• 2020 Focus
    2020 Focus 16 Brief 12 Climate change will bring with it increased frequency of two types of natural disasters that affect agriculture and rural households: droughts and floods. It will also alter rainfall patterns, thereby changing farming ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Economic and political inequalities among groups—for example, between Muslims and Hindus in India; between northern and southern Nigerians; or between ladinos and indigenous people in Bolivia, Guatemala, and Peru—are often significant and ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Imagine scaling up an agricultural project whose goal is to improve rural incomes by increasing rice yields. It has three components. The first is the introduction of a new high-yield strain of rice developed and delivered by the national ...
  • 2020 Focus
    This brief examines the impact of acute aflatoxicosis on human health in Kenya. Ingestion of large amounts of aflatoxins causes acute toxicity, and, as described below, Kenya is the country with the highest incidence of acute toxicity possibly ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Aflatoxins are a group of about 20 chemically related toxic chemicals produced primarily by the foodborne mold Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Aflatoxins contaminate a variety of staple foods including maize, peanuts, and tree nuts; they ...
  • 2020 Focus
    In 2012, 77 percent of the WFP’s food procurement came from developing countries (OECD 2013). In order to guarantee that food goods are fit for human consumption, WFP uses independent inspection services to perform end-product testing prior to ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    African farmers and agricultural policymakers have achieved a series of significant successes in agricultural development, although these successes are still inadequate in number and scale to counter Sub-Saharan Africa’s daunting ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
  • 2020 Focus
    The Aga Khan Development Network (AKDN) focuses its efforts in rural development primarily in fragile high-mountain and coastal areas with vulnerable and marginalized populations. The beneficiaries are often cut off from government service ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Si se espera alcanzar las metas fundamentales de mitigación y adaptación del cambio climático, la agricultura debe ser parte integral de las negociaciones internacionales sobre clima. El cambio climático y la agricultura están conectados en ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    2020 Focus 16 Brief 2 Higher temperatures, more variable precipitation, and changes in the frequency and severity of extreme climate events will have significant consequences for food production and food security. However, the frequency of ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Research, invention, and adoption of agrotechnology have played an important role in improving human nutrition and health. Agrotechnology has introduced more effective plant breeds (such as high-yielding varieties), enhanced land management ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    2020 Focus 16 Brief 1 If fundamental climate change mitigation and adaptation goals are to be met, international climate negotiations must include agriculture. Agriculture and climate change are linked in important ways, and this brief ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Earlier briefs in this series make the case that there is added value for the agricultural and health sectors in working more closely together to address problems of human well-being that fall at the intersection of the two sectors. Yet the ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Agriculture is the main source of livelihood of the majority of people affected by HIV and AIDS globally, and it is being progressively undermined by the disease. In Sub-Saharan Africa AIDS is affecting the rural landscape in ways that demand a ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Agriculture is fundamental to achieving nutrition goals: it produces the food, energy, and nutrients essential for human health and well-being. Gains in food production have played a key role in feeding growing and malnourished populations. Yet ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Agricultural production relies on environmental services to transform raw inputs into the nutritious and diverse food that humans rely on for survival. Although the practice of agriculture is essential for human health, careless and inappropriate ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    To improve the ability of farmers in developing countries to reduce the burden of foodborne illness, government agencies need to take the following steps: (1) Implement a farm-to-table approach to agricultural health by focusing efforts on the ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Agriculture produces food fundamental for human health. It therefore seems obvious that agriculture, food, and health are related! Agriculture affects whether people have enough food to eat, whether it is of sufficient nutritional value, and ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Malaria, schistosomiasis (bilharzia), and Japanese encephalitis are the major vector-borne diseases whose increase or decrease can be attributed to agricultural water development (see table). Others include dengue fever, yellow fever, and ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Biodiversity provides essential components of healthy environments and sustainable livelihoods. One key component of biodiversity is agrobiodiversity-that is, the cultivated plants and animals that form the raw material of agriculture, the wild ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    For the practice of agroforestry to yield its full potential, it needs to bring health and nutrition to the fore. The figure presents a simple conceptual framework of agroforestry, health, and nutrition linkages that focuses on five pathways ...
