• 2020 Focus
    Contents: 1.The Changing Profile of Poverty in the World/Shaohua Chen and Martin Ravallion. 2.Characteristics and Causes of Severe Poverty and Hunger/Akhter U. Ahmed, Ruth Vargas Hill, Lisa C. Smith, and Tim Frankenberger. 3.The Poorest and ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Overview Ruth Meinzen-Dick and Monica Di Gregorio; Understanding Collective Action Elinor Ostrom; Understanding Property Rights Ruth Meinzen-Dick, Rajendra Pradhan, and Monica Di Gregorio; Local-Level Public Goods and Collective ...
  • 2020 Focus
    CONTENTS: Brief 1. Overview / James L. Garrett — Brief 2. An urbanizing world / Martin Brockerhoff — Brief 3. Rural-urban interdependence / Ceclia Tacoli — Brief 4. Urban livelihoods and labor markets / Arjan de Haan — ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Economic and political inequalities among groups—for example, between Muslims and Hindus in India; between northern and southern Nigerians; or between ladinos and indigenous people in Bolivia, Guatemala, and Peru—are often significant and ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Aflatoxins are a naturally occurring carcinogenic byproduct of common fungi on grains and other crops, particularly maize and groundnuts. They pose a significant public health risk in many tropical developing countries and are also a barrier to ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Agriculture and climate change are inextricably linked. Agriculture is part of the climate change problem, contributing about 13.5 percent of annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (with forestry contributing an additional 19 percent), compared ...
  • 2020 Focus
    2020 Focus 16 • Note d’inf ormation 1 Si l’on veut atteindre les objectifs fondamentaux d’atténuation des changements climatiques et d’adaptation à ces changements, il faut y inclure l’agriculture. En effet, il existe des liens importants ...
  • 2020 Focus
    CONTENTS: Brief 1. Overview / Per Pinstrup-Andersen — Brief 2. Farmer-Based Agro-Ecological Technology / Jules Pretty — Brief 3. Conventional Research-Based Technology / Prabhu Pingali — Brief 4. Modern Biotechnology / ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Agriculture africaine : Performances passées, impératifs futurs - Steven Haggblade, Peter Hazell, Ingrid Kirsten et Richard Mkandawire. Généralisation des succès passés - Steven Haggblade. Récente croissance du manioc africain - Felix ...
  • 2020 Focus
    La bioenergía ––es decir, los biocombustibles de origen biológico y renovable, como el bioetanol, el biodiesel y la biomasa utilizada para generar energía–– es un tema que acapara cada vez más atención en todo el mundo. Los precios del petróleo ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Bioenergy—that is, biofuels of biological and renewable origin, like bioethanol, biodiesel, and biomass for energy—is the subject of increasing attention around the world. Oil prices have climbed to unprecedented heights, and concerns about the ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Contents: Brief 1. Overview / Gabrielle J. Persley and John J. Doyle — Brief 2. Biotechnology and food and nutrition needs / Richard Flavell — Brief 3. Biotechnology and animal vaccines / W. Ivan Morrison — Brief 4. The role of ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Currently, three-quarters of the world’s extremely poor—800 million people—live in rural areas and depend on agriculture and other rural jobs for their livelihoods. In Africa, the pervasive poverty in rural areas is often blamed on the fact that ...
  • 2020 Focus
    CONTENTS: 1. African Agriculture: Past Performance, Future Imperatives / Steven Haggblade, Peter Hazell, Ingrid Kirsten, and Richard Mkandawire; 2. Generalizing from Past Successes / Steven Haggblade; 3. Recent Growth in African Cassava / Felix ...
  • 2020 Focus
    In the early 1990s, India and China were home to more than half the preschool children in the developing world who were malnourished, as measured by being stunted or underweight. Since then, child malnutrition has declined in both countries but ...
  • 2020 Focus
    So far in this first decade of the 21st century, more than 1 billion people are subsisting on less than US$1 per day, and more than 800 million people are suffering from hunger. Many countries, most notably in Asia, have made spectacular success ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Climate change results from an increased concentration of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane associated with economic activities, including energy, industry, transport, and land use patterns. Rich countries emit the ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Overview Ruth Meinzen-Dick and Monica Di Gregorio; Understanding Collective Action Elinor Ostrom; Understanding Property Rights Ruth Meinzen-Dick, Rajendra Pradhan, and Monica Di Gregorio; Local-Level Public Goods and Collective ...
  • 2020 Focus
    In 1997, the Government of Mexico introduced a conditional cash transfer (CCT) program called Programa de Educación, Salud, y Alimentación (Progresa), providing assistance to about 300,000 extremely poor households. The essential premise of a CCT ...
  • 2020 Focus
    With 2015 only eight years away, it is becoming clear that many countries in the developing world will not be able to meet the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG1) of halving absolute poverty. In fact, many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Agricultural markets play a key role in the lives of poor people in developing countries. More than half the population in developing regions (58 percent) and more than three-quarters of the poor—defined as those living on less than US$1 per ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Exclusion on the basis of race, religion, and ethnicity exists in many nations under diverse social, economic, and political systems. Such exclusion is a problem in several countries in Asia. And while many Asian countries—such as China, India, ...
