber forest species, continue to be grown, managed or ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Being a sparsely populated desert country, Mauritania’s total agricultural R&D capacity and investments are understandably significantly lower than those of many West African countries. In 2008, the country employed 74 agricultural R&D ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    La Mauritanie étant un pays désertique faiblement peuplé, l’on comprend aisément que les investissements totaux réalisés dans la R&D agricole y sont sensiblement inférieurs aux totaux enregistrés dans bien d’autres pays ouest-africains. En ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Ethiopia’s agricultural sector, which is dominated by smallscale, mixed crop, and livestock farming, is the mainstay of the country’s economy. It constitutes more than half the nation’s gross domestic product (GDP), generates ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study analyzes the vulnerability of Ethiopian farmers to climate change based on the integrated vulnerability assessment approach using vulnerability indicators. The vulnerability indicators consist of the different socioeconomic and ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Ethiopia’s agricultural sector, which is dominated by smallscale, mixed crop, and livestock farming, is the mainstay of the country’s economy. It constitutes more than half the nation’s gross domestic product (GDP), generates ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The paper develops indicators to look at the performance of the irrigation sector in Sub-Saharan Africa, where demand for food is high and irrigation has a proven potential to boost levels of agricultural productivity. By looking at six indicator ...
  • Discussion Papers
    While a number of empirical studies have demonstrated the role of Bt cotton adoption in increasing Indian cotton productivity at the farm level, there has been questioning around the overall contribution of Bt cotton to the average cotton yield ...
  • Books and Monographs
    As progressively more farmers in developing countries begin using biotech crops, careful evaluation of such crops’ benefits becomes ever more important. This food policy review examines the applied economics literature regarding the impact of ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The presentation of the emerging evidence on performance indicators on crop improvement R&D from the DIVA Project is a frustrating paper to read because the analysis is preliminary and commodity coverage is incomplete. Only about 70 percent ...
  • General Information
    La agricultura es de vital importancia para personas que sufren hambre en el mundo. En su gran mayoría estas personas viven en áreas rurales y dependen de la tierra como medio de vida para lograr su sustento. Más aún, el creciente deterioro de ...
  • Staff Profile
  • News
    Much is still uncertain about the potential effects of climate change on agriculture, leading to widespread uncertainty surrounding the future of global food security. Leaving hunger to chance is not a plan anyone embraces, but how can people ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    With renewed recognition of the importance of collective action in many aspects of agriculture, natural resource management, and rural development programs in developing countries, there is a need for research on the factors that affect its ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    A method of consensus building for management of wetlands and fisheries using a systematic approach to participatory planning and initially developed in Bangladesh is now being applied in both Bangladesh and the Mekong delta. The method ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Discussion Papers
    Adaptation to climate change involves changes in agricultural management practices in response to changes in climate conditions. It often involves a combination of various individual responses at the farm-level and assumes that farmers have ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper discusses micro-level practices for adapting to climate change that are available to small-scale farmers in Africa. The analysis is based on a review of 17 studies about practices that boost small-scale farmers’ resilience or reduce ...
  • Staff Profile
  • 2020 Focus
    2020 Focus 16 Brief 6 Livestock—poultry, small ruminants (such as goats and sheep), cattle, and pigs—provide many benefits for human well-being. Livestock production systems, especially in developing countries, are changing rapidly in ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Os níveis de capacidade institucional de I&D de Moçambique aumentaram entre 2004 e 2008, sobretudo nas instituições governamentais. Contudo, o desenvolvimento dos dos recursos humanos e formação ainda constituem as maiores necessidades em ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Os níveis de capacidade institucional de I&D de Moçambique aumentaram entre 2004 e 2008, sobretudo nas instituições governamentais. Contudo, o desenvolvimento dos dos recursos humanos e formação ainda constituem as maiores necessidades em ...
  • With increasing competition for water across sectors and regions, the river basin has been recognized as the appropriate unit of analysis for addressing the challenges of water resources management. Modeling at this scale can provide essential ...
  • Books and Monographs
    With increasing competition for water across sectors and regions, the river basin has been recognized as the appropriate unit of analysis for addressing the challenges of water resources management. Modeling at this scale can provide essential ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The worsening degradation of natural resources urgently requires the adoption of more sustainable management practices. This need has led to growing interest and investment in monitoring systems for tracking the condition of natural resources. ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    2020 Focus 16 Brief 8 Facilitating carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems could provide a significant amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) abatement, which is necessary to limit global temperature increases to only 2 degrees ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Mozambique’s agricultural R&D capacity levels increased between 2004 and 2008, particularly at the government agencies; however, human resource capacity and training are still major needs across all agencies. As a group, researchers in ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agricultural R&D in Namibia differs from most other African countries in several key ways. The country’s agricultural R&D intensity ratio is nearly four times the African average, its R&D agencies are relatively well-funded by the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The study attempts to measure the total benefits from rice varietal improvement research in China and India using variety adoption and performance data over the last two decades. It then uses genetic or pedigree information to partition the total ...
  • Barbier and Bergeron explore several hypotheses about the dynamics of natural resource management in the hillsides of La Lima and further explore the causes and consequences of the transition to vegetable production. To fully integrate ...
  • Books and Monographs
    Barbier and Bergeron explore several hypotheses about the dynamics of natural resource management in the hillsides of La Lima and further explore the causes and consequences of the transition to vegetable production. To fully integrate ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The objective of this study is to simulate the effect of population pressure, market integration, technological improvement and policy decisions on natural resource management in the hillsides of Honduras. To do so, we developed a bioeconomic ...
  • Books and Monographs
    Water is essential for life and livelihoods. As demands for water increase — for drinking, domestic use, irrigation, industry, and environmental conservation — areas that were once water-abundant are increasingly challenged by conflicting claims ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The 2002 completion of AREP, a World Bank–financed project, led to a sharp decline in Nepal’s agricultural R&D investment levels. Although spending rebounded somewhat during 2003–09, total agricultural R&D expenditures remain below the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The purpose of this discussion is to highlight some key features and guiding principles of assistance to those engaged in forming, fortifying, and supporting professional capacity building networks in the agricultural sector. The type of networks ...
  • Food Policy Reports
    This report investigates the under-explored role that local forms of social capital, in particular local organizations and social networks, play in enhancing resilience. The case studies used are of Ethiopian funeral societies and Filipino ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Natural disasters can be extremely disruptive to farmers and to others whose incomes depend on a successful crop. Society can gain from more efficient sharing of crop and natural disaster risks. However, the costs associated with traditional ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This paper describes the dramatic cassava transformation that has taken place in Nigeria and Ghana over the past 50 years. From a rural subsistence crop, cassava has become a major cash crop sold in urban markets, a source of livestock ...
  • News
    In response to a call to action from the White House, the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Research Foundation’s Center for Integrated Modeling of Sustainable Agriculture and Nutrition Security (CIMSANS) has announced a new ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “Given the number of undernourished people in the developing world and the increasingly complex risks to food security, policymakers are faced with an enormous agenda. Freeing people from hunger will require more and better-targeted ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Given the number of undernourished people in the developing world and the increasingly complex risks to food security, policymakers are faced with an enormous agenda. Freeing people from hunger will require more and better-targeted investments, ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Staff Profile
  • Staff Profile
    Nienke Beintema is head of the Agricultural Science & Technology Indicators (ASTI) initiative. The ASTI initiatve involves collaborative alliances with a large number of national and regional R&D agencies as well as international ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Avec un taux qui, en 2008, ne dépassait pas 0,25 % de son PIBA, le Niger se classe parmi les pays africains qui investissent le moins dans la recherche agricole. En effet, en 2008, les dépenses consacrées à la R&D agricole avaient chuté de 80 ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Niger is one of the African countries with the lowest rate of investment in agricultural research: only 0.25 percent of its AgGDP in 2008. The country’s agricultural R&D expenditure in 2008 showed an 80 percent drop compared with the level ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    After a period of stagnation in the late-1980s and early 1990s, investments in Nigeria’s public agricultural R&D increased substantially around the turn of the millennium. Adjusted for inflation, investments doubled from 12 million naira in ...