  • 2020 Focus
    The levels of stunting, underweight, wasting, and childhood anemia are very high in Bangladesh, as are levels of maternal chronic energy deficiency and maternal and child anemia. A combination of poor maternal nutrition and postnatal factors ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The urban population in the developing world is expected to double to 4 billion by 2025, accounting for about 90 percent of global population growth….Managing the ongoing rapid urban growth in developing countries, and avoiding the bleak ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Aflatoxins occur in many animal feed concentrates including cereal grains, soybean products, oil cakes (from groundnuts, cottonseed, sunflower, palm, and copra), and fishmeal. Brewers grains (a byproduct from the production of cereal-based ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The authors describe the case study as follows: “Kenyan horticultural exports have grown at over 6 percent per year for the past 30 years. Since 1974 the value of Kenya’s horticultural exports has increased fourfold in constant dollar ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Growing concern over health risks associated with food products has prompted close examination of sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) standards in industrialized countries. Standards are employed to protect human health from toxic additives, ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Converting agriculture to produce energy as well as food has become an important and well-funded global research goal as petroleum reserves fall and fuel prices rise. But the use of crop biomass-both grain and other plant parts-as a raw material ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This brief delineates two broad categories for bioenergy development - the exploitation of existing agricultural wastes and the establishment of energy plantations-and suggests high-priority steps for developing bioenergy in ways that benefit the ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Biomass energy programs offer a wide range of potential benefits for developing countries. Already traditional biomass products like firewood, charcoal, manure, and crop residues provide the main source of household energy use for some 2-3 ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Given Europe’s high import demand for fuel and its commitments to reduce CO2 emissions under the Kyoto Protocol, political pressure to implement strategies for the use of renewable energy is ever increasing. Thus, Europe aspires to use ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Rising world fuel prices, the growing demand for energy, and concerns about global warming are the key factors driving the increasing interest in renewable energy sources, and in biofuels in particular. But some policymakers and analysts have ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Biocontrol technologies, in conjunction with other aflatoxin-management tools, can profitably link farmers to markets, improve health of people and animals, and increase food safety. Technology has a high cpacity to reduce aflatoxins. Widespread ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Identity theft is a common crime the world over. In developing countries, the damage caused by identity theft and identity fraud goes far beyond the individual victim, however, and ultimately creates a direct impediment to progress, particularly ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Brazil is the world’s largest producer of ethanol, a biofuel used mainly in automobiles as an additive or alternative to gasoline. In the mid-1970s the country undertook a major program to produce ethanol, and since then the industry has ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Currently, three-quarters of the world’s extremely poor—800 million people—live in rural areas and depend on agriculture and other rural jobs for their livelihoods. In Africa, the pervasive poverty in rural areas is often blamed on the fact that ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Regreening entails increasing the number of both on-farm trees and, in some countries, off-farm trees through natural forest management and for the protection and management of natural regeneration on degraded land. There is an urgent need to ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Agriculture is the largest economic sector in most African countries and remains the best opportunity for economic growth and poverty alleviation on the continent. Yet, sadly, the sector has been in decline over the past 40 years, and poor ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The beef industry provides a window on food safety issues in China’s rapidly developing economy. This industry provides particularly useful insights because the government has targeted it for development and because it is dominated by ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The Guatemalan raspberry industry began exporting to the United States in the late 1980s, filling a market niche in the spring and fall when supplies were low. By 1996, Guatemalan raspberry exports were increasing rapidly, up 113 percent from the ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    As awareness grows about food safety issues, the need for countries to provide greater assurance about the safety and quality of food also grows….This brief reviews (1) how India utilizes the international framework for food safety ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Food safety and quality have become increasingly important in international fish trade. Stringent conditions imposed by major fish-importing nations in the developed world, which take in 80 percent of global fish exports, give food safety ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Mycotoxins are toxic chemical compounds produced by molds, which can have important consequences in human and animal health… The economic consequences of the presence of mycotoxins in food, feed, and agricultural crops can be severe. In ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Production and export of horticultural products are increasing rapidly in many developing countries. Rapid growth in horticultural production has been accompanied by heavy use of pesticides and by heightened concern over health effects associated ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Food safety standards that developed countries impose on developing-country exports have sometimes created a barrier to market access. But in Latin America today, the standards set by supermarkets in the region affect local producers far more ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    As developing countries open their economies further to trade, their food industries are striving to raise safety and quality standards in order to compete in new markets. Such is the case with the Colombian poultry industry. Critical questions ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    By the end of the 1970s, the Bangladesh seafood processing industry had expanded rapidly. But sanitary facilities, technology adaptation, and adequate training did not keep pace. Shrimp exports suffered in the late 1970s, and the U. S. Food and ...
  • 2020 Focus
    In the early 1990s, India and China were home to more than half the preschool children in the developing world who were malnourished, as measured by being stunted or underweight. Since then, child malnutrition has declined in both countries but ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Evidence from human and animal studies and current knowledge of the biological mechanisms of action of aflatoxins suggest that chronic exposure to aflatoxins might lead to stunted growth. This brief summarizes the existing evidence and reviews ...
