• 2020 Focus
    Contents: 1.The Changing Profile of Poverty in the World/Shaohua Chen and Martin Ravallion. 2.Characteristics and Causes of Severe Poverty and Hunger/Akhter U. Ahmed, Ruth Vargas Hill, Lisa C. Smith, and Tim Frankenberger. 3.The Poorest and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In the absence of market data on the price of poultry before and after the outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), one method of capturing the costs of HPAI on farmers’ income is the use of non-market valuation techniques, such as ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In this paper we develop a dynamic real-financial computable general equilibrium (CGE) model for Honduras that incorporates working capital. The model is designed to be useful as a development tool and to be used by policymakers who deal with ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study has been undertaken to understand and evaluate the potential negative consequences of export taxes which are implemented by many countries today and which are not disciplined by any international agreement. This paper uses a new ...
  • News
    This story was originally published on the Research for Ethiopia’s Agriculture Policy (REAP) website. Tef, the world’s smallest grain, plays no small role in Ethiopia’s agricultural sector— 65 percent of Ethiopia’s 85 million people get their ...
  • Discussion Papers
    We study optimal disclosure of variety by a multi-product firm with random costs. In our model there are two varieties that are horizontally differentiated and differ in overall quality, but buyers cannot distinguish between them without labels. ...
  • The main innovation of the proposed new approach is to move away from single insurance policies calibrated to compensate average losses in favor of several simple weather securities—“weather tickets”—with fixed payments. These securities solve a ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    A team of researchers from the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO), and the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) collaborated to produce this ...
  • Discussion Papers
    MAcMap-HS6v2 is a comprehensive database providing detailed protection data at the 6 digit level of the harmonized system (HS6), i.e. more than 5000 products, for the year 2004. It includes ad valorem equivalents on MFN tariffs for 169 importing ...
  • Project Approach The objective of this project is to develop a poverty module of the MIRAGE model of world economy. This new version of MIRAGE will be continuously enhanced with disaggregation of households depending on the economic ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 is endemic in Indonesia, where it is an important cause of disease in commercial, semi-commercial and backyard poultry flocks. It is likely that small-scale broiler farms, which typically have poor ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In this paper we develop a dynamic regional computable general equilibrium (CGE) model for Guatemala that incorporates regional disaggregated sectors for agriculture. The model is designed to be useful as a development tool for determining the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In this paper we develop a dynamic regional computable general equilibrium (CGE) model for Honduras that incorporates regional disaggregated sectors for agriculture. We undertook this research to address two pressing policy concerns in Honduras. ...
  • News
    Antoine Bouet is an IFPRI Senior Research Fellow. After decades of strong growth, is China’s economy starting to show signs of a slowdown? And, if so, what would this mean for the country’s national poverty reduction campaign and for the global ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The facts: Child malnutrition in India: India is home to 40 percent of the world’s malnourished children and 35 percent of the developing world’s low-birth-weight infants; every year 2.5 million children die in India, accounting for ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The purpose of this study is twofold. On one hand, the objective is to assess the impact of new and more complex contracting schemes, as opposed to traditional marketing channels, on small farmers’ welfare. On the other hand, the study ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This study evaluates the domestic and international trade and marketing policies in India and analyzes the effects of deregulating domestic markets and liberalizing external trade on the food grain sector. Historically, India’s food ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In response to slow growth in the agricultural sector and as part of a general shift towards a more market-oriented economy, the Government of Egypt started liberalizing the agricultural sector in 1987. Controls over wheat production and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In this paper we examine which farmers would be early entrants into weather index insurance markets in Ethiopia, were such markets to develop on a large scale. We do this by examining the determinants of willingness to pay for weather insurance ...
  • The purpose of this project is to provide empirical evidence of the cost-effectiveness of technologies currently used in developing countries to reduce the risk of human and animal exposure to aflatoxin contamination and to understand what is ...
  • 2020 Focus
    This brief examines the impact of acute aflatoxicosis on human health in Kenya. Ingestion of large amounts of aflatoxins causes acute toxicity, and, as described below, Kenya is the country with the highest incidence of acute toxicity possibly ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Aflatoxins are a group of about 20 chemically related toxic chemicals produced primarily by the foodborne mold Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Aflatoxins contaminate a variety of staple foods including maize, peanuts, and tree nuts; they ...
  • 2020 Focus
    In 2012, 77 percent of the WFP’s food procurement came from developing countries (OECD 2013). In order to guarantee that food goods are fit for human consumption, WFP uses independent inspection services to perform end-product testing prior to ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Introduction Information is fragmented on the prevalence of aflatoxins, a variety of mycotoxin, in the maize value chain in Kenya and in the groundnut value chain in Mali. The purpose of this study is to generate a consistent database of ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Aflatoxins are a naturally occurring carcinogenic byproduct of common fungi on grains and other crops, particularly maize and groundnuts. They pose a significant public health risk in many tropical developing countries and are also a barrier to ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This project note describes preliminary results from research conducted in the eastern and coastal regions of Kenya by the Aflacontrol Project2—a collaborative research project – to evaluate the prevalence of aflatoxins along the maize value ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This project note describes preliminary results from aflatoxin research conducted in western Mali by the Aflacontrol Project—a partnership of eight research institutions developed to evaluate the prevalence of aflatoxins along the groundnut value ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    During the last 25 years, African policymakers have been bombarded with often conflicting advice on agricultural development strategy from an increasing array of international development agencies. In this brief, Christopher Delgado gives a ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper studies an economy in which the government is not able to perfectly enforce tax compliance among operating firms, and compares it with a similar economy but with perfect tax enforcement. I develop a competitive general equilibrium ...
  • Books and Monographs
    Pro-poor opportunities are rapidly unfolding in South Asia, spurred by new lifestyles and tastes, stimulated by increasing incomes, spreading urbanisation, and expanding globalisation. Dietary patterns are changing of both the poor and the rich, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Indian agriculture is diversifying during the last two decades towards High-Value Commodities (HVCs) i.e., fruits, vegetables, milk, meat, and fish products. The pace has been accelerated during the decade of 1990s. HVCs account for a large share ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Since the early 1990s, India has undergone substantial economic policy reform and economic growth. Though reforms in agricultural policy have lagged those in other sectors, they have nonetheless created a somewhat more open economic ...
  • Discussion Papers
    As in many other developing countries, the concerns about food security in Indonesia during the 1980s and early 1990s resulted in policies aimed at achieving self-sufficiency in food crops. The Government of Indonesia (GOI) combined price ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Since 1986, Vietnam started to move from a centrally-planned towards a market-oriented system. It underwent several major economic and trade reforms - a process which is still not completed. At the same time, it also started to open its economy. ...
  • Books and Monographs
    This study analyzes the evolution of agricultural policies from 1985 to 2002 in India, Indonesia, China, and Vietnam and provides empirical estimates of the degree of protection or disprotection to agriculture in these four countries, both by key ...
  • This study analyzes the evolution of agricultural policies from 1985 to 2002 in India, Indonesia, China, and Vietnam and provides empirical estimates of the degree of protection or disprotection to agriculture in these four countries, both by key ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The survey was based on a stratified random sample of 3,000 households in the four main regions of Ethiopia: Tigray, Amhara, Oromiya, and the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People’s (SNNP) region. The selected households were dispersed ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In this paper, we provide an overview of the agricultural trade negotiations within the current World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiations and we show that including agriculture in the Doha Development Agenda talks is important both economically ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper addresses the potential effects of a world agricultural trade liberalization scenario on poverty and regional income distribution in Brazil, using an interregional applied general equilibrium (AGE) and microsimulation model of Brazil, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    There are a number of potential opportunities associated with agricultural, food, and water nanotechnology for the poor, but to achieve such opportunities a number of challenges need to be overcome. This paper first provides a rapid assessment of ...
  • Books and Monographs
    Executive Summary Relationship Between Agriculture and the Millennium Development Goals In 2000 the member states of the United Nations adopted the Millennium Declaration as a renewed commitment to human development. The Declaration includes ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “Nanotechnology is research and development that involves measuring and manipulating matter at the atomic, molecular, and supramolecular levels at scales measured in approximately 1 to 100 nanometers (nm) in at least one dimension.” Materials at ...
  • Staff Profile
    Alan de Brauw is a Senior Research Fellow in the Markets, Trade, and Institutions Division. He has a Ph.D. in Agricultural and Resource Economics from the University of California at Davis; prior to joining IFPRI, he was an Assistant Professor ...
  • Staff Profile
    Alexander Saak joined IFPRI in 2010 as a Research Fellow with the Market, Trade and Institutions Division. More about Alexander Saak in IFPRI eBrary RePEc Alexander holds a Ph.D. in Economics from Iowa State University and an M.S. / B.S. in ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The outbreak and spread of Asian-lineage highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) from Asia to Europe and Africa in 2003-2007 challenged national disease surveillance and response programs particularly in those countries where infection occurred. ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was first officially reported in Indonesia in 2004; the disease is now endemic, particularly in the Java, Sumatra, Bali and South Sulawesi Islands. During the early stages of the epidemic, emergency ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Kenya has a high risk of being infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) because it (i) lies along the migratory bird routes, (ii) engages in formal and informal cross-border trade in live birds and other poultry products, (iii) ...
  • Discussion Papers
    We conduct a framed field experiment in rural Ethiopia to test the seminal hypothesis that insurance provision induces farmers to take greater, yet profitable, risks. Farmers participated in a game protocol in which they were asked to make a ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study reports theory-testing laboratory experiments on the effect of yardstick competition on corruption. The results reveal that on the incumbent’s side, yardstick competition acts as a corruption-taming mechanism only if the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The revised draft modalities text issued by the Chair of the WTO agricultural negotiating group on February 8, 2008, reflects the considerable incremental progress which has been made in elaborating, clarifying and putting into legal language the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Poultry keeping in Kenya plays a major role as a livelihood source, an income generating activity as well meeting other socio‐cultural roles. Poultry production is, however, threatened by the emerging HPAI threat that has devastated other parts ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) has impacts that reverberate throughout the poultry marketing chain. Nigeria suffered waves of HPAI outbreaks that peaked twice in February 2006 and February 2007. The outbreaks affected 3,057 commercial ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Impacts of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) can cause reverberations throughout the poultry marketing chain. In Nigeria, peak HPAI outbreaks in February 2006 and February 2007 affected 3,057 farms and farmers; 1.3 million of the country’s ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This paper discusses a modeling approach that extends and improves the standard parity bounds model (PBM) of spatial market efficiency by analyzing the dynamic effects of marketing policy changes. The model facilitates an improved ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    One aspect of livelihood in developing countries that has been largely neglected is the effect of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) disease, prevention, and control strategies on nutrition. An HPAI outbreak could have income and price ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Aflatoxins occur in many animal feed concentrates including cereal grains, soybean products, oil cakes (from groundnuts, cottonseed, sunflower, palm, and copra), and fishmeal. Brewers grains (a byproduct from the production of cereal-based ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Staff Profile
    Antoine Bouet joined IFPRI in February 2005 as Senior Research Fellow and co-leader of the Globalization and Markets Program in the Markets, Trade and Institutions Division (MTID) to conduct research on global trade modeling, trade policies, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Kenyan horticultural exports are often cited as a success story in African agriculture. Fruit and vegetable exports from Côte ‘Ivoire have received less attention, but the export value is similar to that of Kenya. This paper focuses on ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “In Tanzania, as in many other developing countries, the conventional wisdom is that economic reforms may have stimulated economic growth, but that the benefits of this growth have been uneven, favoring urban households and farmers with ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper demonstrates a comprehensive methodology for assessing the viability of an environmental management plan that has long-run economic and ecological impacts. The case study under consideration is the implementation of a water resource ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    While some African countries have not yet experienced outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), they remain vulnerable, both in terms of susceptibility and potential economic losses. Kenya is one of these vulnerable countries. Its ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Download this report (PDF 2.3 MB) Download executive summary (PDF 583 KB) Background On 23 April 2009, the European Union adopted the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) which included a 10 percent target for the use of renewable energy in road ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Because of the substantive role played by livestock in the income and asset portfolios of the poor, livestock diseases can be an important threat to livelihoods. Yet for a variety of reasons, there are few applicable methods and consequently ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The extent to which Bangladesh should rely on imports for rice price stabilization is a contentious policy issue. This issue was underscored in the wake of the 2007–08 world food crisis, during which international rice prices skyrocketed and rice ...