  • Staff Profile
    Nilar(pronounced Nee-la) has joined IFPRI as a Communications Specialist where her time is split 50/50 between ASTI and EPTD projects. She has an MA in International Communications from the American University School of International Service. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This paper presents an empirical case study about farmer management of rice genetic resources in two communities of Nepal, drawing on interdisciplinary, participatory research that involved farmers, rice geneticists, and social scientists. ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Current farmers’ breeding goes beyond the gradual selection in landraces, and includes development and maintenance of major new farmers’ varieties that are rather uniform, in particular in South-East Asia. Modern varieties developed ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This article analyzes the on-site and off-site economic impacts of various sustainable land management (SLM) practices in Kenya. Long-term trial data are used to establish the relationship between SLM practices and maize yield. The analysis of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Providing safe drinking water in rural areas is a major challenge because it is not easy to establish institutional arrangements that will ensure that drinking water facilities are provided, maintained, and managed in an efficient, equitable, and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This report provides some reflections and insights on the level of awareness, practices, and organizational and institutional issues being faced by countries as they adapt to climate change, based on interviews with 87 practitioners working in ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The determinants of local organizational density and the impacts of local and external organizations on collective and private natural resource management decisions are investigated based on a survey of 48 villages in central Honduras. Factors ...
  • Food Policy Reports
    The seemingly inexhaustible oceans have proved to be finite after all. Landings of wild fish have leveled off since the mid-1980s, and many stocks of fish are fished so heavily that their future is threatened. And yet the world’s appetite for ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This brief defines property rights and collective action and discusses the links to sustainability of natural resource management and agricultural systems and to poverty reduction, as well as the implications for policy and practice.
  • IFPRI Briefs
  • IFPRI Briefs
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agricultural R&D investment in Pakistan increased during 2000–09, albeit at an irregular pace. Pakistan has one of the largest agricultural research systems among developing countries, employing over 3,500 FTE researchers. However, based on a ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    With nearly 3,600 fte researchers in 2003, Pakistan has one of the largest agricultural R&D systems in Asia. However, agricultural researcher totals in Pakistan have increased only slowly during the past two decades, mainly as a result of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “A vast literature has accumulated since crop varieties with transgenic resistance to insects and herbicide tolerance were released to farmers in 1996 and 1997. A comparatively minor segment of this literature consists of studies conducted ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Using survey data from the Upper East region of Ghana collected in 2005, the paper evaluates the household- and community-level factors influencing women’s and men’s decisions to participate in off-farm activities, either in the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “In the early 1990s, Thailand launched an ambitious program of decentralized governance, conferring greater responsibilities upon sub-district administrations and providing fiscal opportunities for local development planning. This process ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study develops an analytical framework to account for sources of rapid economic growth in China. The traditional Solow approach includes only two sources, i.e. increased use of inputs and technical change. We expanded the approach to include ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Based on a survey of 48 communities in central Honduras, this paper identifies the major pathways of development that have been occurring in central Honduras since the mid-1970s, their causes and implications for agricultural productivity, ...
  • Staff Profile
    Patricia Zambrano joined IFPRI in late 1999. Her current work focuses on the economic evaluation of biotechnology and biosafety. More about Patricia Zambrano in IFPRI ebrary Google Scholar RePEc Zambrano earned an undergraduate degree in ...
  • Staff Profile
    Patrick Ward joined IFPRI as a postdoctoral fellow in the Environment and Production Technology Division in 2012. He is based in the New Delhi office, from where he contributes to the ongoing work of the Cereal Systems Initiative for South Asia ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Discussion Papers
    Given its vast land resources and favorable water supply, the Democratic Republic of Congo’s (DRC’s) natural agricultural potential is immense. However, the economic potential of the sector is handicapped by one of the most dilapidated transport ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The potential adverse effects of climate change on Ethiopia’s agricultural sector are a major concern, particularly given the country’s dependence on agricultural production. Securing Ethiopia’s economic and social well-being in ...
  • 2020 Focus
  • Staff Profile
  • Discussion Papers
    Local farming communities throughout the world face binding productivity constraints, diverse nutritional needs, environmental concerns, and significant economic and financial pressures. Developing countries address these challenges in different ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Markets for non-timber tree products (NTTPs) are widely viewed with great promise because of their potential for achieving a range of development objectives. Markets can, of course, be influenced by policy, but in order to do so, market ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Despite some recent improvement, agricultural productivity growth in SSA continues to lag behind just about every other region of the world. While there are important data challenges in measuring trends in agricultural productivity, most studies ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    “The objectives of this workshop are to review and discuss the main findings and policy implications of recent research conducted on these topics by IFPRI, Wageningen University and Research Center (WUR), the International Livestock ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Contents: Welcome And Introduction Opening of the Workshop Policies for Improved Land Management in Uganda: Project Objectives, Activities, and Opportunities Summary of Main Themes and Key Findings Development Pathways and Land Management in ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This document presents the proceedings of the international conference held at the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, April 24-26, 2002. The theme of the conference was Policies for Sustainable Land Management ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The objectives of this workshop were to familiarize key policy makers and other stakeholders in Ethiopia with the objectives and activities of the project; review the progress and findings of the project so far; and consider key policy issues ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Participants in this workshop reviewed and discussed findings from the research project, Policies for Sustainable Land Management in the Highlands of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia, begun in January 1998, and from other related research being ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This study was conducted with the main objective of determining the linkages between poverty and land management practices in Uganda. The study used the 2002/03 Uganda National Household Survey (UNHS) and more focused data collected from a ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Conservación de recursos genéticos para la agricultura: Cálculo de los costos por Bonwoo Koo, Philip G. Pardey y Brian D.Wright.
  • Discussion Papers
    Concerns about harmful environmental impacts are frequently raised in research and policy debates about population growth in the hills and mountains of developing countries. Although establishing wildlife corridors and biosphere reserves is ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study uses aerial photographs and survey data from sixty four parishes in east-central Uganda to identify the factors affecting conversion of woodlands and traditional grazing areas to agriculture. Regression analysis shows that customary ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper uses cross section-time series data on 57 communities in Malawi to determine statistically the factors determining changes in land use, tree cover, and crop yield. The econometric model is developed from a theoretical model which also ...
  • Discussion Papers
    While agriculture accounts for an estimated 10 to 14 percent of total greenhouse gas emissions, its role as a mitigating force is receiving increasing attention. This discussion paper provides a quick overview of the literature on the climate ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Water governance reforms are underway in many parts of the developing world. They address the principles, institutions, and legal and administrative practices through which decisions are made on the development, allocation, and conditions of use ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Imported innovations in machinery, pesticides, fertilizers, poultry, and plant varieties have been very important to the development of modern agriculture in Africa. These technologies are now primarily brought in by private agricultural input ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    As in most developing countries worldwide, the private sector in Senegal is relatively underrepresented in the conduct of agricultural R&D. In 2008, private companies represented just 14 percent of the country’s total agricultural R&D ...