  • 2020 Focus
    So far in this first decade of the 21st century, more than 1 billion people are subsisting on less than US$1 per day, and more than 800 million people are suffering from hunger. Many countries, most notably in Asia, have made spectacular success ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Climate change results from an increased concentration of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane associated with economic activities, including energy, industry, transport, and land use patterns. Rich countries emit the ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Aflatoxin contamination of food commodities poses major challenges to both public health and trade. It remains a global problem in part because of the attention given to it over the past decades has been insufficient both quantitatively and ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Millions of the rural poor now participate in collaborative forest management schemes under a variety of tenurial and organizational arrangements.We examine those arrangements and ask whether local people have indeed gained more access to ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Institutions of collective action and systems of property rights shape how people use natural resources, and these patterns of use in turn affect the outcomes of people’s agricultural production systems.Together, mechanisms of collective action ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Fisheries are complex and interdependent ecological and social systems that require integrated management approaches. The actions of one person or group of users affect the availability of the resource for others. Managing such common pool ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Since crop and animal pests destroy farmers’ production, this brief looks at the ways pests can be controlled either by individual farmers, by public programmes, or by “neighbors working together”. This brief examines those ...
  • 2020 Focus
    India has nearly 90 million farm households. More than 80 percent of these farmers operate on a small or marginal scale, farming less than two hectares of land. They also usually have one or two buffaloes or cows, reared for milk and dung. Most ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Community-based financial organizations (CBFOs) are user-owned and -operated groups that provide mainly saving and lending services but may also offer other financial services such as insurance. These independent organizations are based in local ...
  • 2020 Focus
    In 1997, the Government of Mexico introduced a conditional cash transfer (CCT) program called Programa de Educación, Salud, y Alimentación (Progresa), providing assistance to about 300,000 extremely poor households. The essential premise of a CCT ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Many interventions have been developed to reduce aflatoxins or their adverse effects on human health. Often not considered, however, is the likelihood that these strategies will be adopted in the countries that need them most—where ...
  • 2020 Focus
    A griculture is an inherently risky economic activity. A large array of uncontrollable elements can affect output production and prices, resulting in highly variable economic returns to farm households. In developing countries, farmers also lack ...
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  • 2020 Focus
    The biofortification strategy aims to reduce the prevalence of vitamin and mineral nutritional deficiencies that are widespread in low-income populations by developing nutrient-rich varieties of staple food crops that the poor consume habitually. ...
  • 2020 Focus
    The provision of insurance for the poor, covering a variety of risks, could well be a key milestone in the fight against poverty. In richer economies, insurance achieved through broad public action and appropriately developed private mechanisms ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Since the establishment of the Grameen Bank in Bangladesh in 1976, microfinance has boomed. As of December 31, 2007, 3,552 microcredit institutions had reached 154 million clients worldwide, about 106.6 million of whom were among the poorest when ...
  • 2020 Focus
    With 2015 only eight years away, it is becoming clear that many countries in the developing world will not be able to meet the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG1) of halving absolute poverty. In fact, many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Agricultural markets play a key role in the lives of poor people in developing countries. More than half the population in developing regions (58 percent) and more than three-quarters of the poor—defined as those living on less than US$1 per ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The promise of bioenergy is that it may help cope with rising energy prices, address environmental concerns about greenhouse gas emissions, and offer new income and employment to farmers and rural areas. In principle, there is a high degree of ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    There is a clear link between access to energy services and poverty alleviation and development. The first set of critical energy needs are those that satisfy basic human needs: fuel for cooking, heating and lighting, energy for pumping water, ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    2020 Focus 16 Brief 4 Many opportunities exist for mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through better management of trees and soils. There is potential for both direct mitigation through better management of carbon in agricultural ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Exclusion on the basis of race, religion, and ethnicity exists in many nations under diverse social, economic, and political systems. Such exclusion is a problem in several countries in Asia. And while many Asian countries—such as China, India, ...
  • 2020 Focus
    There is a seemingly widespread view that inequality should not be a concern in countries striving to fight absolute poverty. Although inequality may well behigh or rising in some developing countries, this increase is seen as the unavoidable ...
  • 2020 Focus
    A few decades ago a dominant view in the developing world was that growth problems in developing countries could be best understood in terms of the international environment. Today, no one seriously questions the influence of external conditions ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
  • 2020 Focus
    Over the past thirty years, successive Peruvian governments have pursued development programs in the country’s Highlands region, where poverty levels are severe. Using local community development models, they have built systematically on lessons ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Bioenergy crop systems can-if properly designed-yield significant benefits, both environmental and social. The right choice of biomass crops and production methods can lead to favorable carbon and energy balances and a net reduction in greenhouse ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Index-based insurance is an innovative financial product that has been introduced in recent years in countries as diverse as India, Malawi, Mongolia, and Thailand. It allows individual smallholder farmers to hedge against agricultural production ...
  • 2020 Focus
    In the last two decades of the 20th century, recurring fiscal and financial crises, unsatisfactory growth, and deep and persistent inequality endangered development prospects in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Since then, financial ...