  • Staff Profile
    Berber Kramer has a background in Psychology and Economics and is currently a Postdoctoral Fellow in the Markets, Trade and Institutions Division at the International Food Policy Research Institute, where she is working on the Agriculture for ...
  • Staff Profile
    Betina Dimaranan joined the Markets, Trade and Institutions Division at IFPRI as a Research Fellow in July 2007. She is a member of the Globalization and Markets team and currently conducts research on global trade modeling, multilateral and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Fatalism is considered pervasive, especially in many poor communities. In this paper, we explore whether fatalistic beliefs have implications for the attitudes and behavior of poor rural households toward investment in the future. To explore the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Fatalism is considered pervasive, especially in many poor communities. In this paper, we explore whether fatalistic beliefs have implications for the attitudes and behavior of poor rural households toward investment in the future. To explore the ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    A review of various economic indicators shows that both the recent food crisis and the financial and economic crisis have had significant negative effects on the Central American countries. The first jolt to the region came in 2007 and mid-2008, ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Biocontrol technologies, in conjunction with other aflatoxin-management tools, can profitably link farmers to markets, improve health of people and animals, and increase food safety. Technology has a high cpacity to reduce aflatoxins. Widespread ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Farmers in developing countries face relatively large income risk and have limited access to formal financial products that can help them manage their risk. We present results from a randomized controlled trial in rural China designed to ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper is devoted to better understanding of the Brazilian agricultural national policies towards domestic support and implications related to WTO rules. Domestic support has taken central stage in the last years and in light of a global ...
  • Discussion Papers
    We present results from an artefactual field experiment conducted in rural Peru that considers how observing nonreciprocal behavior influences an individual’s decision to reciprocate. Specifically, we consider the behavior of second movers in a ...
  • News
    The following article was jointly written by Sarah McMullan from IFPRI’s Markets, Trade, and Institutions Division and Caitlin Kieran from the CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Institutions, and Markets. Women make up about half of the ...
  • News
    Input subsidy programs—a mainstay of 1960s and 1970s international donor agendas—have regained favor in Africa south of the Sahara in recent years. Although 10 African countries spent more than $1 billion on these programs in 2011 alone, little ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Although conditional cash transfers (CCTs) are traditionally evaluated in relation to child schooling and nutrition outcomes, there is growing interest in specifically examining maternal and reproductive health impacts. However, since data ...
  • Event
    The policy seminar scheduled for Tuesday, July 22, from 12:15 pm to 1:45 pm at IFPRI has been cancelled. We regret the inconvenience. Human health and soil health are related. Humans get nutrition from food; food gets nutrition from the soil. ...
  • Staff Profile
    Carlos Martins-Filho is a Senior Research Fellow at the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and a Professor of Economics at the University of Colorado, Boulder. He is an econometrician with a research focus on ...
  • Staff Profile
  • 2020 Focus
    Evidence from human and animal studies and current knowledge of the biological mechanisms of action of aflatoxins suggest that chronic exposure to aflatoxins might lead to stunted growth. This brief summarizes the existing evidence and reviews ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper reviews recent agricultural policy changes in China and presents estimates of domestic support for the period 1996-2005. A set of relevant alternative subsidy-definition scenarios and their effects on the calculated levels of support ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The formula approach used in many trade negotiations involves large formula cuts in high tariffs, with flexibilities that allow smaller cuts for selected products. Difficulties in evaluating the effects of these exceptions can create major ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Staff Profile
  • Staff Profile
  • Discussion Papers
    Export subsidies can generate or curb many perverse incentives for exporters, their expansionary effects on exports notwithstanding. These include expansion into soft markets or even deflection of domestic production into markets with similar ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the degree of co-movement among the nominal price returns of 11 major energy, agricultural, and food commodities using monthly data between 1970 and 2013. The authors study the extent and the time ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Aflatoxin contamination of food commodities poses major challenges to both public health and trade. It remains a global problem in part because of the attention given to it over the past decades has been insufficient both quantitatively and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The combination of increasingly globalizing agricultural markets, rapidly modernizing local value chains, and urbanizing distribution channels presents African smallholders with considerably more complex challenges than those faced by Asian ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper analyzes a repeated games model of collective reputation with imperfect public monitoring and perfect local peer monitoring of efforts. Even when peer monitoring is local, firms may achieve higher profits under collective reputation by ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This report examines the competitiveness of the food processing sector in Viet Nam, focusing on four subsectors: rice milling, coffee processing, seafood processing, and fruits and vegetables. The rationale for the study is that Viet Nam, as a ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In the past decade, it has become increasingly common to use simple laboratory games and decision tasks as a device for measuring both the preferences and understanding of rural populations in the developing world. This is vitally important for ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Contract farming is conventionally thought of as a form of industrial organization that helps to overcome high monitoring, supervision, and environmental mitigation costs incurred from ensuring a reliable and uniform-quality supply (from the ...
  • We have developed contracts that have been tested both in the laboratory and in the field to improve small farmers’ welfare in Vietnam, Tanzania, and Peru. Our innovation is that we implemented these contract structures in a field setting, which ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper examines the extent of cooperative behaviour in rural Uganda as recorded in the most recent nationally representative household survey. Summary statistics on the presence of marketing cooperatives, recently formed National Agricultural ...
  • Books and Monographs
    Rural producer organizations, such as farmers’ organizations or rural cooperatives, offer a means for smallholder farmers in developing countries to sell their crops commercially. They hold particular promise for Sub-Saharan Africa, where ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Governments play a key role in supporting populations affected by natural disasters, including rebuilding infrastructure to ensure continued services and scaling-up public safety nets to prevent widespread hunger and poverty. However, the ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Many interventions have been developed to reduce aflatoxins or their adverse effects on human health. Often not considered, however, is the likelihood that these strategies will be adopted in the countries that need them most—where ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Cotton, textiles, and apparel are critical agricultural and industrial sectors in India. This study provides descriptions of these sectors and examines the key developments emerging domestically and internationally that affect the challenges and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Cotton, textiles, and apparel are critical agricultural and industrial sectors in Pakistan. This study provides descriptions of these sectors and examines the key developments emerging domestically and internationally that affect the challenges ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    La crisis de precios de los alimentos de 2007/2008 se debió a varias razones, entre ellas: una creciente demanda por alimentos en países emergentes, los cambios en los mercados internacionales de granos propiciados por los biocombustibles, el ...
  • Staff Profile
    Dr. David Laborde Debucquet joined IFPRI, Washington DC, in 2007. He is a Senior Research Fellow and leader of the “Globalization and Markets” research program in the Markets, Trade and Institutions Division. More about Dr David Laborde ...
  • Staff Profile
    David Orden joined IFPRI in August 2003 as senior research fellow in the Markets, Trade and Institutions Division to conduct research on agricultural policy and international trade, including the impacts of industrialized country agricultural ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The objective of this paper is to analyze the best trade approach for Southern Mediterranean countries (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon and Turkey) that helps them increase market access and develop trade policies ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Income risk is substantial for farmers in developing countries. Formal insurance markets for this risk are poorly developed, and as a result there has been an increasing trend to sell weather hedges to smallholder farmers to manage their risk. ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Les récentes tendances des cours des denrées alimentaires – niveaux plus élevés et plus grande volatilité – reflètent les prédictions d’un certain nombre d’experts. Compte tenu de la complexité de l’écheveau des facteurs influençant la sécurité ...
  • Overall, the study concludes that in many cases smallholders other than the smallest backyard producers will be able to stay in the livestock business for a long time. If the opportunity cost of family labor rises and begins to approach local ...
  • Books and Monographs
    The rapid growth in consumer demand for livestock offers an opportunity to reduce poverty among smallholder livestock farmers in the developing world. These farmers’ opportunity may be threatened, however, by competition from larger-scale ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In this paper, we develop a theoretical farm household model of food crop production and marketing decisions, derive testable hypotheses concerning the determinants of these decisions, and test these hypotheses, using data on cereal production ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Agricultural markets play a key role in the lives of poor people in developing countries. More than half the population in developing regions (58 percent) and more than three-quarters of the poor—defined as those living on less than US$1 per ...
  • Staff Profile
    Devesh Roy, an Indian national joined IFPRI in November 2004 as a Post Doctoral Fellow after completing his PhD in economics from the University of Maryland at College Park. Before joining the PhD program he obtained a masters degree from Delhi ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Discussion Papers
    This research has been undertaken to understand the rationale for the implementation of decreasing export taxes along the value chain in middle-income countries, in particular in the oilseeds value chain. This paper studies the implementation of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In 2013 the Bureaus of Agriculture in the regional states of Amhara, Oromia, and Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples of Ethiopia supported a program of direct marketing of certified seed by seed producers to farmers across 31 woredas ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Agricultural diversification towards high-value crops can potentially increase farm incomes, especially in a country like India where demand for high-value food products has been increasing more quickly than that for staple crops. Indian ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper examines the impact of food scares on marketing margins in the US beef and pork industry. We analyze how market stresses induced by different food recalls and disease outbreaks affect price margins and the extent of price transmission ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper addresses the question of whether Africa is an undertrading continent. We answer this question using a much-improved data set for obtaining predicted trade and by employing methods that correct for bias in estimates of undertrading. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The paper examines the possible impact of Doha agreement on Philippine poverty. Using a detailed CGE analysis, the agreement is observed to depress world demand for Philippine agricultural exports, and thus slightly increase poverty, especially ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In this study, we outline the farm policy changes in the European Union, EU, and the United States, US, since 1996 and compare their levels of support under various policies. The producer support estimates for the EU are more than twice that of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Although most theoretical models of household decisionmaking assume perfect information, empirical studies suggest that information asymmetries can have large impacts on resource allocation. In this study, I demonstrate the importance of these ...