  • General Information
    The majority of poor people in developing countries rely on agriculture for their food and livelihoods. However, they are increasingly vulnerable and food insecure due to declining agricultural productivity growth, climate change susceptibility, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This review points to three major conclusions. First, Africa has immense potential in commercial agricultural production but has missed out significantly in the commodity boom of the early 2000s. Low productivity due to low investment in ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The adoption of more efficient farming practices and technologies that enhance agricultural productivity and improve environmental sustainability is instrumental for achieving economic growth, food security and poverty alleviation in sub-Saharan ...
  • General Information
    The likelihood of transgenic plants causing harm to the environment or to human health has led to the development of regulatory regimes that are specifically applied to assessing the biosafety of these products. Development of an effective ...
  • Online
    The Program for Biosafety System (PBS) supports partner countries in Africa and Asia in the responsible development and use of biotechnology. Managed by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), PBS works with countries interested ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Gender norms are an important constraint to increasing agricultural productivity. Inequality in the distribution of resources between men and women is linked with production inefficiency, yet interventions targeting smallholder farmers often fail ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    According to the authors, “watersheds define a terrain united by the flow of water, nutrients, pollutants, and sediment. Watersheds also link foresters, farmers, fishers, and urban dwellers in intricate social relationships. Both ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Genetic erosion in animal genetic resources (AnGR) is of concern where livelihoods of the poor are affected and option values for society are being lost. The poor often live in marginal areas and their livestock maintain adaptive characteristics. ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Rights over land and other natural resources play a fundamental role in human society. The distribution of wealth and poverty is a reflection of underlying property rights. But reforming property rights to give poor women and men greater access ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The authors state that “governments and research and development organizations are increasingly interested in understanding and promoting rural agroenterprises as a way to combat rural poverty.” They look at the implications of ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    In this brief, we explore the role that social institutions - specifically property rights and collective action - may play in the development of agroforestry…. In the future, property rights and collective action will play increasingly ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper presents a conceptual framework on how institutions of property rights and collective action can contribute to poverty reduction, including through external interventions and action by poor people themselves. The first part of the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Degradation of natural resources has become a global problem that threatens the livelihood of millions of poor people. Many promising technologies for natural resource management are available to address these problems, but farmers and others ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The possibility of an emerging cereal gap of serious proportions by the year 2020, is a useful illustration of the kind of constructive dialogue IFPRI hopes to encourage. It responds to several quite recent developments, notably the rapid ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This report analyzes input indicators of public agricultural R&D for five South Asian countries: Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. It presents trends and challenges with regard to agricultural R&D investments and human ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The rapid expansion of hybrid rice cultivation in China has contributed significantly to improving food security in the country since the 1980s. However, few other Asian countries have seen similar expansions in hybrid rice cultivation or the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper develops a method for decomposing the contributions of various types of public investment on regional inequality and applies the method to rural China. Public investments are found to have contributed to production growth in both the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The objective of this paper is to review trends in government expenditures in the developing world, to analyze the causes of change, and to develop an analytical framework for determining the differential impacts of various government ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Public-private partnerships offer potentially important opportunities for pro-poor agricultural research in developing countries. Yet in the international agricultural research community-and with regard to the Consultative Group on ...
  • Discussion Papers
    There is widespread agreement that our ability to deliver sustainable food security for all will be challenged in three dimensions—population growth, constrained natural resources, and climate change. The latest Food and Agriculture Organization ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Plant transformation research has achieved outstanding progress in the development of transgenic crops over the past decades, and the research results have been spread through journal publications and patents. With the recent emergence of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Although the different roles of men and women in agriculture in different parts of Sub-Saharan Africa have been widely acknowledged, there have not been consistent efforts to collect data on these patterns. This paper presents a way of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In this research, the quality of foreign japonica rices was evaluated in terms of prices relative to Japanese domestic retail prices. Then, retail prices, consumer benefit, and competitiveness among the foreign rices in the Japanese market were ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Staff Profile
  • Food Policy Reports
    Suite à la période de stagnation qui a marqué les années 1990, une reprise des investissements et des effectifs consacrés à la recherche et développement (R&D) agricole en Afrique subsaharienne a entraîné un taux de croissance moyen supérieur ...
  • Technical Guides
    Este primer Manual de CAPRi es una celebración adecuada de su decimoquinto aniversario. Único entre otros materiales de capacitación, este Manual de herramientas de referencia se basa directamente en las experiencias y lecciones obtenidas en la ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    2020 Focus 16 Brief 3 Rice is grown on more than 140 million hectares worldwide and is the most heavily consumed staple food on earth. Ninety percent of the world’s rice is produced and consumed in Asia, and 90 percent of rice land is—at ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Advocates of reforms in land rights and land markets frequently posit two important hypotheses: (1) African countries must grant land titles to farmers because titles increase land tenure security and facilitate access to input, land, and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Increasing water scarcity, rising costs of irrigation subsidies, and general economic liberalization are creating strong incentives for comprehensive water reform with establishment of tradable water rights and the development of markets in these ...
  • Press Release
    NAIVASHA, KENYA (16 SEPTEMBER 2013)—Kenyan farmers and agriculture officials need to prepare for a possible geographic shift in maize production as climate change threatens to make some areas of the country much less productive for cultivation ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The civil wars that shook Congo in the 1990s caused agricultural research investments to plummet. However, with the return of peace and the modest inflow of donor funding, agricultural R&D spending levels picked up again, albeit slightly. In ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Les guerres des années 90 ont eu pour conséquence une diminution considérable des investissements réalisés dans la recherche agricole au Congo, mais depuis le tournant du millénaire, après le retour de la paix et avec la reprise de certains ...
  • Discussion Papers
    A total of 294 studies of returns to agricultural R&D (including extension) were compiled and these studies provide 1,858 separate estimates of rates of return. This includes some extreme values, which are implausible. When the highest and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    2020 Resilience Conference Paper 4 - Building Resilience for Food and Nutrition Security - May 15-17, 2014 - Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Increasingly, resilience is being incorporated into planning and social protection policy. People have been ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In developing countries where access to and use of renewable natural resources essential to rural livelihoods are highly contested, improving cooperation in their management is increasingly seen as an important element in strategies for ...
  • Technical Guides
    This first CAPRi sourcebook is a fitting commemoration of the 15th anniversary of CAPRi. The sourcebook is based directly on the experiences and lessons of CAPRi research from around the world. Its content is based on sound underlying research, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    “Este documento contiene las memorias de todos los talleres que se llevaron a cabo como parte del Proyecto “Políticas de desarrollo rural y uso sostenible de tierras en áreas de ladera en Honduras (IFPRI-WUR-PRONADERS)”. El ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In the arid and semi- arid Indian state of Rajasthan, tanks and ponds have been a mainstay of rural communities for centuries. There are over 4600 large minor irrigation tanks, plus numerous johads, bandhs and pals (small water harvesting ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In Bangladesh, supportive government policies have played a crucial role in the rapid growth of the cereals sector, and rice in particular. Despite this growth, the country remains a net importer of rice. Even as Bangladesh struggles to achieve ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The marketing of farm inputs and outputs has become a major problem for farmers in Pakistan. Farm input supplies are irregular, characterized by shortages and high prices at critical times. This report reviews the input and output policies for ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In the last 30 years, palm oil production has known a ninefold increase, with almost all production growth concentrated in Malaysia and Indonesia. Several public reports have associated the palm oil boom with extensive deforestation, often ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This case study builds on an ongoing large-scale quantitative research project undertaken by BIDS/IRRI since 1987 originally in 64 unions from 57 districts of the country. It adds a qualitative research component to examine the impact of ...