  • 2020 Focus
    In 2004, the Kenyan Ministry of Health invited the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization to investigate cases of high-fatality jaundice in Eastern Province. Testing of the maize food supply found high ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    In this brief, we learn that “combining technical innovations with collective action initiatives has been shown to lead to substantial farmer benefits. A number of farmer-led research and extension (FRE) approaches incorporate collective ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Urban expansion and issues of food supply and distribution to and in the cities have four major consequences for urban food security. The first is the competition between demands for land needed for housing, industry, and infrastructure and land ...
  • 2020 Focus
    The global financial crisis has intensified the problems of over-indebtedness, especially for the poor. In this context, the microfinance industry is giving more attention to building their customers’ financial capabilities, designing products ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Reaching the poorest and hungry groups of the population, including those who might be left out of the Millennium Development Goals, involves input from policymakers at the central and local levels of government. While there has been considerable ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “Fish production is an important source of livelihoods among the world’s poor, and fish consumption has long been known to have nutritional benefits. The dynamics of the world’s fisheries-and fish consumption-are changing, ...
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    In the developing world the approval and cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops is largely limited to the commercial production of insect-resistant cotton in Argentina, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa…. Approvals of GM crops ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “This brief reviews the incidence and health consequences of biological pathogens in developing countries, as these are the most important food safety risks in those parts of the world, and provides an overview of possible methods ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    While not trade measures per se, food safety regulations and standards can impede trade and significantly affect the ability of developing countries to access markets, particularly in industrialized countries. In part, this reflects the growing ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Food safety issues have attracted international attention because they play an increasingly important role in determining whether developing countries have access to export markets.At the same time, food suppliers in developing countries face the ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Past successes in African agriculture can point the way to promising avenues for achieving similar success in the future. Drawing lessons from past success requires identifying a range of successful and less successful episodes and then studying ...
  • 2020 Focus
    This brief presents an overview of global macroeconomic developments over time and some of their implications for poverty trends in developing countries. It concludes with comments on possible macroeconomic policies to create an environment for ...
  • 2020 Focus
    The term fragile state is used to describe a country whose government struggles to perform some of its most basic functions, due to a lack of either political will or capacity or a combination of the two. In these states one typically observes ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
  • 2020 Focus
    Publicly funded, noncontributory transfer programs targeted to the poor and vulnerable have a long history. Free food distribution was a feature of Egypt in the time of the Pharaohs and of Rome during its Imperial age. England had a succession of ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The health and nutritional status of women is important for both the quality of their lives and the survival and healthy development of their children. Adequate nutrition is a human right for all, and the two-way link between nutritional ...
  • 2020 Focus
    About 80 percent of the world population currently lives in countries that are either developed or developing. The other 20 percent lives in countries that are stagnant or falling behind. As a result, by the 2015 target date for the Millennium ...
  • 2020 Focus
    A serious injury or illness usually increases medical expenses and often reduces income. Even worse, some short-term health problems can worsen long-term poverty when families sell productive assets such as land or remove their children from ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
  • 2020 Focus
    Education and child health are important tools of poverty reduction and economic development. With the recent focus on universal primary education as a Millennium Development Goal, many developing countries have made dramatic improvements in ...
  • 2020 Focus
    While the role of public investment in promoting economic growth and poverty reduction is widely recognized, it is not clear how governments can mobilize these resources and use them efficiently and effectively. Exploring these issues in the ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Concerns about insufficient progress toward the Millennium Development Goals have prompted a renewed interest in agriculture as a source of growth and as an effective tool for poverty reduction and environmental stewardship. With a target of ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Researchers, donors, and governments are calling for the scale of the response to the aflatoxin problem to be informed by the scope of the risks involved. While current research establishes that a great deal of the global food supply is at risk, ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Why has eradicating hunger and poverty proved difficult despite its being a declared goal of the international development community for more than half a century? Why has the number of hungry people increased in recent years? Why is poverty ...
  • 2020 Focus
    According to the United Nations (UN), there are approximately 650 million people with disabilities inthe world, and at least 80 percent of them live indeveloping countries. More often than not, they areamong the poorest of the poor. The UN ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Uncertainty and risk are characteristics inherent in agricultural activities, and one of the main sources of risk is weather. Because agriculture depends heavily on rainfall, it is sensitive to weather changes. Agriculture is also vulnerable to ...
  • 2020 Focus
    The Mongolian rural economy is based on livestock reared by semi-nomadic herders. Agriculture contributes around 20 percent of the country’s gross domestic product, and herding accounts for more than 80 percent of agriculture. According to the ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Helping households manage the risks they face is important in reducing poverty in developing countries. All households face health risks, and when health shocks occur, they have a severe impact on people’s livelihoods. High costs of treatment are ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Risk characterizes life for many of the world’s poorest households. They are more likely to be located in environments where livelihoods are highly susceptible to weather and price variability and where health risks are pervasive. When these ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Everywhere in the world, small agricultural producers are entrepreneurs, traders, investors, and consumers, all rolled into one. In all these roles, small agricultural households constantly seek to use available financial instruments to improve ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This brief considers the benefits and costs of alternative tenure and institutional arrangements and the impact of existing legal and policy frameworks on the sustainability and equity of pastoral production systems under three categories of ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Despite their compelling logic, index insurance contracts that transfer risk from smallholder farmers and pastoralists have met with sometimes indifferent demand and low uptake by the intended beneficiaries. Yet the evidence that risk plays an ...