  • Event
    Inaugural event in the 2013 DuPont Agriculture Development Roundtable Series IFPRI is pleased to host the first discussion in this series aimed at fostering action among public and private entities to address the global challenge of feeding nine ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper analyzes the optimal advertising and price policies of a monopolist who sells a new experience good over time to a population of heterogeneous, forward-looking buyers. We consider informative advertising that can complement or ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Although there is little consensus on the impact of trade liberalization on poverty and food security, it is nevertheless widely acknowledged that there is a need for governments to establish safety-nets to guard against any potentially ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In recent years the European Union has sought to transform its trading regime with the ACP countries by advocating reciprocal free trade agreements with them through Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs). As a result, the EPA talks were launched ...
  • Books and Monographs
    This book analyzes relevant issues regarding the constraints and challenges in achieving food security, focusing on South Asian countries where a large percentage of the world’s poor reside. It examines possible future courses of action involving ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper aims to assess the rationales for the use of export taxes, in particular in the context of a food crisis. First, we summarize the effects of export taxes using both partial and general equilibrium theoretical models. When large ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Processing of meat and crops accounts for a large share of manufacturing in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The paper assesses empirically the impact of hypothesized productivity change in agro-food processing on growth, trade, employment, and input ...
  • Discussion Papers
    We use a dynamic CGE model to quantitatively assess the economywide impact of HPAI in Ghana. The likely effect of an avian flu outbreak is modeled as demand or supply shocks to the poultry sector. Our analysis shows that, while chicken is a quite ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The primary goal of this paper is to provide a quantitative assessment of the economywide impact of HPAI in Ghana under different scenarios. A dynamic computable general equilibrium (DCGE) model for Ghana has been developed for this study, and a ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Since its emergence in Africa in 2006, the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus of the H5N1 subtype has spread rapidly to poultry farms in several countries, including Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ghana, Niger, and Nigeria (FAO 2006; OIE ...
  • Staff Profile
    Eduardo Maruyama joined IFPRI in 2007 as a Post-Doctoral Fellow. Born and raised in Peru, he studied a Ph.D. in Economics in the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA). His past work has focused on studying risk-coping strategies of the ...
  • Staff Profile
    View CV
  • Discussion Papers
    “A competitive partial-equilibrium spatial model with heterogeneous goods is constructed to evaluate effects of the removal of tariffs, tariff-rate quotas, and sanitary regulations on world poultry trade. The model distinguishes between ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In this paper, we present the results of a two-stage expert elicitation (Delphi) study conducted to provide input to contingent valuation (CV) studies. These CV studies are designed to estimate the benefits of various public and private ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This paper is an empirical analysis of the gains from contract farming in the case of poultry production in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. The paper finds that contract production is more efficient than noncontract production. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In 2001, the World Trade Organization launched a highly ambitious program of multilateral liberalization. Eight years later, concluding the negotiations is uncertain, though an opportunity still exists. Since 2001, many proposals on market access ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    "We commit ourselves to comprehensive negotiations aimed at: substantial improvements in market access; reductions of, with a view to phasing out, all forms of export subsidies; and substantial reductions in trade-distorting domestic support. We ...
  • Discussion Papers
    While the Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) remains a hotly debated issue in all five Central American countries that are part of the treaty, most discussions are based on preconceived opinions rather than grounded in research-based ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Discussion Papers
    High levels of job uncertainty in developing countries may have significant implications for job performance. This paper examines the relationship between employment risk and job-seeker performance. To induce exogenous variation in employment ...
  • Books and Monographs
    CONTENTS: Introduction / Objectives of the Report and of Compensation / Background and Rationale for Assessing Good Practices / Context in Which Compensation Occurs / Approach to Ascertaining Good Practice / Deciding Who to Compensate: The ...
  • Staff Profile
    Dr. Eugenio Diaz-Bonilla joined IFPRI as a visiting Senior Research Fellow in 2012. He received a PhD. in Economics from Johns Hopkins University, as well as an M.A. in Economics and an M.A. in International Relations from Johns Hopkins ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The notification of the level of domestic support to the World Trade Organization (WTO) is intended to reflect compliance with obligations entered into at the time of the Uruguay Round. WTO members have often been slow to provide notification of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Higher world food prices have led many governments in developing countries to adopt policy measures to mitigate the adverse impact on low-income households. This paper sets out a partial equilibrium framework to evaluate the relative efficiency, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    US development assistance represents a significant source of funding for many population programs in poor countries. The Mexico City policy, known derisively as the global gag rule, restricts activities of foreign nongovernmental organizations ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Economic reform programs assume that major goods are tradable, such that depreciation of the real exchange rate raises the value of output compared to factor costs in domestic currency. In Tanzania, major food staples that account for ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study examines the dynamic relationship between spot and futures prices of agricultural commodities. We first briefly discuss what the non-arbitrage and asset pricing theory has to say about the relationship between spot and futures markets. ...
  • Video
    Maximo Torero, Director of IFPRI's Markets, Trade, and Institutions Division, and Carlos Martins-Filho, IFPRI Senior Research Fellow, describe model behind the IFPRI's "Excessive Food Price Variability Early Warning System" - an online tool for ...
  • Discussion Papers
    There have been different degrees of exchange rate disequilibrium in the developing countries during transition or reform periods since the mid 1980s. The level of the exchange rate and its misalignment can have significant impacts on ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Index-based insurance is an innovative financial product that has been introduced in recent years in countries as diverse as India, Malawi, Mongolia, and Thailand. It allows individual smallholder farmers to hedge against agricultural production ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Identifying growth poles in the SSA region, strengthening linkages and generating mutual benefits across African countries is an important part of the strategy to promote agriculture-led growth at the Africa-wide scale. Using agricultural ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In this paper we used a dynamic, regionalized computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to analyze the effect of various negative balance of payments shocks on output and employment and the effect of different alternative investment strategies ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Asian countries have witnessed a sharp increase in real wage as a result of rapid economic growth and structural transformation in recent years. Using a country level panel data from 1980 to 2010, this paper examines the effects of real wage ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Discussion Papers
    In this paper we attempt to bridge the resilience school of thought and incentive compatibility in livestock disease control policies through a pilot choice experiment study conducted on 104 farm households in the Nasarawa state of Nigeria. The ...
  • 2020 Focus
    In 2004, the Kenyan Ministry of Health invited the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization to investigate cases of high-fatality jaundice in Eastern Province. Testing of the maize food supply found high ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This document is a summary report of the soil fertility and fertilizer value chain diagnostic work—one of eight reports across the agricultural system facilitated by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and undertaken at the request of H.E. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Fertilizer use in Ethiopia has almost quintupled since the official elimination of input subsidy programs. Yet, application rates remain far below recommended level and, given limited scope for area expansion, fertilizer promotion continues to be ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study provides an overview of the current market situation in the fertilizer industry. In particular, it examines global trends in production, consumption, trade, and prices, with special emphasis given to the level of concentration of the ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    In the 1970s and 1980s, most African countries sold fertilizer at subsidized prices through state-owned enterprises. In response to the fiscal cost and ineffective implementation of these subsidies, as well as pressure from international ...
  • News
    Just as the sun rises and sets, food price volatility—the variation in food prices over time—is a given these days. Once unexpected price instabilities have now become routine in the era following the food crisis of 2007-2008. For poor ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This research has been undertaken to estimate the effects of one of the major impediments to trade particularly of developing and less developed countries meaning credit constraints. In this paper we address the issue of easing of financial ...
  • Books and Monographs
    The seemingly inexhaustible oceans have proved to be finite after all. Capture of wild fish have leveled off since the mid-1980s, and many stocks of fish are fished so heavily that their future is threatened. And yet the world’s appetite for fish ...
  • Discussion Papers
    We analyze the effectiveness of a new approach in providing weather index–based insurance products to low-income populations. The approach is based on the concept of providing multiple weather securities that pay a fixed amount if the event ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Discussion Papers
    “Three factors, advent of new technology (HYV), development of infrastructure and market liberalization working in tandem have delivered favorable food security outcomes for Bangladesh. Bangladesh’s food-policy has benefited from a ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The food price crisis of 2007–2008 and recent resurgence of food prices have focused increasing attention on the causes and consequences of food price volatility in international food markets and the developing world, particularly in Africa south ...
  • Books and Monographs
    Guarding the safety of a nation’s food supply and providing standards and information to guide consumers’ food choices are the joint responsibilities of governments and the private sector. But differences in the way countries fulfill ...
  • Discussion Papers
    To better inform donor support for public food safety interventions, this paper reviews the literature on the impact of more stringent food safety standards on developing-country markets. This literature has primarily focused on the market access ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Many African countries have moved into the production of non-traditional agricultural products, in an effort to diversify their exports and increase foreign currency earnings. However, in order to access developed country markets and urban ...
  • News
    The following is an excerpted version of a blog story that was originally published on the Food Security Portal’s Food for Thought blog (updated on October 24, 2014). After several days of work, and the usual posturing and drama, ...
  • Staff Profile
    Fousseini Traore has joined IFPRI as a Postdoctoral Fellow in MTID. He is originally from Mali and has lived in France for 11 years. He received a Ph.D. in Agricultural economics from CERDI, University of Clermont Ferrand, France, in 2010. He ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Discussion Papers
    Countries in Southern Africa have engaged in a variety of trade liberalization initiatives. In this paper, the authors use a multi-country, computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to analyze the impact of trade liberalization on countries, ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Governments in Asia used grain price stabilization as a major policy instrument when they began to promote the Green Revolution in the 1960s. In the process, they created parastatal agencies, which were quasi-governmental in nature, to undertake ...
  • Books and Monographs
    In developing countries across Asia, food marketing parastatals have played an important role in agricultural policy, especially with regard to government efforts to stabilize food prices. Three broad market failures constitute the primary ...
  • News
    The following story was originally published on IFPRI’s Food Security Portal. Fertilizer use in India has exploded since the government began a subsidization program in the 1970s. National fertilizer consumption rates increased by 50% during the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Women play an important role in the agricultural production process in developing countries, yet their role in making decisions about what to grow and the resulting implications for household welfare remain poorly understood. This paper studies ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Outbreaks of HPAI in poultry have serious implications for food security, employment, and cash income for farmers including smallholders and other stakeholders. The 2007 outbreak of HPAI in Ghana had a multitude of impacts on the livelihoods of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    People in developed countries currently consume about 3 to 4 times as much meat and fish, and 5 to 6 times as much milk products per capita as in developing Asia and Africa. Meat, milk, and fish consumption per capita has barely grown in the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In the second half of the 1990s, a series of developments led to a renewed academic and policy interest in the intersection of macroeconomic policy and poverty issues in developing countries. The focus of that work was domestic macroeconomic ...
  • News
    The following is a slightly modified version of a story that was originally published on IFPRI’s Food Security Portal. The last ten years have witnessed incredible economic and agricultural growth in Africa. Between 2000 and 2010, the continent ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The primary objective of this study is to analyse the impact of possible changes in EU biofuels trade policies on global agricultural production and the environmental performance of the EU biofuel policy as concretised in the RED. The study pays ...
  • General Information
    Would developing countries and their poor populations benefit from further trade liberalization under the World Trade Organization (WTO)? How have the different strands of globalization affected poverty and food security in developing countries? ...