  • 2020 Focus
    There is a seemingly widespread view that inequality should not be a concern in countries striving to fight absolute poverty. Although inequality may well behigh or rising in some developing countries, this increase is seen as the unavoidable ...
  • 2020 Focus
    A few decades ago a dominant view in the developing world was that growth problems in developing countries could be best understood in terms of the international environment. Today, no one seriously questions the influence of external conditions ...
  • 2020 Focus
    CONTENTS: Brief 1. Overview / Agnes R. Quisumbing and Ruth S. Meinzen-Dick — Brief 2. Land Rights / Eve Crowley — Brief 3. Water Rights / Barbara Van Koppen — Brief 4. Rights to Livestock / Beth A. Miller — Brief 5. ...
  • 2020 Focus
    In the last two decades of the 20th century, recurring fiscal and financial crises, unsatisfactory growth, and deep and persistent inequality endangered development prospects in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Since then, financial ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Tabla de matieras: Tecnologias para las tierras altas del este de Africa;tecnologias para las zonas tropicales de los Andes; Tecnologias para las tierras altas del sudeste de Asia; Utilidades de la inversion publica: datos de la India y China; ...
  • 2020 Focus
    CONTENTS: — Overview / Laurian J. Unnevehr; Food Safety as a Public Health Issue for Developing Countries / Fritz K. Käferstein; Mycotoxin Food Safety Risk in Developing Countries / Ramesh V. Bhat and Siruguri Vasanthi; Trends in Food ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Contents: 1. Overview / Eugenio Diaz-Bonilla and Sherman Robinson — 2. Latin American perspective / Eugenio Diaz-Bonilla and Lucio Reca — 3. Asian perspective / Marcus Noland — 4. African perspective / Natasha Mukherjee and ...
  • 2020 Focus
    This brief presents an overview of global macroeconomic developments over time and some of their implications for poverty trends in developing countries. It concludes with comments on possible macroeconomic policies to create an environment for ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Por lo general, las iniciativas para elaborar políticas relativas a la agricultura y la salud pública se llevan a cabo de una forma paralela e inconexa, a pesar de que las acciones conjuntas y coherentes en ambos sectores podrían generar grandes ...
  • 2020 Focus
    CONTENTS: Brief 1. Overview / Rafael Flores — Brief 2. The Global Burden of Disease / Alan D. Lopez — Brief 3. HIV/AIDS / Anthony Barnett and Gabriel Rugalema — Brief 4. Malaria / Andrea Egan — Brief 5. Tuberculosis / ...
  • 2020 Focus
    About 80 percent of the world population currently lives in countries that are either developed or developing. The other 20 percent lives in countries that are stagnant or falling behind. As a result, by the 2015 target date for the Millennium ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Education and child health are important tools of poverty reduction and economic development. With the recent focus on universal primary education as a Millennium Development Goal, many developing countries have made dramatic improvements in ...
  • 2020 Focus
    While the role of public investment in promoting economic growth and poverty reduction is widely recognized, it is not clear how governments can mobilize these resources and use them efficiently and effectively. Exploring these issues in the ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Why has eradicating hunger and poverty proved difficult despite its being a declared goal of the international development community for more than half a century? Why has the number of hungry people increased in recent years? Why is poverty ...
  • 2020 Focus
    According to the United Nations (UN), there are approximately 650 million people with disabilities inthe world, and at least 80 percent of them live indeveloping countries. More often than not, they areamong the poorest of the poor. The UN ...
  • 2020 Focus
    La plupart des ménages ruraux n’ont pas accès à des financements fiables et abordables pour les activités agricoles et autres assurant leur subsistance. De nombreux petits exploitants vivent dans des zones reculées où les services bancaires aux ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Risk and poverty are inextricably linked. Susceptibility to risk is a defining feature of what it means to be poor. Poor people often live in environments characterized by high weather and disease risk, and it is poor households that have the ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Most rural households lack access to reliable and affordable finance for agriculture and other livelihood activities. Many small farmers live in remote areas where retail banking is limited and production risks are high. The recent financial ...
  • 2020 Focus
    The migration of labor across international boundaries has increased rapidly since 1990. Over 190 million individuals now live outside their country of birth, and the majority of migrants leave developing countries for countries with higher ...
  • 2020 Focus
    During the last decade, an increasing share of foreign aid has been provided to countries coming out of civil war or experiencing severe conflict. Most of these countries—like the Republic of Congo, Sudan, Somalia, Sierra Leone, and ...
  • 2020 Focus
    La tendencia es inevitable: más y más personas del mundo en desarrollo viven en las ciudades. En el año 2020, el número de habitantes de los países en desarrollo aumentará de 4.900 millones a 6.800 millones. Un 90% de este incremento se producirá ...