  • 2020 Focus
    The migration of labor across international boundaries has increased rapidly since 1990. Over 190 million individuals now live outside their country of birth, and the majority of migrants leave developing countries for countries with higher ...
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  • 2020 Focus
    Despite significant strides in reducing poverty during recent decades, there are still about 1.2 billion extremely poor people in the world. In addition, about 870 million people are undernourished, and about 2 billion people suffer from ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Public investments have contributed significantly to agricultural growth and rural poverty reduction in rural areas, and to urban poverty reduction through growth in the national economy and lower food prices. Without such investments, ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Governments are now shifting their role from direct management of irrigation systems to regulation of the water sector, provision of support services to water user associations, and capacity building among water user associations and irrigation ...
  • 2020 Focus
    During the last decade, an increasing share of foreign aid has been provided to countries coming out of civil war or experiencing severe conflict. Most of these countries—like the Republic of Congo, Sudan, Somalia, Sierra Leone, and ...
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  • 2020 Focus
    Vertical funds are multistakeholder global programs that provide earmarked funding for specified purposes. This brief presents a series of lessons learned from vertical fund experiences that are applicable to scaling up in agriculture and rural ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Agriculture and rural development are essential components of economic growth and the battle against poverty, hunger, and malnutrition worldwide. In the developing world, investment in agriculture was much neglected in recent decades by ...
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    The linkages between livestock and health are significant, particularly for the poor, whether as livestock raisers or as consumers of meat and milk, or even as users of the environment. The processes of livestock production and consumption bring ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    According to the author, “Given the vital importance of public goods in providing basic services necessary for alleviating poverty and in managing the local natural resource base for sustainable development, this brief offers an approach to ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Over the past three years, payment strategies for emerging markets have been revolutionized by the advent of a simple cell-phone-based payment service in Kenya called M-PESA (“M” for “mobile” and “pesa” for “money”). From a small-scale pilot ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “During the first half of the 20th century, African farmers transformed maize from a minor imported foodcrop into the continent’s principal staple food. In the second half of the century, newly independent governments launched support ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    One of the pillars of rural development in francophone Africa, the cotton sector serves as a principal motor of economic development, generating benefits to farmers, rural communities, private traders, cotton companies, and national ...
  • 2020 Focus
    In addition to proper storage conditions, management strategies to reduce aflatoxin contamination also include biological control: the use of non–toxin producing A. flavus strains to prevent further infection by toxin-producing strains. ...
  • 2020 Focus
    In order to bring about true food security, the world must achieve more than the availability of sufficient amounts of affordable and nutritious foodstuffs. It must also ensure that foods are safe. To do so requires going beyond in-factory ...
  • 2020 Focus
    A key consideration in planning action to assist poor and hungry households is simply to have a good understanding of where they live and the characteristics of those locations. For the past 10 years, poverty researchers at the World Bank, ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Aflatoxins are more than a barrier to trade for smallholders—they are a serious risk to public health. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that 4.5 billion people are chronically exposed to the toxin through the consumption ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
  • 2020 Focus
    Questions in development economics often focus on the poor’s limited access to capital and, in particular, on their high interest rate for borrowing. Despite this high price for capital, many poor households borrow substantial amounts for ...
  • 2020 Focus
    In 2002 a group of insurance and reinsurance professionals set out to demonstrate that the low-income market was a viable insurance market. The initial aim was to better understand client needs and the willingness of insurers to provide products ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Poor people in developing countries are vulnerable to a broad range of shocks that affect their livelihoods, including illness, accidents, and death as well as loss of assets such as animals, crops, and machinery. The poor are still predominantly ...
  • 2020 Focus
    2020 Focus 16 Brief 6 Livestock—poultry, small ruminants (such as goats and sheep), cattle, and pigs—provide many benefits for human well-being. Livestock production systems, especially in developing countries, are changing rapidly in ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Due to the complex nature of the problem, prevention and control of aflatoxin contamination requires a comprehensive, systematic approach involving a broad range of stakeholders in Africa and beyond. A prerequisite to this approach is ...
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    2020 Focus 16 Brief 8 Facilitating carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems could provide a significant amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) abatement, which is necessary to limit global temperature increases to only 2 degrees ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Local- and community-driven development (LCDD) has emerged over the past 20 years in response to the advent of integrated rural development and difficulties with centralized service delivery. LCDD approaches generally have better outcome ratings ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Mycotoxins are produced by fungi, commonly known as mold. These toxins can develop during production, harvesting, or storage of grains, nuts, and other crops. Mycotoxins are among the most potent mutagenic and carcinogenic substances known. They ...