  • Books and Monographs
    The economic impact of globalization, particularly on poverty, and the changes in agri-food markets have received much attention in recent years. However, the intersection of these two trends has been neglected. The present volume fills this gap ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In light of the expected good maize harvest for the 2013-14 Meher season, the government of Ethiopia is considering removing a ban in the export of maize. This note describes the likely impact of removing the export ban based on economic theory ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Using case studies from six Asian countries, this paper (a) assesses the relevance of underlying rationales for public intervention in foodgrain markets, (b) documents the existing policies and regulations that support operation of grain ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “In the context of on-going market reform in developing countries, there is a need for an improvement in the existing methods of spatial market efficiency analysis in order to better inform the debate toward designing and implementing new ...
  • General Information
    IFPRI’s agricultural trade liberalization work on the WTO’s Doha Negotiations has resulted in approximately 70 publications since 2004. IFPRI ex-ante impact assessment discussion paper #28 in 2008 by external evaluator Joanna Hewitt (“Impact ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Group lending has been widely adopted in the past thirty years by many microfinance institutions as a means to mitigate information asymmetries when delivering credit to the poor. This paper proposes an empirical method to address the potential ...
  • India’s Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) is the largest public works employment project in the world, employing 55 million households in 2010-11. The program places an emphasis on rural poverty reduction, ...
  • News
    A farmers’ success depends on more than good weather, healthy soil, and proper seeds. Good farming also involves a series of decisions: how much to plant each season, whether to invest in new crops, which markets to sell to. The right decisions ...
  • 2020 Focus
    A serious injury or illness usually increases medical expenses and often reduces income. Even worse, some short-term health problems can worsen long-term poverty when families sell productive assets such as land or remove their children from ...
  • Discussion Papers
    India’s Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) is the largest public works employment project in the world. Its most direct poverty reduction pathway is through boosting employment and income for the poor. How ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Indonesian economy has experienced some major changes during the last three decades and transformed from a predominantly agricultural economy to one that relies more heavily on its non-agricultural sector. Within agriculture, there has also been ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper examines the level of interdependence and volatility transmission across major exchanges of maize, wheat, and soybeans in the United States, Europe, and Asia. We follow a multivariate GARCH approach to explore in detail and under ...
  • Discussion Papers
    We quantify the importance of peer effects in group lending by estimating a static game of incomplete information. In our model, group members make their repayment decisions simultaneously based on their household and loan characteristics as well ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Trade liberalization is expected to act positively on development and poverty reduction… The traditional argument in favor of a positive relationship between liberalization and poverty reduction focuses on… [key] linkages. A large ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The literature regarding consumer demand for safer food in developing countries is scant, and the general assumption is that these consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP, as an indicator of their demand) is constrained by their low ability to pay ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Instability in the price of staple foods is an important source of risk in developing countries. This is particularly true in Africa south of the Sahara because of the low incomes of many African households. Poor urban households allocate a large ...
  • General Information
    This brochure highlights some of IFPRI’s activities in South Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia, Central Asia, and across the continent.
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The potential impact of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak in Ethiopia is assessed, specifically on the country’s poultry and associated sectors. Ethiopia has not yet experienced an HPAI outbreak but has experienced a scare. An ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Contract farming is seen by proponents as a way to raise small-farm income by delivering technology and market information to small farmers, incorporating them into remunerative new markets. Critics, however, see it as a strategy for agribusiness ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In the wake of the global food crisis of 2007–08 and additional price spikes since then, greater attention has been given to the welfare impact of food price increases in developing countries. The standard approach in this type of analysis, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Poultry production is an important livelihoods activity in the rural areas of many developing countries. Several studies from African and Asian countries have found that poultry production significantly contributes to several livelihoods ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    From April to June 2007, there were three highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks in Ghana, which were effectively controlled by the Veterinary Services Directorate of the Ministry of Food and Agriculture. Even though information is ...
  • Books and Monographs
    The impact of trade liberalization on developing countries has been a topic of some interest and controversy for many years, but the debate became prominent during the Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations. The suspension of the Doha ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “The overall objective of this research project is to assess the impacts of different types of government policies (pertaining to the domestic and external sectors) on the status of food security in the country, with particular emphasis on ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The 2007-08 international food price crisis caused hardship on a number of fronts. The steep rise in food prices led to economic difficulties for the poor and generated political turmoil in many countries. The crisis could also result in ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This paper discussed the market access and domestic support pillars in the Doha Round negotiations. It analysed both the implications for Brazil of reducing its own tariffs and reforming domestic support for agriculture; and the likely benefits ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In this study, we examine the implications of the May 2008 WTO draft agricultural modalities for India’s market access and domestic support policies. In the case of market access, most of India’s agricultural tariffs are of the ad ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    To what extent would a successful conclusion of the Doha Development Agenda (DDA), along the lines of the modalities in the Revised Draft Modalities paper of May 19, 2008, require further changes in the Common Agricultural Policy? Will those ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The May 2008 draft agricultural modalities (WTO 2008) are the result of seven years of hard negotiations. Their structure, if not every detail, seems likely to be the basis for final proposals that must either be ratified or rejected by ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Kenya is vulnerable to avian flu given its position along migratory bird routes and proximity to other high risk countries. This raises concern about the effect an outbreak could have on economic development. We use a dynamic computable general ...
  • Lectures, Speeches, and Testimony
    The prices of maize, wheat, rice, and other crops have more than doubled over the past two years. These price hikes have been catalyzed by various factors including the rising cost of oil, biofuel subsidies in the US and Europe, the depreciation ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Researchers, donors, and governments are calling for the scale of the response to the aflatoxin problem to be informed by the scope of the risks involved. While current research establishes that a great deal of the global food supply is at risk, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Contract farming is emerging as an important form of vertical coordination in the agrifood supply chain in India, and its socioeconomic consequences are attracting considerable attention in public policy debates. This study is an empirical ...
  • News
    Aflatoxins, naturally occurring toxins produced by fungi in grains and other crops, may be linked to childhood stunting and can lead to liver cancer and even death with chronic exposure. More than a public health risk, aflatoxins also pose a ...
  • Since the mid-1990s, Vietnam has sustained high rates of economic growth, reducing poverty from 58 percent in 1993 to 37 percent in 1998. Despite these gains, Vietnam is among the 30 poorest countries in the world. In the poorest region, the ...
  • Books and Monographs
    In many ways, Vietnam is in an enviable position among developing countries. Since the mid-1990s, it has enjoyed macro-economic stability and sustained high rates of economic growth. According to the Vietnam Living Standards Surveys, the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Poverty is commonly cited as a key driver of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, yet little causal evidence exists linking economic conditions to actual disease outcomes. Using data on more than 200,000 individuals across 19 Sub-Saharan African countries, we ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The development community is increasingly in agreement that providing adequate hard infrastructure (i.e., capital-intensive infrastructure such as rural telecommunications, electrification, and rural roads) is an important step in the process of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Using detailed trader surveys in Benin, Madagascar, and Malawi, this paper investigates the presence of increasing returns in agricultural trade. After analyzing margins, costs, and value added, we find little evidence of returns to scale. ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Uncertainty and risk are characteristics inherent in agricultural activities, and one of the main sources of risk is weather. Because agriculture depends heavily on rainfall, it is sensitive to weather changes. Agriculture is also vulnerable to ...
  • 2020 Focus
    The Mongolian rural economy is based on livestock reared by semi-nomadic herders. Agriculture contributes around 20 percent of the country’s gross domestic product, and herding accounts for more than 80 percent of agriculture. According to the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In this study, we examined India’s domestic support policies to understand their classification and measurement for the purposes of official World Trade Organization (WTO) notifications. We then employed the underlying methods to prepare ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    In this brief, the authors suggest five areas for action to put rural India on a higher growth trajectory that would cut hunger, malnutrition, and unemployment at a much faster pace than has been the case so far. The five areas for action are ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In this paper we study incentives to report clinically suspect situations in a simple model of an infectious animal disease with limited diagnostic resource. We characterize a transfer scheme that sustains credible reporting and implements an ...
  • Books and Monographs
    The variety of views about ICTs reveals that their role in development is unclear, especially without convincing evidence of their impact-and little research has been conducted on the direct and indirect links between ICTs and poverty reduction. ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This brief is based on Information and Communication Technologies for Development and Poverty Reduction: The Potential of Telecommunications, ed. Maximo Torero and Joachim von Braun (Johns Hopkins University Press and IFPRI, 2006) The ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Helping households manage the risks they face is important in reducing poverty in developing countries. All households face health risks, and when health shocks occur, they have a severe impact on people’s livelihoods. High costs of treatment are ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Risk and poverty are inextricably linked. Susceptibility to risk is a defining feature of what it means to be poor. Poor people often live in environments characterized by high weather and disease risk, and it is poor households that have the ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Risk characterizes life for many of the world’s poorest households. They are more likely to be located in environments where livelihoods are highly susceptible to weather and price variability and where health risks are pervasive. When these ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Financing for water projects, especially for irrigation, has been moving towards collapse in recent years due to declining donor and government funding. Some Indian states have undertaken innovative institutional reforms by setting up ...
  • Event
    After having been largely eliminated by structural adjustment programs in the 1980s and 1990s, many African countries have reintroduced large-scale input subsidy programs. The subsidy programs’ benefits, however, are highly contested, and there ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The use of modern agricultural inputs is considered the key to raising crop productivity and overall agricultural production in Ethiopia. The government places high priority on making modern agricultural inputs, particularly fertilizer and ...
  • News
    Yanyan Liu is a research fellow in IFPRI’s Markets, Trade and Institutions Division. The world’s population is both rapidly expanding and becoming increasingly urbanized. But while population growth poses significant challenges to food security ...
  • Archive
    “Irrigation is critical to food security and economic growth in contemporary India. The performance of irrigation systems is of serious concern to farmers who rely on them for their crops and livelihoods and to governments that have ...