  • Staff Profile
    Ricky Robertson joined IFPRI in 2008. Prior to that he completed environmental and water related post-docs at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in the Civil and Environmental Engineering as well as Agricultural and Consumer Economics ...
  • News
    Although climate change is poised to deeply impact both developed and developing countries, a shifting climate poses a particularly pernicious threat to developing countries that may lack the resources to contend with the challenges it will ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Advances in agricultural development have largely been a direct result of increased usage of new technologies. Among other important factors, farmers’ perceptions of risks associated with the new technology as well as their ability or willingness ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Compared to both Canada and the United States, Australia has been slow to approve commercial planting of transgenic crops. Two probable reasons exist for the slow approval rate of transgenic crops in Australia. The first reason is community ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Production systems in low-income developing countries are generally poorly diversified, focusing on rainfed staple crop production and raising livestock. These activities are inherently risky and investment and production decisions by farm ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Recent attempts to quantify the sources of growth in Chinese agriculture have attributed an exceptionally large share of this growth to the contemporary institutional and market reforms within China. To analyze this important issue we use a newly ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Using time series data, this paper analyses the relative contributions of terms of trade and non-price variables in explaining agricultural growth in recent decades in India. Agricultural growth is largely explained by expansion of irrigation, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “…The assessment of past trends, future prospects, and policy options reported here stems from the tradition of joint studies of roots and tubers in developing countries by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “…The assessment of past trends, future prospects, and policy options reported here stems from the tradition of joint studies of roots and tubers in developing countries by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research ...
  • News
    Imagine agriculture in India as a high-tech, highly mechanized venture. Picture a rice farmer taking soil samples with a handheld meter to gauge nutrient and moisture needs, calibrating planting along plot contours with GPS-guided tools, placing ...
  • Staff Profile
    Rowena Andrea Valmonte-Santos joined IFPRI as a Program Analyst in December 2003 under a joint appointment with the Communications Division and the Environment and Production Technology Division. She became a full time staff member as a Research ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Many countries in sub-Saharan Africa have liberalized markets to improve efficiency and enhance market linkages for smallholder farmers. The expected positive response by the private sector in areas with limited market infrastructure has however ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper reviews hypotheses about the impacts of rural population growth on agriculture and natural resource management in developing countries and the implications for productivity, poverty, and natural resource conditions. Impacts on ...
  • Staff Profile
    Ruth Meinzen-Dick joined IFPRI in 1989. She is Coordinator of the CGIAR program on Collective Action and Property Rights (CAPRi). Her research deals with water resource management, land, forests, property rights, collective action, and the impact ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Rwandan agricultural research agencies have been restored since the first half of the 1990s, but challenges still remain. Agricultural research capacity grew modestly between 2005 and 2009, from 100 to 116 FTEs. This growth mainly occurred in the ...
  • Staff Profile
    More about Samuel Gameda in IFPRI eBrary
  • Staff Profile
  • Books and Monographs
    The conservation of genetic resources is vital to the maintenance of biodiversity and to the world’s ability to feed its growing population. There are now more than a thousand genebanks worldwide involved in the ex situ (meaning “away from the ...
  • Food Policy Reports
    “Agricultural research has greatly increased the yields of important staple food crops, and for many people this has meant more food availability and trade opportunities. Yet many people in rural areas in developing countries still live in ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Brief 8 of the Research at a Glance series, “Biotechnology and Genetic Resource Policies: What is a Genebank Worth?”
  • Project Papers and Notes
    “This brief addresses the question: What are the commons and what are they good for? The authors put forth the following policy implications: (1.) Devolving authority to the lowest levels possible can improve the effectiveness of the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “We examine access to, use of, and participation in decisions on improved water supply in the Volta basin of Ghana, one of the first countries to introduce a community-based approach to rural water supply on a large scale. While 71 percent ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Over the last two decades, several seed-related programs have been initiated in eastern Kenya to improve farmers’ access to quality seeds of dryland cereals and legumes. They are provided during two occasions, regular and emergency times. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper reviews the structure and performance of the sorghum and millet seed sector in Mali. The Sahel is the origin of pearl millet and sorghum, seed selection and management of these crops is embedded in local cultures, and most producers of ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Bangladesh has achieved a remarkable success in food grain production in the recent past which has made the country nearly self-sufficient in food grain in normal years. Seed, fertilizer and irrigation technologies known as Green Revolution ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    A meta deste estudo é comparar os efeitos que diferentes tecnologias têm sobre as produções de culturas de milho, arroz e trigo e o uso de recursos, particularmente a área da cultura, água e nutrientes. Ao modelar as mudanças induzidas pelas ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agricultural research and development (R&D) in Senegal has historically been spearheaded by the public sector. In 2008 the private sector accounted for just 14 percent of the country’s total agricultural R&D investments. The reasons for ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Comparing and contrasting the three studies reviewed in this paper produced lessons in several areas, including the conceptual approaches and methods used, the policy implications that resulted, and the future subregional priorities for ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Staff Profile
  • Staff Profile
    Sherman Robinson is a Senior Research Fellow at the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), a Visiting Research Fellow at the Institute of Development Studies (IDS), and Professor of Economics (emeritus) at the University of Sussex. ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This study examines the role of groups and networks in helping poor Filipinos manage their exposure to risks and cope with shocks. It brings together two strands of literature that examine how social capital affects economic variables and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Developing countries have to allocate limited government resources for rural areas among different investment activities and regions to achieve the twin goals of productivity growth and poverty alleviation. This is particularly important at a ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Staff Profile
  • General Information
    *Toutes les données relatives aux investissements et aux évolutions de dépenses sont ajustées pour tenir compte de l’inflation. AFRIQUE DU SUD La recherche agricole en Afrique du Sud est bien mieux financée que dans la plupart ...
  • Staff Profile
    Siwa Msangi is a Senior Research Fellow in the Environment and Production Technology Division, and co-leads IFPRI's research theme 1, which focuses on the major socio-economic and bio-physical drivers affecting agricultural production and trade, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Recently scientists have started to examine how land-uses and land-use technologies can help mitigate carbon emissions. The half million small-scale farmers inhabiting the Amazon frontier sequester large stocks of carbon in their forests and ...
  • Books and Monographs
    Among farmers worldwide, and in particular in developing countries and transition economies, genetically modified (GM) crops have progressively grown in popularity and are now planted in approximately 160 million hectares in 29 countries. In the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study investigates the impact of different soil and water conservation technologies on the variance of crop production in Ethiopia to determine the risk implications of the different technologies in different regions and rainfall zones. ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In 2008, South Africa’s public agricultural research agencies spent 1 billion rand or 272 million PPP dollars on agricultural R&D (both in 2005 constant prices) and employed 784 FTE research staff. From a regional perspective, South Africa ...
  • Discussion Papers
    A biotechnology revolution is proceeding in tandem with international proliferation of intellectual property regimes and rights. Does the intellectual property impede agricultural research conducted in, or of consequence for, developing ...