  • 2020 Focus
    The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a climate event associated with warming sea surface temperatures in the Pacific Ocean. In years of extreme El Niño events, areas in northern Peru experience catastrophic flooding. As of 2010, it is ...
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  • IFPRI Briefs
    According to the International Labour Organization (ILO), the agricultural sector is one of the most hazardous to health worldwide. Agricultural work possesses several characteristics that are risky for health: exposure to the weather, close ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    At the moment, a lack of integration and coordination characterizes the relationship between the agriculture and health sectors. Traditionally, agricultural and health policies address specific goals within those sectors. Agricultural policies ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Good health and productive agriculture are both essential in the fight against poverty. In a rapidly changing world, agriculture faces many challenges, both old (natural resource constraints, extreme weather conditions, and agricultural pests) ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “The trend is inescapable: more and more people in the developing world are living in the cities. By 2020, the number of people living in developing countries will grow from 4.9 billion to 6.8 billion. Ninety percent of this increase will ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This brief defines property rights and collective action and discusses the links to sustainability of natural resource management and agricultural systems and to poverty reduction, as well as the implications for policy and practice.
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Food safety is receiving heightened attention worldwide as the important links between food and health are increasingly recognized. Improving food safety is an essential element of improving food security, which exists when populations have ...
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    “In recent years bioenergy… has drawn attention as a sustainable energy source that may help cope with rising energy prices, address environmental concerns about greenhouse gas emissions, and offer new income and employment to farmers ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    2020 Focus 6, Brief 1 Women play important roles as producers of food, managers of natural resources, income earners, and caretakers of household food and nutrition security. Giving women the same access to physical and human resources as ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Despite Vietnam’s remarkable success in reducing poverty from almost 60 percent of the population in 1993 to 14 percent in 2008, 18 million Vietnamese still live on less than US$1.25 a day. Vietnam supplies a fifth of the rice consumed worldwide, ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Despite great efforts to reduce rural poverty at the national and global levels, many of the poorest groups remain difficult to reach through mainstream development programs. In particular, there is ample evidence that indigenous and tribal ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This next regime of climate change rules must be targeted toward reducing GHGs as cheaply and quickly as possible. Developing countries and their farmers are key to meeting this objective. First, land-use changes and practices in developing ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Supporters of globalization argue that the process offers opportunities for poor people in developing countries to improve their livelihoods and grow out of poverty, whereas skeptics claim that globalization poses new risks to the well-being of ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Describing and explaining are two very different engagements, and yet development experts routinely write as though to describe were to explain. If this were not the case, it would be hard to understand why they have found it necessary to ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Chile is maturing politically and becoming a more modern and globalized society. The country’s current priority is to ensure more equitable distribution of economic growth and overall opportunities, which depends on the government’s ability to ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Governments, development agencies, and communities are attempting to improve urban livelihoods and reduce urban poverty and food and nutrition insecurity… Developing more effective urban programs requires considering some key ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    According to the authors, “watersheds define a terrain united by the flow of water, nutrients, pollutants, and sediment. Watersheds also link foresters, farmers, fishers, and urban dwellers in intricate social relationships. Both ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Rights over land and other natural resources play a fundamental role in human society. The distribution of wealth and poverty is a reflection of underlying property rights. But reforming property rights to give poor women and men greater access ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The authors state that “governments and research and development organizations are increasingly interested in understanding and promoting rural agroenterprises as a way to combat rural poverty.” They look at the implications of ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    In this brief, we explore the role that social institutions - specifically property rights and collective action - may play in the development of agroforestry…. In the future, property rights and collective action will play increasingly ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Microinsurance is a powerful tool in helping low-income households transition out of poverty, but it has not achieved substantial scale compared with microcredit. In India, microfinance institutions (MFIs) initially showed great potential in ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Agriculture in Ethiopia is almost entirely rainfed and highly prone to droughts and floods. Given that 85 percent of the population depends on smallholder agriculture, these weather shocks severely affect many Ethiopians. The high covariance of ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    According to the authors, “Cassava serves as a staple food for 200 million Africans, second only to maize in its calorie contribution. In response to a series of devastating attacks by cassava diseases and pests over the past several ...
  • 2020 Focus
    This brief overviews the Aflacontrol project, a multidisciplinary effort from 2009 to 2012 that sought to provide empirical evidence of the cost-effectiveness of aflatoxin risk-reduction strategies along maize and groundnut value chains. The ...