  • Books and Monographs
    As water resources become increasing scare in India and demand only increases, the challenge of sustaining irrigation systems and the lands they serve is a matter of crucial importance. In particular, the livelihood of millions of farmers is ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The African Risk Capacity (ARC) pool is a proposed pan-Africa drought risk pool that would insure against drought risk in Africa south of the Sahara. Donors and, to at least a notional extent, member countries would pay annual premiums. In ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Despite their compelling logic, index insurance contracts that transfer risk from smallholder farmers and pastoralists have met with sometimes indifferent demand and low uptake by the intended beneficiaries. Yet the evidence that risk plays an ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Cereal price variability in Ethiopia has worsened in recent years, and some of the earlier liberalizations are being reversed due to the unacceptable economic and political costs of increased price variability. The challenge now is to achieve ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Do the economic effects of potential avian flu outbreaks justify policy attention and resource allocation in a poor country like Ethiopia? We address this question by assessing both economywide (macro-level) economic impacts and household ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Small-scale poultry production is an integral part of livelihoods in Nigeria, contributing to households’ income, food and nutrition security, and gender equality (Kushi et al. 1998; Houndonougbo 2005; Obi et al. 2008). Almost 60 percent of ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Since its re-emergence, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 has attracted considerable public and media attention because the viruses involved have been shown to be capable of producing fatal disease in humans. While there is fear that ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Ghana experienced three confirmed highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks in 2007. The virus was detected on commercial farms of different sizes in three regions: in the Tema area (Greater Accra region) at the end of April, in the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In this paper we investigate the role of poultry in households’ livelihoods portfolios and the impact of supply-and-demand shocks that may be caused by highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) on households’ various livelihoods outcomes in four ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Ethiopia supports one of the largest livestock populations in all of Africa (Alemu et al. 2008). In fact, the livestock sector accounts for 19 percent of national GDP, and as much as 40 percent of agricultural GDP (FAO 2004). At a micro level, it ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    In many parts of the world, increased agricultural growth will play a key role in addressing the current world food crisis, in contributing to overall economic growth, and in helping to achieve the first Millennium Development Goal of halving the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper reviews the trends in government subsidies and investments in and for Indian agriculture; develops a conceptual framework and model to assess the impact of various subsidies and investments on agricultural growth and poverty reduction; ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In 2010, after several years of being stalled, negotiations between MERCOSUR (the Common Market of the Southern Cone) and the European Union (EU) to build a free-trade agreement (FTA) were resumed. This FTA is expected to have an important impact ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The Agreement on South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) entered its second phase of implementation in 2008. The creation of a free trade area is expected to affect its participants—Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri ...
  • News
    Food price volatility can present problems for an array of stakeholders, including countries managing their export portfolios, commodity traders, and especially farmers, as unpredictable prices may result in variable income and ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Discussion Papers
    The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of Japan’s agricultural domestic policy since 1995 in the context of the current international negotiations in the WTO Doha Round, which has as one aim further reductions of ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Staff Profile
  • Staff Profile
  • Staff Profile
    Kate Ambler completed her Ph.D. in Economics at the University of Michigan in 2013. She holds an M.A. in Economics from the University of Michigan and a B.A. in Economics from Williams College. Prior to graduate school she was a Project ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Staff Profile
    Kelly researches how health status is both affected by and affects economic development in poor countries. Based in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, her work includes topics on maternal and child health, and sexual and reproductive health. She ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Understanding people’s knowledge, attitudes, practices, and perceptions (KAPP) about and toward risk is an important step in determining which cost-effective measure to adopt. It also is important in assessing poor people’s willingness to adopt ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Discussion Papers
    Table de matieres: Avant-propos Remerciements 1. La révolution dans le secteur de l’élevage 2. Evolution récente de la demande des produits alimentaires d’origine animale 3. Evolution de l’offre des produits d’origine ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Efforts to distribute land titles to low-income rural Afro-Brazilian communities, known as quilombos, have been disappointing despite the provision of ample government resources. Until now, research on the implications of Brazil‟s land reform ...
  • Staff Profile
    View CV
  • Staff Profile
    More about Leonard Oruko IFPRI eBrary View CV
  • IFPRI Briefs
    South Asia is home to the largest concentration of poor and undernourished people in the world, so food security—especially in basic staples such as wheat, rice, and corn—continues to be a major concern. With both persistent and re-emerging food ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Discussion Papers
    This essay describes the views of Philippines livestock sector stakeholders concerning the events and issues associated with the rapid rise in hog and poultry production, based on rapid reconnaissance interviews and gray literature from studies ...
  • Discussion Papers
    A team of researchers from the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO), and the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) collaborated to produce this ...
  • Discussion Papers
    A team of researchers from the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO), and the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) collaborated to produce this ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    A team of researchers from the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO), and the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) collaborated to produce this ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This report reaffirms that maize continues to be a significant contributor to the economic and social development of Ethiopia. As the crop with the largest smallholder coverage at 8 million holders (compared to 5.8 million for teff and 4.2 ...
  • News
    Africa south of the Sahara has been plagued by low agricultural productivity while at the same time fertilizer usage has remained stubbornly low in the region. In an attempt to boost output, African governments have taken to subsidizing ...
  • 2020 Focus
    In addition to proper storage conditions, management strategies to reduce aflatoxin contamination also include biological control: the use of non–toxin producing A. flavus strains to prevent further infection by toxin-producing strains. ...
  • 2020 Focus
    In order to bring about true food security, the world must achieve more than the availability of sufficient amounts of affordable and nutritious foodstuffs. It must also ensure that foods are safe. To do so requires going beyond in-factory ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This study examines the impact of alternative price stabilization policies for edible oils and oilseeds in India on the farmers growing oilseeds, the consumers of edible oils and the processing sector with the help of a multi market ...
  • Staff Profile
    Manuel Hernandez joined IFPRI in July 2009 as a Postdoctoral Fellow and was promoted to Research Fellow in 2012. He received his PhD in Economics from Texas A&M University in August 2009. He also holds a Bachelor’s degree in Economics from ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Spatial analysis of the distribution of disease risk and its visual presentation through risk maps can be used to inform the design of animal disease surveillance resulting in more cost-effective strategies. It is suitable for application in the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The results of an analysis of the spatial distribution of disease risk and its visual presentation through risk maps allow for the design of targeted and therefore more cost-effective animal disease surveillance strategies. There are various ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The spatial distribution of disease risk and its visual presentation through risk maps can assist in the design of targeted animal disease surveillance and control strategies. This approach is particularly useful in situations in which empirical ...
  • 2020 Focus
    A key consideration in planning action to assist poor and hungry households is simply to have a good understanding of where they live and the characteristics of those locations. For the past 10 years, poverty researchers at the World Bank, ...
  • Staff Profile
    Marcelle Thomas joined IFPRI in 1988 and is now a research analyst in the Markets, Trade and Institutions Division (MTID). As part of her ongoing work at MTID, Marcelle has joined the team on Globalization and Trade, applying the MAcMap dataset ...
  • Staff Profile
    Maria is an experimental economist broadly interested in the fields of public economics, behavioral economics, and development economics. She obtained her Ph.D. in Economics at the University of Pittsburgh and has been working at IFPRI since ...
  • Staff Profile
    View CV
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper examines how market institutions can affect links between urban and rural areas with specific emphasis on goods market integration in the national context.Traditionally, development researchers and practitioners have focused either on ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This paper examines how market institutions can affect links between urban and rural areas with specific emphasis on goods market integration in the national context.Traditionally, development researchers and practitioners have focused either on ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the dynamics of volatility between the corn, wheat, and soybean markets in the United States. Volatility interactions across markets, if they exist, may lower the effectiveness of diversification ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Aflatoxins are more than a barrier to trade for smallholders—they are a serious risk to public health. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that 4.5 billion people are chronically exposed to the toxin through the consumption ...
  • This project is documenting the transformation of selected high-value food chains: chili peppers, shallots, mangoes, and shrimp. The goal is to better understand the rate of change in these chains, the likely impact of these trends on different ...
  • General Information
    Liberalized and open agricultural markets can encourage agriculture-led economic growth in developing countries through higher levels of input use, increased production, expanding exports, and higher incomes. But countries moving toward a ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    La revisión de varios indicadores económicos muestra que tanto la crisis de alimentos como la crisis económica y financiera recientes tuvieron efectos negativos considerables sobre los países centroamericanos. La primera golpeó a la región entre ...
  • Staff Profile
    Maximo Torero is the Division Director of the Markets, Trade, and Institutions Division at the International Food Policy Research Institute, leader of the Global Research Program on Institutions and Infrastructure for Market Development and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Individuals’ aspirations and their consequences for future-oriented behavior have received increased attention in devel-opment economics literature in recent years. At this stage, however, each study relies on ad hoc empirical instruments to ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Individuals’ aspirations and their consequences for future-oriented behavior have received increased attention in development economics literature in recent years. At this stage, however, each study relies on ad hoc empirical instruments to ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Traditional weighted-average measures of trade distortions are widely used in analyzing global and regional reforms, despite well-known deficiencies. This paper develops and applies optimal aggregators for the real-world case of multiple ...
  • Staff Profile
    View CV
  • 2020 Focus
    Questions in development economics often focus on the poor’s limited access to capital and, in particular, on their high interest rate for borrowing. Despite this high price for capital, many poor households borrow substantial amounts for ...
  • 2020 Focus
    In 2002 a group of insurance and reinsurance professionals set out to demonstrate that the low-income market was a viable insurance market. The initial aim was to better understand client needs and the willingness of insurers to provide products ...
  • Staff Profile
    Miguel Almánzar is a Research Analyst in the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) in the Markets, Trade and Institutions Division. He received a BA in Mathematics and Economics in 2008 from the City University of New York and a ...
  • Staff Profile
    More about Miguel Robles IFPRI eBrary View CV
  • Aflatoxin is a fungi-produced toxin that resides in the soil and affects crops. It thrives in humid conditions and is prevalent throughout much of the developing world in such staple crops as maize and groundnuts. While aflatoxin is a known ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Due to the complex nature of the problem, prevention and control of aflatoxin contamination requires a comprehensive, systematic approach involving a broad range of stakeholders in Africa and beyond. A prerequisite to this approach is ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Aflatoxins, which are produced by Aspergillus molds, depend on environmental conditions in order to thrive. These toxins occur under drought conditions, when plants are more vulnerable to colonization by Aspergillus (Sanders et al. 1993), and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    There is rising skepticism about the potential positive environmental impacts of first generation biofuels. Growing biofuel crops could induce diversion of other crops dedicated to food and feed needs. The relocation of production could increase ...
  • News
    The following story was originally published on IFPRI’s Food Security Portal. India’s monsoon season is off to its weakest start in five years, sparking fears over the potential for drought and increased food prices throughout the country. During ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    What is at stake in the standoff between the United States and Europe over agriculture in the Doha Round of trade talks at the World Trade Organization (WTO)? What impact would an agreement based on greater or lesser levels of ambition have on ...
  • News
    The following post by IFPRI Senior Research Fellow David Orden is an excerpt of a story originally published on IFPRI’s Food Security Portal. After more than three years of often tumultuous negotiations, the U.S. Congress has passed a new ...
  • Staff Profile
    Nicholas W. Minot is a senior research fellow in the Markets, Trade and Institutions Division. Since joining IFPRI in 1997 as a post-doctoral fellow, he has carried out research on the agricultural market reform in Africa, fertilizer policy, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    As a result of the Uruguay round, Norway was committed to reducing its domestic support for agriculture, in particular its aggregate measurement of support (AMS), which was to be reduced by 20 percent. We show that Norway has complied with its ...
  • News
    Co-authored by David Laborde Debucquet and Sara Gustafson. The Doha Development Agenda, the World Trade Organization (WTO’s) ambitious trade liberalization program, has been bogged down since its launch in 2001. Although it should not be blamed ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Discussion Papers
    Food security concerns have appeared prominently in the World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiations, causing the breakdown of the overall Doha process in 2008, nearly derailing the negotiations at the 2013 Bali Ministerial Conference, and ...