  • 2020 Focus
    A key consideration in planning action to assist poor and hungry households is simply to have a good understanding of where they live and the characteristics of those locations. For the past 10 years, poverty researchers at the World Bank, ...
  • 2020 Focus
    CONTENTS: Brief 1. Overview / Ruth S. Meinzen-Dick and Mark W. Rosegrant — Brief 2. Water for Food Production / Mark W. Rosegrant and Ximing Cai — Brief 3. Domestic Water Supply, Hygiene, and Sanitation / Hans van Damme — Brief ...
  • 2020 Focus
  • 2020 Focus
    Despite great efforts to reduce rural poverty at the national and global levels, many of the poorest groups remain difficult to reach through mainstream development programs. In particular, there is ample evidence that indigenous and tribal ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Supporters of globalization argue that the process offers opportunities for poor people in developing countries to improve their livelihoods and grow out of poverty, whereas skeptics claim that globalization poses new risks to the well-being of ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Describing and explaining are two very different engagements, and yet development experts routinely write as though to describe were to explain. If this were not the case, it would be hard to understand why they have found it necessary to ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Chile is maturing politically and becoming a more modern and globalized society. The country’s current priority is to ensure more equitable distribution of economic growth and overall opportunities, which depends on the government’s ability to ...
  • 2020 Focus
  • 2020 Focus
    CONTENTS: Brief 1. Overview / John Pender and Peter Hazell — Brief 2. Technologies for the East African Highlands / Frank Place — Brief 3. Technologies for the tropical Andes / Tom Walker et al. — Brief 4. Technologies for the ...
  • 2020 Focus
    CONTENTS: Brief 1. Overview / John Pender and Peter Hazell — Brief 2. Technologies for the East African Highlands / Frank Place — Brief 3. Technologies for the tropical Andes / Tom Walker et al. — Brief 4. Technologies for the ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Rights over land and other natural resources play a fundamental role in human society. The distribution of wealth and poverty is a reflection of underlying property rights. But reforming property rights to give poor women and men greater access ...
  • 2020 Focus
    After 30 years of dynamic growth and substantial poverty reduction in Asia, do agriculture and rural development still have a role to play in that region? The policy briefs in this collection provide abundant evidence that they do. Although the ...
  • 2020 Focus
    The global community has set itself the challenge of meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015 as a way to combat world poverty and hunger. In 2007, the halfway point, it is clear that many countries will not be able to meet the ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Taking successful development interventions to scale is critical if the world is to achieve the Millennium Development Goals and make essential gains in the fight for improved agricultural productivity, rural incomes, and nutrition. How to ...
  • 2020 Focus
    CONTENTS: Brief 1. Introduction / Eugenio Díaz-Bonilla and Sherman Robinson — Brief 2. The Nature of Disagreements / Ravi Kanbur — Brief 3. Growth and Poverty / Manohar Sharma, Sam Morley, and Eugenio Díaz-Bonilla — Brief 4. ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Social entrepreneurs can provide the new approaches needed to hasten the process of reducing poverty and hunger. By combining innovative ideas from individuals and investments from public, private, and civil society organizations, such ...
  • 2020 Focus
    In developed countries, social security covers workers and their dependents against old age,unemployment, health, and other risks. Indeveloping countries, formal-sector workers have access to social insurance, and the very poor have some access ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Poverty and hunger cannot be conquered without meeting the specific needs of poor women. Like poor men, they lack the assets and income necessary to exit poverty, but chronically poor women and girls are also subject to a confluence of ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Assessing the world’s progress against poverty calls for frequent and careful measurements, using household surveys and price data. Fortunately, the task of measuring poverty is becoming easier, and the results are probably getting more accurate ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Where the poor form a majority or near-majority, why don’t they vote themselves to power in democracies? In Madagascar, Mozambique, Mali, Guatemala, Honduras, Kenya, and Bangladesh, where the poor constitute 71, 70, 64, 56, 53, 52, and 50 percent ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Growth that is shared—so-called inclusive growth—is now widely embraced as the central economic goal for developing countries. But definitions and empirical characterizations of inclusive growth vary widely. In this brief, inclusive growth is ...
  • 2020 Focus
    In its Millennium Declaration of September 2000, the United Nations (UN) adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), to be reached in 2015 through concerted efforts worldwide. According to UN calculations, the estimated costs in terms of ...
  • 2020 Focus
    2020 Focus Brief on the World’s Poor and Hungry People
  • 2020 Focus
    The arguments in favor of trade liberalization are well known: it promotes the efficient allocation of resources through comparative advantage, allows the dissemination of knowledge and technological progress, and encourages competition. Trade ...
  • 2020 Focus
    CONTENTS: 1. Overview / Corinna Hawkes and Marie T. Ruel; 2. Agriculture, Food, and Health: Perspectives on a Long Relationship / Tim Lang; 3. Agricultural Technology and Health / Michael Lipton, Saurabh Sinha, and Rachel Blackman; 4. Agriculture ...