  • 2020 Focus
    There are various simple cultural and other practices that can be used to manage aflatoxins in groundnuts. To enhance the management of aflatoxins in groundnuts, it is recommended that locally adaptable practices be identified, tested on-farm, ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    2020 Focus 16 Brief 3 Rice is grown on more than 140 million hectares worldwide and is the most heavily consumed staple food on earth. Ninety percent of the world’s rice is produced and consumed in Asia, and 90 percent of rice land is—at ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Fifteen years ago China’s Loess Plateau was a barren region plagued by wind and soil erosion, making farming beyond subsistence virtually impossible. Millennia of agricultural exploitation and relentless grazing by domestic livestock had taken ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
  • 2020 Focus
    Risk is a pervasive feature of life in poor rural areas of developing countries. This brief outlines a conceptual framework for understanding the nature of risks faced by poor rural households and their consequences before turning to a more ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Risk is pervasive in developing countries. The standard household risks of sickness, mortality, fire, theft, and unemployment are especially severe for poor families in developing countries. Rural households, most of which derive their ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Before the late 1970s, rural dwellers in Ghana had almost no access to institutional credit for farm and nonfarm activities, and in many rural communities, secure, safe, and convenient savings and payment facilities hardly existed. In response to ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Many people in the vast rural areas of Africa lack access to financial services, and most commercial banks are not interested in moving into these areas due to their low income levels, lack of scale economies, and poor infrastructure. Also, few ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Credit for investments that pay back in the medium to long term (three to five years or longer) is in short supply in rural areas. Credit unions and microfinance institutions (MFIs), which generally have better outreach than commercial banks in ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Urban food and nutrition security depends on strong links between urban and rural areas. But policymakers and urban planners often ignore this interdependence. There are two broad, often overlapping, categories of rural-urban linkages. ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
  • 2020 Focus
    The global community has set itself the challenge of meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015 as a way to combat world poverty and hunger. In 2007, the halfway point, it is clear that many countries will not be able to meet the ...
  • 2020 Focus
    PepsiCo is a global business operating in more than 200 countries and territories and rooted in creating and delivering iconic, great tasting foods and beverages. A critical aspect of its operations is the ability to take successes in one part of ...
  • 2020 Focus
    A large number of agricultural development initiatives now support value chain approaches. They encompass most stages of the chain, from inputs supply to production, processing, marketing, and financing. Given the complexity of integrated ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Taking successful development interventions to scale is critical if the world is to achieve the Millennium Development Goals and make essential gains in the fight for improved agricultural productivity, rural incomes, and nutrition. How to ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Much of the technology development for bioenergy to date has been geared toward competing with cheap fossil fuels. Bioenergy technologies have focused on reducing the cost per unit of energy produced, often exclusively by exploiting very cheap ...
  • 2020 Focus
    In spite of the rapid growth of the Indian economy, the fraction of the rural population living in poverty has declined only modestly. Increasing indebtedness, rises in input prices, and rapid commercialization have contributed to what some ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The author describes a successful case study as follows: “Dairy production in Kenya has grown at 2.8 percent per year over the past two decades, resulting in per capita production levels double those found anywhere else on the continent. ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
  • 2020 Focus
    Social entrepreneurs can provide the new approaches needed to hasten the process of reducing poverty and hunger. By combining innovative ideas from individuals and investments from public, private, and civil society organizations, such ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Elements of social protection date back several millennia. Free food distribution was a feature of Egypt in the time of the Pharaohs and of Rome during its Imperial age. England had a succession of “Poor Laws” dating from the 16th century that ...
  • 2020 Focus
    In developed countries, social security covers workers and their dependents against old age,unemployment, health, and other risks. Indeveloping countries, formal-sector workers have access to social insurance, and the very poor have some access ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This brief describes two case studies as follows: “Sub-Saharan Africa, with the highest fertility rate in the world, faces increasing demographic pressure on its natural resource base…. Old strategies for coping with these new ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This brief reviews how citizens, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), government agencies, and others can strengthen collective action. The authors discuss ways of facilitating collective action, of redesigning institutions and incentives and ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Who are the landed poor?” That is the question asked at the beginning of this brief. The author describes the different “faces” of the landed poor and then take up the issue of strengthening the property rights of these ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Poverty and hunger cannot be conquered without meeting the specific needs of poor women. Like poor men, they lack the assets and income necessary to exit poverty, but chronically poor women and girls are also subject to a confluence of ...