  • Books and Monographs
    This book describes how Bangladesh transformed its food markets and food policies to free the country from the constant threat of famine. Since 1990, the Bangladeshi government has dismantled its food rationing system, privatized grain ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This study presents a detailed review of the poultry sector in Ethiopia in order to provide background information for further research related to pro‐poor HPAI risk reduction strategies in Ethiopia. The report surveys information that exists in ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    From 2006 to the present, 11 countries in Africa reported outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1: Egypt, Sudan, Djibouti, Niger, Nigeria, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Togo, Benin, and Cameroon. Other than Egypt, where ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The emergence of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) of the subtype H5N1 and the potential threat of a global human pandemic have been issues of great concern to the international community since its regional and global spread since 2003. At ...
  • Books and Monographs
    Pakistan’s economy relies heavily on its cotton and textile sectors. The cotton-processing and textile industries make up almost half of the country’s manufacturing base, while cotton is Pakistan’s principal industrial crop, ...
  • Pakistan’s economy relies heavily on its cotton and textile sectors. The cotton-processing and textile industries make up almost half of the country’s manufacturing base, while cotton is Pakistan’s principal industrial crop, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This document is the inception report for an ADB-funded TA on Agricultural Sector Program. The overall objective of the TA is to assist the government in designing an agricultural program to help establish a competitive market-based and ...
  • Despite progress in recent years, the incidence of poverty in the Philippines remains very high: the national poverty rate was more than 30 percent in 2003, with even higher levels in rural areas. Because poor Filipino households spend more than ...
  • Books and Monographs
    The Philippines has undergone a series of trade reforms since the mid-1980s that have reduced protection on nonagricultural goods. However, protection on key food items is still in effect, and this has led to high domestic food prices. Such high ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper looks at how Philippine trade reform which consists of tariff reduction and elimination of quantitative restrictions (QR) on rice imports will affect poverty within two world trade scenarios: Doha and free world trade. The impact of ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The current food crisis has several causes-rising demand for food and feed, biofuels, high oil prices, climate change, stagnant agricultural productivity growth-but there is increasing evidence that the crisis is being made worse by the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    High production and export subsidies in developed countries and high protection in both developed and developing countries have distorted rice trade. This study estimates the impact of rice policy distortions on developing countries’ rice ...
  • Booklets
    Globalization could and should benefit developing countries. But unlike a rising tide that lifts all boats, large and small, globalization is unequal. It has fallen far short of its much-ballyhooed potential to help the world’s poorest ...
  • News
    When a natural disaster strikes, it takes its toll in lives, homes, and entire cities. What’s more, the costs of reconstruction are not strictly financial—it can also drain other resources geared toward long-term development outcomes such as ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Rapid population growth in many developing countries has raised concerns regarding food security and household welfare. To understand the consequences of population growth on in the general equilibrium setting, we examine the dynamics of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Since the publication of the World Development Report 2008, two related strands of research have emerged—one on the validity of smallholder-led development strategy and the other on agricultural intensification under population pressure. The ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture attempted to lower distortions in the global agricultural markets. However, the significant fall in commodity prices in late 1990s may have reduced the incentives for both developed and developing ...
  • Discussion Papers
    We conduct framed trust games using contract dairy farmers in Vietnam as first movers to assess the impact of potential collusion on trust. Disaggregated analysis suggests that female farmers are more likely to trust overall, but are also more ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Like in most African countries, the livestock sector is an important part of the economy in Ghana. At an aggregate level it contributes to about 7 percent of Ghana’s GDP and more than 40 percent to the agricultural GDP (Aning et al. 2008). Within ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The Ethiopian poultry sector is almost exclusively dominated by backyard and small-scale production using limited to no inputs in production and which is targeted for either self-consumption or the market. Unlike other parts of the world, there ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Poultry is an important source of income and protein for poor households in Indonesia. In a normal year, the production of poultry meat in Indonesia is approximately 1.285 million tons per annum, representing around 62% of total domestic meat ...
  • This study uses a relatively new method called “small area estimation” to estimate various measures of poverty and inequality for provinces, districts, and communes of Vietnam. The method was applied by combining information from the ...
  • Books and Monographs
    This study uses a relatively new method called “small area estimation” to estimate various measures of poverty and inequality for provinces, districts, and communes of Vietnam. The method was applied by combining information from the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Spatially disaggregated maps of the incidence of poverty can be constructed by combining household survey data and census data. In some cases, however, statistical authorities are reluctant, for reasons of confidentiality, to release ...
  • News
    This story originally appeared on the Food Security Portal blog. Economic growth in the developing world relies heavily on credit, grants, and loans. But increasing poor populations’ access to these financial vehicles brings with it a ...
  • India’s Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) employs about 50 million men and women every year and offers an important opportunity for investigating the link between public works spending and the political ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Maize is the main dietary staple in Kenya, and it is also one of the crops most susceptible to infection by Aspergillus flavus and con-tamination by aflatoxin. In Kenya, occasional epidemics of aflatox-icosis receive media attention, but ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The study estimates a conditional mean model for international wheat prices and inventories. Endogenous price volatility and exogenous shocks in the price and inventory series are controlled for in estimation. Redressing the empirical linkage ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This brief is a synopsis of five country background papers that provided an inventory of information about the importance of the poultry sector in the economy and for rural livelihoods, the structure of the poultry sector and the associated level ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This study presents a detailed review of the poultry sector in Ghana with an aim to provide in depth information on the linkages in the production chain and the role of the poultry sector in the national economy. Information on the history and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The objective of this background paper is to document available information on the poultry sector and Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) in Nigeria. It is hoped that this will help identify the gaps that would help focus the planned study ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In many developing countries, governments rely on price-based measures (including border protection and subsidies on inputs and outputs) more than on budgetary payments to achieve agricultural policy objectives defined to include price ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Given that Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence of poverty and malnutrition in the world, the stagnation in per capita grain production there is worrisome. Since 1970, per capita grain production in Sub-Saharan Africa has declined more ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The period of 1994 to 2004 was one in which rural households in Peru experienced dramatic changes in ownership rights through a large nation-wide land titling program and a significant opening of the economy to international trade. This paper ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Microinsurance is a powerful tool in helping low-income households transition out of poverty, but it has not achieved substantial scale compared with microcredit. In India, microfinance institutions (MFIs) initially showed great potential in ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Agriculture in Ethiopia is almost entirely rainfed and highly prone to droughts and floods. Given that 85 percent of the population depends on smallholder agriculture, these weather shocks severely affect many Ethiopians. The high covariance of ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This report provides an analysis of the critical role of pulses in agricultural production as a driver for economic growth and food security. Pulses, which occupy approximately 13 percent of cultivated land and account for approximately 10 ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper reviews the purpose and potential of commodity exchanges in Africa. Drawing from the existing literature and using indicative empirics, it examines the conditions that enable successful exchanges, highlights the special challenges to ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This study assessed the risk of transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) between backyard poultry (S4) farms and between S4 and semi-commercial (S3) farms in Kenya. It was designed to complement findings of a study that had been ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    By December 2007, there was a continuum of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 affected countries along the West African coast from Côte d’Ivoire to Cameroon. Eight West African countries (Nigeria, Niger, Cameroon, Burkina Faso, Côte ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    By December 2007, there was a continuum of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 affected countries along the West African coast from Cote d’Ivoire to Cameroon. In all, 8 countries in West Africa had recorded HPAI H5N1 (Niger, Burkina ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    As part of the DFID-funded Pro-Poor HPAI Risk Reduction Project, a qualitative risk assessment was conducted for risk questions agreed during a stakeholder workshop in November, 2008, related to transmission of HPAI H5N1 between small-scale ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The Nigerian poultry industry, comprising both commercial and rural poultry systems, experienced the first highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreak in 2006. This industry provides an affordable source of protein to millions of ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    As part of the DFID funded Pro-poor HPAI Risk Reduction Project, a qualitative risk assessment was conducted for risk questions, agreed during stakeholders workshop in September, 2008, related to introduction of highly pathogenic avian influenza ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Using original data collected about growers, traders, processors, markets, and village communities, we compare the situation in four states - Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Orissa. We examine the way that information about ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Healthcare in developing countries is often unreliable and of poor quality, thus reducing individuals incentives to use quality health services. This paper examines an innovative approach to access to and demand for quality health care from the ...
  • Staff Profile
    Rachel joined IFPRI in 2014 as Communications Specialist for the Markets, Trade and Institutions Division. She provides writing and editorial services for MTID researchers in DC and abroad; she is the content editor of the Food Security Portal, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This methodological note discusses the potential and limits of using voucher-based experiments to randomly evaluate the micro-level impact of infrastructures on households’ well-being. We argue that such methods are policy relevant, statistically ...
  • News
    In a move that potentially pleases both food security experts and environmentalists, the EU’s Environment Committee voted on July 11 to set a cap on the amount of energy produced from food and energy crops while encouraging the use of advanced ...
  • General Information
    Input Subsidy Programs (ISPs) have made a big comeback in Africa. Introduced by donors in the early 1970s, ISPs were meant to help smallholder farmers invest in fertilizer and improved seed varieties, overcome limited access to input markets, and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    From 2006 to mid-2008 the international prices of agricultural commodities increased considerably, by a factor larger than two. This upward trend in agricultural prices captured the world’s attention as a new food crisis was emerging. Several ...
  • 2020 Focus
    This brief overviews the Aflacontrol project, a multidisciplinary effort from 2009 to 2012 that sought to provide empirical evidence of the cost-effectiveness of aflatoxin risk-reduction strategies along maize and groundnut value chains. The ...
  • 2020 Focus
    There are various simple cultural and other practices that can be used to manage aflatoxins in groundnuts. To enhance the management of aflatoxins in groundnuts, it is recommended that locally adaptable practices be identified, tested on-farm, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The economic losses associated with aflatoxin are estimated to be large; however, there is a dearth of systematic studies that empirically estimate a) economic losses (in terms of both health and income) for all stakeholders along the value ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The economic losses associated with aflatoxin are estimated to be large; however, there is a dearth of systematic studies that empirically estimate a) economic losses (in terms of both health and income) for all stakeholders along the value ...
  • Discussion Papers
  • Staff Profile
  • Project Papers and Notes
    A risk-based approach is essential to understanding how exposure to health hazards varies as agriculture products move and are handled and processed throughout the value chain from farm to table—and an essential step toward improving the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    This brief describes food safety risks along the value chain, identifies drivers of change, presents the risks posed to the poor by both food safety challenges and responses to them, and underscores the use of risk-based analysis to craft ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Through a survey of approximately 1300 farmers, millers and traders, this study undertook an in-depth investigation of the rice marketing system in the midst of its transition from a centrally planned to a market-based economy. Its findings ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Rice is the lifeline of almost 70% of the world’s poor residing in Asia, where more than 90% of world rice production and consumption takes place. Rice trade liberalization therefore has tremendous implications for poverty. The world rice ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Using data from multiple sources, we show that in Bangladesh, the increase in real wages, particularly female wages, has accelerated since the late 2000s, suggesting that the Lewis turning point (the point at which the labor market starts to ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Risk is a pervasive feature of life in poor rural areas of developing countries. This brief outlines a conceptual framework for understanding the nature of risks faced by poor rural households and their consequences before turning to a more ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Risk is pervasive in developing countries. The standard household risks of sickness, mortality, fire, theft, and unemployment are especially severe for poor families in developing countries. Rural households, most of which derive their ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Staff Profile
  • Staff Profile
    View CV
  • Staff Profile
    Dr. Samuel Morley is a senior visiting research fellow at IFPRI. He has published monographs on poverty and distribution in Latin America, conditioned cash transfers and the effect of CAFTA in Central America. More about Samuel Morley in IFPRI ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This research assesses the effects of sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) standards in international trade by introducing a new concept, bridge to cross (BTC), with product standards. The BTC in this paper is the regulatory gap between the exporting ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Staff Profile
  • Books and Monographs
    A dramatic increase over the past fifteen years in domestic pork demand and production in the Philippines has created a potentially profitable opportunity for poor rural and agricultural households. In Southern and Central Luzon, the two biggest ...