  • Books and Monographs
    Southern African Agriculture and Climate Change: A Comprehensive Analysis examines the food security threats facing eight of the countries that make up southern Africa — Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia, and ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Agriculture is the main source of employment and income for southern Africa’s rural population. This crucial economic activity is endangered by climate change. This study, Southern African Agriculture and Climate Change: A Comprehensive Analysis, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This summary note is an excerpt from the chapter on Botswana that will appear in the peer-reviewed IFPRI monograph, Southern African Agriculture and Climate Change: A Comprehensive Analysis. The research, produced in collaboration with scientists ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This summary note is an excerpt from the chapter on Lesotho that will appear in the peer-reviewed IFPRI monograph, Southern African Agriculture and Climate Change: A Comprehensive Analysis. The research, produced in collaboration with scientists ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This summary note is an excerpt from the chapter on Zambia that will appear in the peer-reviewed IFPRI monograph, Southern African Agriculture and Climate Change: A Comprehensive Analysis. The research, produced in collaboration with scientists ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This summary note is an excerpt from the chapter on Mozambique that will appear in the peer-reviewed IFPRI monograph, Southern African Agriculture and Climate Change: A Comprehensive Analysis. The research, produced in collaboration with ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This summary note is an excerpt from the chapter on South Africa that will appear in the peer-reviewed IFPRI monograph, Southern African Agriculture and Climate Change: A Comprehensive Analysis. The research, produced in collaboration with ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This summary note is an excerpt from the chapter on Swaziland that will appear in the peer-reviewed IFPRI monograph, Southern African Agriculture and Climate Change: A Comprehensive Analysis. The research, produced in collaboration with ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This summary note is an excerpt from the chapter on Zambia that will appear in the peer-reviewed IFPRI monograph, Southern African Agriculture and Climate Change: A Comprehensive Analysis. The research, produced in collaboration with scientists ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This summary note is an excerpt from the chapter on Zimbabwe that will appear in the peer-reviewed IFPRI monograph, Southern African Agriculture and Climate Change: A Comprehensive Analysis. The research, produced in collaboration with scientists ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Because the conditions for agricultural development vary considerably across space, we need to develop methods that allow us to take such variability into account when evaluating development strategies for particular crops or farming ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Two increasingly shared perspectives within the international development community are that (a) geography matters, and (b) many government interventions would be more successful if they were better targeted. This paper unites these two notions ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “From a theoretical perspective crop yields should tend to converge over time and space as: growth in yield potential exhibits diminishing returns; an increasing share of farmers shift to using high yielding varieties (HYVs); barriers to ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    During the first decade of the new millennium, Sri Lanka’s worsening security situation forced the national government to allocate an increasing share of public resources to national security. This was at the expense of other public investments, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The five case studies underlying this paper highlighted a large number of human resource challenges that NARIs need to address. The following general recommendations are put forward in hopes of facilitating this process. • The retirement age ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Discussion Papers
    “While greater growth in agriculture and the broader rural sector is crucial for ameliorating Africa’s high levels of poverty and malnutrition, developing strategies to achieve these objectives is hindered by a number of factors, ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Meeting the food needs of the world’s growing population while reducing poverty and protecting the environment is a major global challenge. Private- and public-sector organizations must decide how to spend limited agricultural research funds in ...
  • “Agricultural development strategies delineate priorities for actions to enhance agricultural and overall development. They are usually put forward by individual countries based on assessments of national needs. Seldom are attempts made to ...
  • Books and Monographs
    Agricultural development strategies delineate priorities for actions to enhance agricultural and overall development. They are usually put forward by individual countries based on assessments of national needs. Seldom are attempts made to ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The ten ASARECA member countries (Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda) have adopted, or are planning to adopt, a range of climate change adaptation strategies in ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “The rural nonfarm economy (RNFE) accounts for roughly 25 percent of full-time rural employment and 35-40 percent of rural incomes across the developing world. This diverse collection of seasonal trading, household-based and large-scale ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Low agricultural productivity, land degradation and poverty are severe interrelated problems in the East African highlands. While the proximate causes of such problems are relatively well known, the underlying causes are many and complex, and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper investigates the impacts of population growth, market access, agricultural credit and technical assistance programs, land policies, livelihood strategies and other factors on changes in land management, natural resource conditions and ...
  • Books and Monographs
    “The government of Uganda, with help from its development partners, is designing and implementing policies and strategies to address poverty, land degradation, and declining agricultural productivity. Land degradation, especially soil ...
  • “The government of Uganda, with help from its development partners, is designing and implementing policies and strategies to address poverty, land degradation, and declining agricultural productivity. Land degradation, especially soil ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Brief 10 of the Research at a Glance series, “Biotechnology and Genetic Resource Policies: What is a Genebank Worth?”
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This brief reviews how citizens, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), government agencies, and others can strengthen collective action. The authors discuss ways of facilitating collective action, of redesigning institutions and incentives and ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Who are the landed poor?” That is the question asked at the beginning of this brief. The author describes the different “faces” of the landed poor and then take up the issue of strengthening the property rights of these ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Poverty and hunger cannot be conquered without meeting the specific needs of poor women. Like poor men, they lack the assets and income necessary to exit poverty, but chronically poor women and girls are also subject to a confluence of ...
  • General Information
    Despite evidence that strengthening women’s asset holdings is critical to several development outcomes—including food security, child nutrition, education, and women’s well-being—a substantial asset gap remains between men and women. Recognizing ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper discusses the internal processes and decisions that characterized the transition from collectively held group ranches to individualized property systems among the Maasai pastoralists of Kajiado district in Kenya. It addresses the ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Large-scale oil production and ensuing economic growth led to widespread neglect of Sudan’s agricultural sector for much of the 1990s and early 2000s. This, in combination with a donor embargo on development assistance from 1997, caused ...
  • Discussion Papers
    For more than two decades, the United States has been an important player in a global partnership for agricultural research through its investments in the work of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), a network of ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Ongoing debate over water resource management and land degradation suggests a need for efficient sustainable land management mechanisms to improve agricultural output in the Blue Nile basin in Ethiopia. Numerous econometric and hydrological ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Bangladesh remains a net importer of rice despite significant progress in improving yield and production levels. With growing population, planning for future cereal production to meet food security challenges would require projections of future ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper attempts to estimate the future supply and demand for cereals in Nepal. While there has been considerable research in the past examining the agricultural sector in Nepal, to the best of our knowledge there has been no analysis of the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Since the year 2000, Pakistan’s population has been growing at a rate that is higher than domestic food grain production. In view of the importance of wheat and rice in the human diet in Pakistan, it is extremely important to estimate the future ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Smallholder producers in marginal and semiarid areas of eastern Kenya have not benefited greatly from research investments made in improvement of crops grown in such environments (sorghum, millet, and legumes, including pigeonpea) either by the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Considerable progress has been made over the past decade in establishing a supranational structure for agricultural research in Sub-Saharan Africa that is driven from within. An Africa-owned policy framework has been put in place, an innovation ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    How does information about a suspected outbreak of avian influenza on the farm level reach the respective authorities? How and through which actors is the response to a confirmed outbreak implemented on the ground? These were the guiding ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    How does information about a suspected outbreak of avian influenza on the farm level reach the respective authorities? How and through which actors is the response to a confirmed outbreak implemented on the ground? These were the guiding ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Sustainable irrigation water management should simultaneously achieve two objectives: sustaining irrigated agriculture for food security and preserving the associated natural environment. A stable relationship should be maintained between these ...
  • Books and Monographs
    Developing countries are under pressure to produce more food for their growing populations, conserve natural resources, and reduce poverty. In the short term, however, these goals may compete with one another. This book focuses on the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Current trends in demography, agricultural production and rural environment in the developing countries suggest that so-called “marginal lands” must play a larger and probably growing role in food supply and economic development for ...