  • A dramatic increase over the past fifteen years in domestic pork demand and production in the Philippines has created a potentially profitable opportunity for poor rural and agricultural households. In Southern and Central Luzon, the two biggest ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    On January 1, 2008, Economic Partnerships Agreements (EPAs), currently being negotiated between the European Union (EU) and nearly 80 African, Caribbean, and Pacific (ACP) countries, are expected to replace the Cotonou Agreement, which has ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agriculture is a core driver of Ethiopia’s economy, supporting 85 percent of the population’s livelihoods and accounting for 46 percent of gross domestic product and 80 percent of export value. Given the significant current and future role of the ...
  • Staff Profile
    Shahidur Rashid is a Senior Research Fellow in the Markets, Trade and Institutions Division of the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). A native of Bangladesh, he received his Master of Social Science in Economics from the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Currently, there is increased focus on the methods in which public interventions stabilize agricultural markets. The subsidization of private storage is one of the options advocated. However, the efficiency of such an instrument is still being ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Staff Profile
    Simla Tokgoz received her Ph.D. in Economics from North Carolina State University in 2003. Her research focus is modeling and analysis of biofuels, energy, and agricultural markets, particularly the impact of biofuels expansion on agricultural ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper examines the impact of cooperatives on smallholder commercialization of cereals, using detailed household data from rural Ethiopia. We review the involvement of cooperatives, in terms of who participates and where they are located. We ...
  • Technical Guides
    This training guide introduces development practitioners, policy analysts, and students to social accounting matrices (SAMs) and their use in policy analysis. There are already a number of books that explain the System of National Accounts and ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Elements of social protection date back several millennia. Free food distribution was a feature of Egypt in the time of the Pharaohs and of Rome during its Imperial age. England had a succession of “Poor Laws” dating from the 16th century that ...
  • Staff Profile
    View CV
  • News
    The following post by IFPRI visiting Senior Research Fellow Eugenio Diaz-Bonilla is an excerpt of a story originally published on IFPRI’s Food Security Portal. The negotiations seem to be heading for a breakdown again over agricultural ...
  • Staff Profile
    Soonho Kim joined MTID as a web portal specialist in 2011. She is originally from South Korea and has lived in Florida, Rome, and Fairfax, Virginia. She received a Ph.D. in Agricultural and Biological Engineering (major) and Computer Science ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This study examines the sources of crop income growth in Indian agriculture over the 1980s and 1990s. Using a method developed by Minot (2003), the analysis decomposes crop income growth into the contribution of yield increases, area ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Using weekly price data for two sub-periods, this paper analyzes how Ugandan maize market performed in the years following agricultural market liberalization in the early 1990’s. For each time period, the extent of integration, ...
  • News
    The following story was originally published on IFPRI’s Food Security Portal. Quality healthcare plays a crucial role in improving the lives of the poor. In many developing countries, however, high-quality healthcare can be hard to ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    To promote development, there is increasing need for activities and policies which generate and diversify income in rural areas. The starch industry in Viet Nam provides a good example of rural industrialization whereby low-value agricultural ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Holding strategic grain reserves to address food price hikes has received renewed attentions in recent years. This paper examines such a program in Ethiopia that has been successful in addressing several emergencies since the 1990s. The analysis ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Pig production in the Philippines has intensified in the urban and peri-urban areas in response to a radical structural change in the pig industry and a growing demand for pork products. Alongside this rapid growth is the emergence of societal ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    A broad survey of expert opinions in was conducted July 2000 to February 2001, with over 1500 questionnaires mailed to experts within and outside Africa on nominations of African agricultural success stories and the rationale for selection of ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Project Papers and Notes
    How does information about a suspected outbreak of avian influenza on the farm level reach the respective authorities? How and through which actors is the response to a confirmed outbreak implemented on the ground? These were the guiding ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    How does information about a suspected outbreak of avian influenza on the farm level reach the respective authorities? How and through which actors is the response to a confirmed outbreak implemented on the ground? These were the guiding ...
  • Staff Profile
  • 2020 Focus
    Farmers face a variety of market and production risks that make their incomes volatile from year to year. In many cases, farmers also confront the risk of catastrophe, as, for example, when crops are destroyed by drought or pest outbreaks or when ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Attention to aflatoxin issues from the policy community has increased in recent years, with growing recognition of their health risks as well as the barrier they pose to market development. The 2002 imposition of new, stricter aflatoxin ...
  • Staff Profile
    View CV
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Some have proposed that the Ethiopia Grain Trading Enterprise (EGTE) offer a minimum support price (MSP) on wheat. The goals of the MSP are to stimulate wheat production, decrease the need for wheat imports, and reduce seasonal variability in ...
  • Discussion Papers
    With the Biotech Revolution, questions are being asked about what role the government should play in the process-does public research in developing countries play a role? Can governments speed the spread of technology by offering complementary ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This paper accomplishes two objectives. First, it provides simulation results from a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model that have helped focus the debate about the potential effects of agricultural trade liberalization on ...
  • Books and Monographs
    This book is a comprehensive analysis of the impact of the 1998 floods, the response of the government, and the coping strategies of households. It contains valuable lessons for developing countries on maintaining food security following major ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The study of past land reform efforts can serve to guide policy analysts and policymakers in their evaluation of the merits and the possible design of future reforms to land tenure systems. The key question about land reform is; What is its ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper examines the potential benefits and costs of providing duty-free, quota-free (DFQF) market access to the least developed countries and the effects of extending eligibility for DFQF access to other small and poor countries. Using the ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The benefits least-developed countries (LDCs) can draw from a multilateral trade reform as designed by the modalities made public in May 2008 are negligible, and some countries will even face adverse effects. World Trade Organization (WTO) ...
  • News
    The following is an excerpted version of a story originally published on IFPRI’s Food Security Portal. The WTO Doha Development Round trade negotiations have been at an impasse since their launch in 2001, and have gotten particularly bogged ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    During the past two-and-a-half decades, China and India have implemented a series of economic reforms that have led to recent growth rates of 9-11 percent per year in China and 8-9 percent per year in India. The rapid economic growth of the two ...
  • Books and Monographs
    China and India are the most extraordinary economic success stories of the developing world. Both nations’ economies have grown dramatically over the past few decades, elevating them from two of the world’s poorest countries into ...
  • Discussion Papers
    China’s and India’s rapid rise in the global arena has not only captured the attention of the world but has also set into motion a rethinking of the very paradigm of economic development….Today, China and India together account ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Low demand for micro-insurance has been a prominent problem in developing countries. We study the dynamics of insurance demand by risk-averse farmers who can borrow and lend subject to a credit constraint and who also perceive a risk of insurer ...
  • Discussion Papers
    By using a global computable general equilibrium model, this report analyzes the impact of various pending free trade agreements for Peru. In December 2007, a Peru-United States free trade agreement (FTA) was finally ratified by the U.S. ...
  • Books and Monographs
    Trade liberalization is expected to act positively on world economic development and poverty alleviation, both of which have become high priorities of the international community. This emphasis explains why numerous studies have focused on ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The objectives of this paper are to help build a picture of the role of women in China’s agriculture, to assess whether or not agricultural feminization has been occurring, and if so, to measure its impact on productivity. To meet these goals, we ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Global retail chains are becoming increasingly dominant in the global food trade and their rise leads to dramatic impacts on agricultural supply chains and on small producers. However, the prospects and impacts of a food retail revolution in poor ...
  • News
    The following story was originally published on IFPRI’s Food Security Portal. A person’s aspirations, or goals and targets for their future, can be a driving force in their life, providing motivation and guiding their choices. But when forming ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Sugar is one of the most highly protected agricultural commodities worldwide. This protection depresses trade opportunities and the prices received by exporters without preferential market access. For this reason, dialogues about sugar policy are ...
  • News
    Taxes were on the minds of many as politicians descended upon St. Petersburg for the G20 summit last week, with financial transaction taxes, tax havens, and illicit financial flows featuring prominently on global agendas. In the realm of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper attempts to define the nature, extent, scope, and implications of what the authors term the “Live stock Revolution” in developing countries. Looking forward to 2020, they argue that the structural shifts in world ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In 2004, several hundred Kenyans became severely ill, and 125 died, of acute aflatoxicosis: a disease of liver failure associated with consuming extremely high levels of aflatoxin in food (Lewis et al. 2005; Strosnider et al. 2006). Since then, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Brazil’s Bolsa Família is one of the largest conditional cash transfer programs in the world, providing cash grants to poor households conditional on their fulfilling a series of requirements related to schooling and health. Despite the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In this paper we develop a dynamic CGE model to examine the impact of CAFTA on production, employment and poverty in Honduras. We model four aspects of the agreement: tariff reductions, quotas, changes in the rules of origin for maquila and more ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In developing countries, all too often policies formulated in response to high food prices are inspired by ideology instead of evidence-based policy research. We look at the immediate effects of these shocks faced by households in Uganda on their ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper analyzes the relationship between land property rights and household labor allocation. It posits that land titling has two opposite effects on labor decisions. On one hand, enhancement of tenure security should lead to reductions in ...
  • Discussion Papers
    People in developed countries consume about 3 to 4 times as much meat and fish, and 5 to 6 times as much milk products per capita as in developing Asia and Africa. Yet, meat, milk, and fish consumption per capita has barely grown in the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The International Food Policy and Research Institute (IFPRI), headquartered in Washington, D.C.and represented by an office in Central America based in RUTA, in San Jose, Costa Rica, and the Sub-regional Economic Commission for Central America ...
  • Discussion Papers
    While the Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) remains a hotly debated issue in all five Central American countries that are part of the treaty, most discussions are based on preconceived opinions rather than grounded in research-based ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    In recent years, trade in Africa has assumed greater importance as a means of alleviating poverty, especially since the initiation of the Doha Round for development. At the same time, skepticism regarding the effectiveness of foreign aid has ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The objective of this paper is to review the agricultural trade and domestic policies of the Philippines and to provide an assessment of the types and levels of domestic support relative to the rules of the World Trade Organization (WTO). Changes ...