  • Discussion Papers
    India’s agricultural growth has been sufficient to move the country from severe food crises of the 1960s to aggregate food surpluses today. Most of the increase in agricultural output over the years has taken place under irrigated ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    As population density increases and agriculture intensifies in Africa in the future, policymakers, development practitioners, and farmers may find useful lessons in the experiences of the East African highlands. The highlands of Ethiopia, Kenya, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Uganda’s rapid urbanization, particularly in the capital city Kampala, offers new market opportunities for organized farmers to supply higher value produce for emerging growth markets such as multinational supermarket chains and fast food ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    2020 Focus 16 Brief 9 There is very significant cost-effective greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential in agriculture. The mitigation potential at a range of future carbon prices is similar to the potential in the industry, energy, ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Agriculture has a crucial role to play in ending hunger and poverty in Africa, as it contributes approximately 35 percent of the continent’s gross domestic product while accounting for 70 percent of its labor force. Raising agricultural ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The use of genetically modified (GM) crops has increased over the years since the United States, Argentina, Canada, Australia, and Mexico each commercialized one or more of certain GM crops—insect-resistant cotton and maize and herbicide-tolerant ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Women play important and varied roles in agriculture, but they have unequal access, relative to men, to productive resources and opportunities. Closing these gender gaps would be good both for women and for agriculture. This was the message given ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Africa has long needed to significantly and sustainably intensify its smallholder agriculture. But achieving large-scale, sustainable increases in productivity is a complex process. Less-than-ideal growing conditions, limited suitable space for ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This report is a timely input into the ongoing development agenda for Africa South of the Sahara (SSA). The 2013 report on agriculture and food systems by the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Solutions Network released a set of post–2015 ...
  • News
    Appearances can be deceiving: There’s always a backstory, the behind-the-scenes truths of how we moved from point A to point B. How the intangible dynamics of power structures, information pathways, and spheres of influence ultimately shape ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agricultural R&D expenditures in Tanzania rose significantly in 2008 after many years of relatively low investment. That year, investment reached 31 billion Tanzanian shillings or 78 million PPP dollars (both in 2005 constant prices) compared ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Demand heterogeneity often makes it profitable for firms to price and promote goods and services differently in different market segments. When private consumption brings public benefits, this same heterogeneity can be used to target public ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper develops a frontier shadow cost function approach to estimate empirically the effects of technological change, technical and allocative efficiency improvement in Chinese agriculture during the reform period (1980-93). The results ...
  • News
    This blog story by IFPRI researchers Nicola Cenacchi and Claudia Ringler highlights key messages from Chapter 4 of the 2013 Global Food Policy Report One major outcome of the 2012 Rio+20 United Nations conference was the agreement to develop ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The experiences of the “smallest of the small” countries in SSA reinforce the conclusions of the earlier ISNAR study. Recent data from seven of the smallest countries in SSA illustrate the diversity of agricultural research systems in these ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Agriculture plays a crucial role in the economy of sub-Saharan Africa. A feature of particular significance about the region is that the majority of households are heavily dependent on agriculture as their major source of livelihood. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    National agricultural research systems in Africa increased markedly in size throughout the past three decades, but from an especially small base. In 1961, public systems in 33 of 48 African countries employed fewer than 25 full-time equivalent ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    2020 Focus 16 Brief 13 An open and flexible global trading environment plays a constructive role in both climate change mitigation and adaptation. A new international climate change regime and global trade rules should ideally be ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper uses spatially-explicit analyses of climate change effects on selected key sectors of Ethiopia’s economy to estimate both sector-wise and economy-wide estimates of impacts and adaptation costs. Using four IPCC-vetted Global Circulation ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In contrast to a perception that ex situ collections of germplasm are rarely used, this empirical case study reveals large quantities of germplasm samples distributed by the U.S. National Germplasm System to many types of scientific institutions ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Brief 12 of the Research at a Glance series, “Biotechnology and Genetic Resource Policies: What Is a Genebank Worth?*
  • Discussion Papers
    “Cotton is the largest source of export receipts of several West African countries. Statistics however show a decreasing tendency in cotton yields and an increasing tendency in pesticide use. Under this circumstances there appear to be ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Attention to land degradation and environmental pollution has increased significantly in the past 25 years, largely due to greater levels of international cooperation and recognition that local changes in land resources have global impacts. As ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Notwithstanding the ambiguous research and productivity promoting effects of plant variety protections (PVPs), even in developed countries, many developing countries have adopted PVPs in the past few years to comply with their Trade-Related ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Labeling of genetically modified (GM) foods is a contentious issue and internationally, there is sharp division whether such labeling ought to be mandatory. This debate has reached India where the government has proposed mandatory labeling. In ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper develops a model of heterogeneous producers to examine the economic causes of IPR infringement and its consequences for the welfare of the interest groups and the pricing and adoption of a new technology (i.e., a genetically modified ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The Borana people are the predominant ethnic group on the Borana Plateau in southern Ethiopia, who have recently increased their reliance on crops. Rainfall in the region averages between 353 mm to 873 mm; variability is high, with coefficients ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Research and policy on property rights, collective action and watershed management requires good understanding of ecological and socio-political processes at different social-spatial scales. On-farm soil erosion is a plot or farm-level problem ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The U.S. Plant Variety Protection Act (PVPA) of 1970 was meant to strengthen intellectual property protection for plant breeders. A model of investment under partial excludability is developed, leading to the hypotheses that any increase in ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This paper describes the emergence of improved traditional planting pits (zaï) in Burkina Faso in the early 1980s as well as their advantages, disadvantages and impact. The zaï emerged in a context of recurrent droughts and frequent ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The successful management of transgenic technology is likely to depend on the economic behavioral response of farmers to the regulated use of transgenic crops. A well-studied example is the widespread use of Bt-corn, in the United States, and ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The supplies of fish in the world’s vast oceans once seemed inexhaustible. Not any more. In the past three decades, production and consumption of fish have risen so dramatically that the world’s wild fisheries may fall victim to their own ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Whether viewed as “land grabs” or as agricultural investment for development, large-scale land deals by investors in developing countries are generating considerable attention. However, investors, policymakers, officials, and other key ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper strives to introduce a discussion of the gender dimensions into the growing debate on large-scale land deals. It addresses the current information gap on the differential gender effects of large-scale land deals through (1) an overview ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper looks at the gendered impacts of a development project that provided improved dairy cattle and training as part of a broader effort to develop a smallholder-friendly, market-oriented dairy value chain in Manica province, Mozambique. ...
  • Books and Monographs
  • Project Papers and Notes
    While it would be easy to feel overwhelmed by the many constraints facing African farmers, Brazil and Thailand provide important lessons about how these constraints can be overcome. In these two countries, government played a vital role by ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Growing consensus in the scientific community indicates that higher temperatures and changing precipitation levels resulting from climate change will depress crop yields in many countries over the coming decades. This is particularly true in ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Growing consensus in the scientific community indicates that higher temperatures and changing precipitation levels resulting from climate change will depress crop yields in many countries over the coming decades. This is particularly true in ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper presents an empirical analysis of the impact of climate change on food production in a typical low-income developing country. Furthermore, it provides an estimation of the determinants of adaptation to climate change and the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    We combined a hydro-crop model with a dynamic general equilibrium (DCGE) model to assess the impacts of climate variability and change on economic growth and poverty reduction in Zambia. The hydro-crop model is first used to estimate the impact ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Over the coming decades, global change will have an impact on food and water security in significant and highly uncertain ways, and there are strong indications that developing countries will bear the brunt of the adverse consequences, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Global climate change influences the economic performance of all countries, and Indonesia is no exception. Under climate change, Indonesia is predicted to experience temperature increases of approximately 0.8°C by 2030. Moreover, rainfall ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) is approaching eight years of implementation. Since 2006, it has offered up to 100 days per year of guaranteed public works employment to tens of millions of rural Indian ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Agriculture in Africa south of the Sahara (SSA) is still largely rainfed. SSA also exhibits the lowest crop yields for major staples in the world, largely due to low use of irrigation and fertilizer. Rainfed agriculture poses growing production ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Assets are an important means of coping with adverse events in developing countries but the role of gendered ownership is not yet fully understood. This paper investigates changes in assets owned by the household head, his spouse, or jointly by ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Green Revolution technologies were developed and promoted to boost food supplies and foster development, both of which were expected to create “breathing space” for achieving demographic transitions in developing countries through ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    2020 Focus 16 Brief 10 Even with abundant evidence of the urgent need for action on climate change mitigation, there are still those who consider mitigation strategies a burden. In the agricultural sector, climate change mitigation calls for ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper characterizes and measures the contribution of social capital to the performance of 50 agroenterprises in Colombia. Using qualitative analysis we document how social capital performs a variety of functions in firms, including providing ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    2020 Focus 16 Brief 11 Climate change will certainly affect agriculture, but agriculture can also be harnessed to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A key element in supporting agriculture’s role is information. The costs of adapting ...
  • Discussion Papers
    There has been contentious debate surrounding the issue of undervaluation of the Chinese Renminbi. Despite continuous international political pressure to appreciate its currency, the Chinese government has resisted significant changes. A key ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Collective action in agriculture and natural resource management is all too often perceived of in terms of the mere number of participants, with little consideration given to who participates, why, and the outcomes of inequitable participation. ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Brief 9 of the Research at a Glance series, “Biotechnology and Genetic Resource Policies: What is a Genebank Worth?”
  • Discussion Papers
    The Nicaraguan Water Law, enacted in September 2007, is the first attempt to implement a new water law in the country. This is not an isolated legislative process in Central America, as other countries initiated similar reforms based on the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Transgenic crops are relatively new technologies being adopted rapidly in the United States and in a few other countries. The economic impacts of these technologies have, thus far, been estimated in a piecemeal fashion. The purpose of this study ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Irrigation is central to Pakistan’s agriculture; and managing the country’s canal, ground, and surface water resources in a more efficient, equitable, and sustainable way will be crucial to meeting agricultural production challenges, including ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    2020 Focus 16 Brief 5 Of the five principal global carbon pools, the ocean pool is the largest at 38.4 trillion metric tons (mt) in the surface layer, followed by the fossil fuels (4.13 trillion mt), soils (2.5 trillion mt to a depth of one ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper presents an innovative participatory method to visualize, discuss and analyze the power of different actors in a given governance field. The Power Mapping Tool was first used to analyze the governance effects of Community-Based Natural ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper assesses the global economic implications of the proposed strict documentation requirements on traded shipments of potentially genetically modified (GM) commodities under the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety. More specifically, we ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In this paper, we develop a simple game-theoretic model to explore the relationship between management of common pool resources used as an input in livestock production (common pastures) and the adoption of inputs associated with intensified per ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Innovation is an essential ingredient to future success in AR4D. The key challenge for AR4D managers is to learn how to identify and generate commercially relevant innovation along the value chain, and to do this consistently. With greater ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Rwanda is experiencing its best growth performance since independence, accompanied by heralded progress in reducing poverty. However, the stylized facts show that recent growth was led by nontradable services and that the public sector dominates ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The well-documented threats posed by climate change are serious and potentially devastating to the global community. The geographic areas that are most susceptible to the effects of climate change, such as increased droughts and flooding, are ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The preceding discussion has covered both a broad period of history and a wide range of themes. The target audience is the reader who wants the perspective of where we’ve come from and where this is leading (and where detail has been sacrificed, ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    2020 Focus 16 Brief 7 Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soils are responsible for about 3 percent of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, which cause climate change, and contribute approximately one-third of non-CO2 agricultural GHG emissions. ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Many developing countries have moved into the production of non-traditional agricultural products to diversify their exports and increase foreign currency earnings. Accessing developed country markets and urban domestic markets requires meeting ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper examines future prospects for rainfed cereal production, and its importance in the evolving global food system. First, the paper undertakes a critical synthesis of the literature to assess three primary ways to enhance rainfed cereal ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Climate change and land degradation are major threats to the survival and livelihoods of millions of people in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Major new opportunities exist to help improve the livelihoods of African smallholder farmers, pastoralists, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper examines the effects of tenure on tree management at a community level. First, several important conceptual issues arising from this particular meso-level focus are discussed. Second, a description of the key tenure and tree management ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In recent years the planting of eucalyptus trees in Ethiopia has expanded from State owned plantations to community woodlots and household compounds. In an environment suffering from severe woody biomass shortages water scarcity, erosion and land ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Since the late 1980s, technological advances and policy reforms have opened up new opportunities for growth in India’s seed and agricultural biotechnology industries. The impacts of such changes have been significant in India’s cotton sector, but ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper reviews the central role of institutions for climate-smart agriculture (CSA), focusing on the role of institutions in promoting inclusivity, providing information, enabling local level innovation, encouraging investment, and offering ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Collaboration between government and non-government organizations has been a recurrent feature of many development interventions in India. This paper is based on case studies of 11 such programs.
  • Discussion Papers
    The lack of ex-ante evaluation of germplasm in genebanks has been the single most prevalent and long-standing complaint of plant breeders about the management of genebanks. Advances in biotechnology offer the possibility of faster, cheaper, and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    “This paper explores the puzzle of why the pastoral Maasai of Kajiado, Kenya, supported the individualization of their collectively held group ranches, an outcome that is inconsistent with theoretical expectation. Findings suggest that ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The major economic activity for pastoralists is animal husbandry. The harsh environment in which herders raise their livestock requires constant mobility to regulate resource utilisation via a common property regime. In contrast to the mobile way ...
  • News
    Have you heard the statistic that while women account for 60 to 80 percent of global food production, they own only 2 percent of the world’s land? If you work in international development, you most likely have come across such “gender myths.” At ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper argues, from the perspective of legal pluralism, that both private and public properties are voracious. In recent western developments, they each expand by trying to ‘eating the other up’. Western property theory promotes ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Infographic
    Infographic looks at results of recent studies in terms of: Productivity Gains/ Losses Climate-Smart Agriculture Policies and Agricultural Investment
  • Staff Profile
  • Staff Profile
    Timothy Thomas worked as an economist / consultant for 10 years at the World Bank before joining IFPRI (International Food Policy Research Institute) in March 2010. His primary research at the World Bank was with land use and land use change, ...
  • Staff Profile
    Tingju Zhu joined IFPRI in June, 2005 as a postdoctoral fellow in the Environment and Production Technology Division. He obtained his Ph.D. in water resources engineering (minor in agricultural and resource economics) from the University of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Local farming communities throughout the world face productivity constraints, environmental concerns, and diverse nutritional needs. Developing countries address these challenges in a number of ways. One way is public research that ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    En 2008, le Togo investissait 2,1 milliards de francs CFA dans la R&D agricole, soit 8,9 millions de dollars (en prix de 2005); ce total incluait les salaires, les frais de fonctionnement, les coûts de programmes, ainsi que les frais ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In 2008, Togo’s investments in agricultural R&D totaled 2.1 billion CFA francs, or 8.9 million dollars (both in 2005 constant prices), which included all salaries, operating costs, and capital investments. During the past decade, funding for ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper assesses total factor productivity (TFP) growth in India, examines the sources of productivity growth, including public and private investment, and estimates the rates of return to public investments in agriculture. The results show ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Believing that complex problems call for complex solutions and that stakeholders should have a say in policies that concern them, policymakers have strongly promoted the development of forums and organizations made up of many stakeholders to ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In Mali, liberalization of seed markets for sorghum and millet, the staple food crops, has not advanced at the same rate or with the same measurable success as liberalization of grain markets. Most seed of these crops is uncertified and continues ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Arid shrub-lands in Syria and elsewhere in West Asia and North Africa are widely thought degraded. Characteristic of these areas is a preponderance of unpalatable shrubs or a lack of overall ground cover with a rise in the associated risks of ...