  • Discussion Papers
    While government spending on pro-poor community asset creation and income-transfers could have compounding positive effects on poverty reduction, it is important to first study trends in the allocation of funds, particularly as they relate to the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study offers new conclusions on the economic cost of a failed Doha Round. The first section is devoted to an analysis of how trade policies evolve in the long and medium runs. We show that even under normal economic conditions, policymakers ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    In times of economic turmoil, countries might decide to increase current tariff rates to protect domestic industries or raise revenues in order to finance domestic programs. Using the highest applied or bound rate imposed by countries from 1995 ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper assesses the global economic implications of the proposed strict documentation requirements on traded shipments of potentially genetically modified (GM) commodities under the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety. More specifically, we ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations (ICRIER) was invited by the Indian Ministry of Commerce and Industry to conduct a study titled “The Impact of Organized Retailing on the Unorganized Retail Sector.” ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Mapping the flow of information along the poultry value chain is crucial for the identification of the actors to whom highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) risks should be communicated. Each actor in the poultry sector, whether private and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In many developing countries, information regarding the occurrence of a disease outbreak must travel through a network of individuals and institutions before it reaches the central government. Likewise, the response must travel back through these ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    As in other African countries, poultry production in Kenya is an important livelihoods activity. Eighty percent of the national poultry population is managed in small-scale, non- or semi-commercial, village, or backyard poultry systems (MOLFD ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Rising demands for quality and safety measures in high-value agriculture and livestock markets have necessitated the creation of increasingly complex supply chains to manage the flow of goods and information among channel actors. Public–private ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Risk assessment is a powerful tool for helping risk managers and policymakers to understand risk, evaluate risk control options, and make decisions that balance the benefits of risk reduction with the costs of mitigation. This brief shows how the ...
  • Books and Monographs
    The debate over agricultural subsideies has been thrust to the forefront of discussions on India’s economic reforms with the signing of the Uruguay Round Agreement, now devolving on the WTO. This book examines the issue from various angles ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    A “supermarket revolution” has been underway in developing countries since the early 1990s. Supermarkets (here referring to all modern retail, which includes chain stores of various formats such as supermarkets, hypermarkets, and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The aim of this paper is to assess of the impact of the European Union’s trade preferences on global trade, focusing on several methodological issues that are relevant to the trade-creating impact of these preferences. Using highly disaggregated ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Farmers in rural Bangladesh face multiple sources of uninsured risk to agricultural production and household assets. In this paper, we present results from an experimental demand-elicitation exercise in rural Bangladesh to shed light on ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Recent food safety events have raised concerns about food traceability in both developed and developing countries. In this paper we study the decision to adopt a traceability system in a supply chain with repeated upstream and downstream moral ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The last several years have seen an unprecedented cooperation in trade and investment between Asia and Latin America. Since 2003 an average of 2.2 regional trade agreements (RTAs)* per year have been signed between countries of these two regions, ...
  • 2020 Focus
    According to World Trade Organization (WTO) rules, countries can choose their own Sanitary and Phyto Sanitary Standards (SPS) to protect human, animal, and plant health as long as they are nondiscriminatory and justifiable by science. This ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Among South Asian countries, Nepal has liberalized most extensively during the 1980s and 1990s on both fronts, domestic and external. Nepal is a least developed country with a gross national product of US $235 per capita in 2001 and second ...
  • Books and Monographs
    Agricultural trade liberalization has been resisted by many developing country policymakers, including those in the Middle East and North Africa, for fear it could hurt domestic farmers and exacerbate poverty. The authors of Trade Liberalization ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper is a description and an analysis of trade liberalization under CAFTA. It shows that in the short run the impact of the agreement is likely to be small. Since the U.S. already grants tariff-free access under the CBI, trade ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper attempts to assess the impact of trade liberalization on growth, poverty, and food security in India with the help of a national-level computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. The results show that the gross domestic product (GDP) ...
  • Discussion Papers
    We examine the effect of trade protection rates on evasion in three African countries: Kenya, Mauritius, and Nigeria. In capturing the effect of trade protection on tariff evasion, we use a much improved measure of trade protection from MacMAP ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The global food crisis of 2007–2008 was characterized by a sharp spike in the prices of most commodities, including staple grains. This analysis examines the degree to which changes in world food markets influence the price of staple foods in ...
  • Technical Guides
    As conducting various types of experiments becomes a more popular component of economics research, understanding the experimental method becomes more important for policymakers and others concerned with economics issues. In Treating the Field as ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    As of June 2006, a final agreement has eluded the parties to the Doha Development Round trade negotiations. There was little finality to the December 2005 Hong Kong Ministerial conference negotiations, even though members agreed to eliminate ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This theoretical paper intends to provide an explanation of the implementation of behind-the-border policies, border policies, and of the inefficiency of trade negotiations. We consider a general equilibrium model of international trade with two ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The unprecedented, large-scale, rural-to-urban migration in China has left many rural children living apart from their parents. Yet the consequences for child development of living without one or more parents due to migration are largely unknown. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    We use data from 52 countries on child stunting, poverty, determinants of food security, environmental health, and quality of maternal and child care to carry out a cluster analysis of country typologies. The purpose is to identify where ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper uses models of irreversible investment under uncertainty to examine the investment and abandonment behavior of poor rural households. It considers the decision of Ugandan coffee-farming households to invest in or abandon coffee trees. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper examines past and proposed U.S. domestic support in light of current and potential World Trade Organization (WTO) constraints. It provides a brief review of U.S. farm policies since the Uruguay Round WTO agreements went into effect, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper considers urban-rural location and education as the main causes of expenditure inequality and attempts to examine inequality changes associated with urbanization and educational expansion in Indonesia from 1996 to 2002, using ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Recent trends in food prices—higher levels and higher volatility—mirror trends predicted by a number of experts. Given the complex web of factors influencing global food security, governments of developed and developing countries, as well as ...
  • Technical Guides
    Objectives The objective of this training module is to explain how to use GAMS to construct, calibrate, and modify agricultural sector models in order to simulate the effect of alternative policies or other events affecting agricultural markets. ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The Aflacontrol Project aims to provide evidence-based information on the cost effectiveness of existing control technologies used to reduce the risk of human and animal exposure to aflatoxin contamination in developing countries. It also aims to ...
  • Technical Guides
    Background This manual was prepared to be used as part of a one-week training course. Earlier versions of the manual have been used in training courses in various countries. This manual describes how to use Stata to store, describe, and analyze ...
  • The stochastic frontier approach provides an ideal framework to build the typology of rural micro-regions. Conceptually, the stochastic approach is developed from a theory of producer behavior in which the motivation is the standard optimization ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Regression discontinuity design (RDD) is a useful tool for evaluating programs when a single variable is used to determine program eligibility. RDD has also been used to evaluate programs when eligibility is based on multiple variables that have ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The Kenyan poultry industry is characterized by dualism, comprised of both smallholder and large-scale poultry producers. The industry is characterized by two main production systems namely (i) the commercial hybrid poultry production system and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In this paper, we employ the choice experiment method to estimate local citizens’ valuation of a public intervention that proposes to improve the quality of an important environmental resource, namely, the Ganges River in India. To elicit ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Despite the rise of targeted input subsidy programs in Africa over the last decade, several questions remain as to whether low and variable soil fertility, frequent drought, and high fertilizer prices render fertilizer unprofitable for large ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Rising per capita income, urbanization and globalization are changing the consumption basket in the developing countries towards high-value commodities (like fruits & vegetables, milk, meat, poultry, fish, etc.). This paper explores ...
  • Staff Profile
    Vinay Sonkar joined IFPRI on 29 August 2012 as a Senior Research Assistant and currently working on a project titled ‘Awareness and Valuation of Nutrition and Food Safety Attributes among Dairy Consumers in India’. He did an ...
  • Staff Profile
  • Project Papers and Notes
    2020 Resilience Conference Brief 10 - Building Resilience for Food and Nutrition Security - May 15-17, 2014 - Addis Ababa, Ethiopia As climate variability gains prominence in the international policy agenda, public and private sectors alike ...
  • Public works programs are gaining in popularity as governments seek more effective ways of battling extreme poverty and gender-based income inequality. Establishing such programs as a type of social safety net allows governments to set balanced ...
  • Discussion Papers
    India’s National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS) is one of the largest public works programs globally. Understanding the impacts of NREGS and the pathway through which its impacts are realized thus has important policy implications. We ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Policies of devolving management of resources from the state to user groups are premised upon the assumption that users will organize and take on the necessary management tasks. While experience has shown that in many places users do so ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Trade liberalization is expected to act positively on development and poverty alleviation, both of which have become a high priority of international community…The objective of this study is to examine the efficiency of trade ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The food price crisis of 2007-08 had several causes-rising demand for food, the change in the food equation through biofuels, climate change, high oil prices-but there is substantial evidence that the crisis was made worse by the malfunctioning ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Trade integration of Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries’ agriculture is pointed out as a powerful driver of agricultural growth, especially if it increases processing of agricultural products. But there is no consensus on which negotiations for ...
  • Discussion Papers
    We herein use a world Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model to simulate 143 potential trade reforms and seek solutions to the issues hampering progress in the Doha Development Agenda (DDA). Inside the domain defined by all these possible ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper shows mutually consistent evidence to support female advantage in education and disadvantage in labor markets observed in the Philippines. We set up a model that shows multiple Nash equilibria to explain schooling and labor market ...
  • News
    The following story was originally published on IFPRI’s Food Security Portal. Extreme poverty and gender inequality are two of the most daunting challenges faced by the developing world. To tackle these challenges, many policymakers are turning ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    When the World Trade Organization (WTO) was created in 1995, its members committed themselves to a set of disciplines for domestic support, market access, and export competition for agriculture. The Agreement on Agriculture laid the way for the ...
  • Books and Monographs
    When the World Trade Organization (WTO) was created in 1995, its members committed themselves to a set of disciplines for domestic support, market access, and export competition for agriculture. The Agreement on Agriculture laid the way for the ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    For more than six years the trade talks of the World Trade Organization (WTO) have been stalled, mainly on account of differences in countries’ levels of ambition for reducing support to and protection of agriculture. The expiration of the ...
  • Books and Monographs
    The World Trade Organization’s Doha Round of trade talks has been plagued by a lack of concrete progress toward establishing a fair and harmonious agricultural trading system. Because the results of the Doha Round could have far-reaching ...
  • Staff Profile
    Yanyan Liu joined IFPRI in June 2009. Yanyan received a joint PhD in economics and agricultural economics from Michigan State University in 2006. Her dissertation examined determinants of maize productivity in Kenya and studied valuation of ...
  • Staff Profile
  • IFPRI Briefs
    La comunidad mundial y las instituciones internacionales han dado una alta prioridad al desarrollo y el alivio de la pobreza. Los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio, establecidos por Naciones Unidas para el 2015, hacen un llamado para reducir en ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    近期粮食价格的变化特点——高位波动——印证了许多专家预见到的趋势。由于影响全球粮食安全的因素错综交织,发达国家和发展中国家政府,以及国际机构必须采用综合措施以避免粮食危机卷土重来。这一综合措施须涵盖一系列提案及改革;尽管其中一些提案和措施之前被提出过,但它们的优点放在当前更为息息相关,亟需调整国家和国际预算的优先序及其分配政策。各国政府和机构应当立即采取以下七大举措。 1 实施有效的政策和技术投资,以降低粮食-燃料之间 的竞争。 2 ...