  • Staff Profile
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The author tells us that “Collective action occurs when more than one individual is required to contribute to an effort in order to achieve an outcome. People living in rural areas and using natural resources engage in collective action on ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Collective action occurs when more than one individual is required to contribute to an effort in order to achieve an outcome. People living in rural areas and using natural resources engage in collective action on a daily basis ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Climate change is expected to have serious environmental, economic, and social impacts on South Africa. In particular, rural farmers, whose livelihoods depend on the use of natural resources, are likely to bear the brunt of adverse impacts. The ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Climate change is expected to have serious environmental, economic, and social impacts on South Africa. In particular, rural farmers, whose livelihoods depend on the use of natural resources, are likely to bear the brunt of adverse impacts. The ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The authors describe property rights as “overlapping ‘bundles’ of rights”, which can be grouped as “use rights” and “control or decisionmaking rights”. The authors then explain the concept of legal ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Social capital is a resource, a propensity for mutually beneficial collective action that communities possess to different extents. Communities with high levels of social capital are able to act together collectively for achieving diverse common ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Les réglementations relatives à l’approbation de cultures génétiquement modifiées exigent, initialement, des petites expérimentations restreintes appelées essais au champ confinés. À partir de ces expériences réalisées à petite échelle, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper uses a national-level geographic information system database on land use, weather conditions, land quality, soil organic carbon (SOC), topographic features, and economic variables to analyze the major drivers of land use change and the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In Ethiopian development policies, pastoralist areas have recently attracted more attention. However, much debate and policy advice is still based on assumptions that see a sedentary lifestyle as the desirable development outcome for pastoralist ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Many watershed development projects around the world have performed poorly because they failed to take into account the needs, constraints, and practices of local people. Participatory watershed management-in which users help to define problems, ...
  • Books and Monographs
  • Discussion Papers
    Despite the rise of targeted input subsidy programs in Africa over the last decade, several questions remain as to whether low and variable soil fertility, frequent drought, and high fertilizer prices render fertilizer unprofitable for large ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Ugandan smallholder farmers produce the nation’s major food crop using numerous banana varieties with distinctive attributes, while coping with important biotic constraints and imperfect markets. This empirical context motivates a ...
  • Staff Profile
    Vartika Singh joined IFPRI in March 2012. She holds a Bachelor’s degree in Economics from Hindu College, Delhi University and a Master’s degree in Development Studies from Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai. She is presently ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Les cinq études de cas qui sous-tendent ce rapport ont fait ressortir un grand nombre de problèmes liés aux ressources humaines que les INRA se doivent d’aborder. Nous émettons les recommandations générales suivantes dans l’espoir de pouvoir leur ...
  • Staff Profile
  • IFPRI Briefs
    With likely long-term changes in rainfall patterns and shifting temperature zones, climate change is expected to increase the frequency of climate-related shocks, such as floods and droughts in Sub-Saharan Africa. For farm households, an increase ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper uses farmers’ responses to exogenous weather shocks in South Africa’s Limpopo River Basin to gauge how farmers are apt to respond to future climate change-induced shocks, in particular drought. Droughts are expected to ...
  • Management of the Yellow River Basin (YRB) is critical for China’s agricultural production and socioeconomic development. The cultivated area in the basin is about 13 percent of the total cultivated area in China, but the basin holds only 3 ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Recent water sector reforms, increased scarcity and vulnerability of existing water resources, combined with declining public funding available for large-scale infrastructure investment in the sector have led to an increased awareness by the ...
  • Rapid economic growth in the Yellow River Basin (YRB) of China has put intense demands on Yellow River waters. By far the largest user of water resources is the agricultural sector, accounting for 80 percent of total withdrawals—with industrial, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Water markets provide one of the most promising institutional mechanisms for increasing access to irrigation from groundwater, particularly for tenants and small farmers. While water markets are found in all provinces of Pakistan, they are most ...
  • The Yellow River Basin (YRB) is the breadbasket of China. Rural areas constitute a major center of grain and cotton production, and, as a result, rural wealth is highly dependent on access to irrigation water. A changing climate and increasing ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The increasing demand for water and limited degree of cost recovery for irrigation water delivery are important challenges for policymakers in Indonesia. To meet the increasing demand for water, it is important to reduce water use in irrigated ...
  • Agricultural water productivity can be defined as the ratio of crop yield to “evapotranspiration,” which means the amount of water needed to grow a crop. Improving water productivity is an important approach to achieving global food security ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper analyzes how water resources development and water policy reform can be deployed to address the twin problems of food insecurity and water scarcity in Africa and, in particular, Sub-Saharan Africa. The paper reviews the current status ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The growing attention to water rights in recent years reflects the increasing scarcity and competition for this vital resource. Because rights are at the heart of any water allocation system, they are also critical for any reallocation. Not only ...
  • Clearly defined and legally enforceable water rights and responsibilities for water operators and users in an irrigation system are the foundation underlying the incentives for conserving water and improving irrigation efficiency. The ...
  • Books and Monographs
    Internationally there is growing understanding that water rights are important and that a lack of effective water rights systems creates major problems for the management of increasingly scarce water supplies. However, discussion of water rights ...
  • The second longest river in China after the Yangtze, the Yellow River and its basin (YRB) is the breadbasket of China and the cradle of Chinese civilization. With only 2 percent of national water resources, the basin generated 14 percent of ...
  • News
    The theme of this year's World Water Day (March 22, 2014) is “Water and energy.” IFPRI senior researcher Claudia Ringler highlights the potential role of water markets in the water-energy-food nexus under global climate change Drought and flood ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Safe water is widely recognized as both a fundamental human need and a key input into economic activity. Across the developing world, the typical approach to addressing these needs is to segregate supplies of water for domestic use from water for ...
  • Staff Profile
    Wei Zhang is a research fellow in the Environment and Production Technology Division. Her research focuses on ecosystem service (ES) and natural resource management, climate change and vulnerability analysis, and modeling and analysis of ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Agriculture is vital to livelihoods in West Africa. It is the main source of employment for the 290 million people who live in the region, employing 60 percent of the workforce, and accounts for 35 percent of the region’s gross domestic product ...
  • Books and Monographs
    The first of three books in IFPRI’s climate change in Africa series, West African Agriculture and Climate Change: A Comprehensive Analysis examines the food security threats facing 11 of the countries that make up West Africa — Benin, Burkina ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This summary note is an excerpt from the chapter on Benin that will appear in the peer-reviewed IFPRI monograph, West African Agriculture and Climate Change: A Comprehensive Analysis. The research, produced in collaboration with scientists from ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This summary note is an excerpt from the chapter on Burkina Faso that will appear in the peer-reviewed IFPRI monograph, West African Agriculture and Climate Change: A Comprehensive Analysis. The research, produced in collaboration with scientists ...