  • 2020 Focus
    As the 2015 deadline for meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) approaches, the poor countries of the world have already made considerable progress toward reducing maternal and child undernutrition. From 1990 to 2008, the prevalence of ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Farmers face a variety of market and production risks that make their incomes volatile from year to year. In many cases, farmers also confront the risk of catastrophe, as, for example, when crops are destroyed by drought or pest outbreaks or when ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Farming is a threat to the natural environment in rich as well as poor countries, but the human stakes are now much higher in the developing world, where food needs are acute and growing rapidly. Roughly 700 million people in developing countries ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    2020 Focus 16 Brief 9 There is very significant cost-effective greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential in agriculture. The mitigation potential at a range of future carbon prices is similar to the potential in the industry, energy, ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Attention to aflatoxin issues from the policy community has increased in recent years, with growing recognition of their health risks as well as the barrier they pose to market development. The 2002 imposition of new, stricter aflatoxin ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
  • IFPRI Briefs
  • 2020 Focus
    The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is a very recent entrant in the agricultural development space. We have been active in this area for just over five years, yet we quickly became a major donor and advocate for smallholder agricultural ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    According to the authors, “Both national and international economic environments have changed substantially in the past decade and a half. As they look to the future, African policymakers will have to apply the lessons of the past in a very ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Assessing the world’s progress against poverty calls for frequent and careful measurements, using household surveys and price data. Fortunately, the task of measuring poverty is becoming easier, and the results are probably getting more accurate ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    2020 Focus 16 Brief 13 An open and flexible global trading environment plays a constructive role in both climate change mitigation and adaptation. A new international climate change regime and global trade rules should ideally be ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Where the poor form a majority or near-majority, why don’t they vote themselves to power in democracies? In Madagascar, Mozambique, Mali, Guatemala, Honduras, Kenya, and Bangladesh, where the poor constitute 71, 70, 64, 56, 53, 52, and 50 percent ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Urban agriculture-agriculture located within or on the fringe of a town or city-may be one way to bolster city food supplies while also increasing the incomes of the poor. Urban agriculture uses resources, products, and services found in and ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    2020 Focus 16 Brief 10 Even with abundant evidence of the urgent need for action on climate change mitigation, there are still those who consider mitigation strategies a burden. In the agricultural sector, climate change mitigation calls for ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    2020 Focus 16 Brief 11 Climate change will certainly affect agriculture, but agriculture can also be harnessed to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A key element in supporting agriculture’s role is information. The costs of adapting ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Growth that is shared—so-called inclusive growth—is now widely embraced as the central economic goal for developing countries. But definitions and empirical characterizations of inclusive growth vary widely. In this brief, inclusive growth is ...
  • 2020 Focus
    In its Millennium Declaration of September 2000, the United Nations (UN) adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), to be reached in 2015 through concerted efforts worldwide. According to UN calculations, the estimated costs in terms of ...
  • 2020 Focus
    2020 Focus Brief on the World’s Poor and Hungry People
  • IFPRI Briefs
    2020 Focus 16 Brief 5 Of the five principal global carbon pools, the ocean pool is the largest at 38.4 trillion metric tons (mt) in the surface layer, followed by the fossil fuels (4.13 trillion mt), soils (2.5 trillion mt to a depth of one ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    On December 1-3, 2003, the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), Capacity Building International, Germany (InWent), the Technical Center for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA), and the International Food Policy Research ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    2020 Focus 16 Brief 7 Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soils are responsible for about 3 percent of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, which cause climate change, and contribute approximately one-third of non-CO2 agricultural GHG emissions. ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Risk assessment is a powerful tool for helping risk managers and policymakers to understand risk, evaluate risk control options, and make decisions that balance the benefits of risk reduction with the costs of mitigation. This brief shows how the ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    By 2030, three-fifths of the world’s population will live in urban areas… And poverty in the poorest countries appears to have become more urbanized. An urban world with growing inequality bodes ill for the health of urban dwellers. ...
  • 2020 Focus
    According to World Trade Organization (WTO) rules, countries can choose their own Sanitary and Phyto Sanitary Standards (SPS) to protect human, animal, and plant health as long as they are nondiscriminatory and justifiable by science. This ...
  • 2020 Focus
    The arguments in favor of trade liberalization are well known: it promotes the efficient allocation of resources through comparative advantage, allows the dissemination of knowledge and technological progress, and encourages competition. Trade ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Food safety is affected by the decisions of producers, processors, distributors, food service operators, and consumers, as well as by government regulations. In developed countries, the demand for higher levels of food safety has led to the ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The author tells us that “Collective action occurs when more than one individual is required to contribute to an effort in order to achieve an outcome. People living in rural areas and using natural resources engage in collective action on ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Collective action occurs when more than one individual is required to contribute to an effort in order to achieve an outcome. People living in rural areas and using natural resources engage in collective action on a daily basis ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The authors describe property rights as “overlapping ‘bundles’ of rights”, which can be grouped as “use rights” and “control or decisionmaking rights”. The authors then explain the concept of legal ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The priorities that U.S. agriculture has for the upcoming “millennium round” trade negotiations are shaped by domestic political and economic concerns, including the widely held belief in U.S. farm and commodity organizations that the Uruguay ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    With half the world’s population living in cities and towns, many poor urban dwellers face problems gaining access to adequate supplies of nutritionally balanced food. For many urban populations, an important source of food is urban and ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Urbanization is increasingly accompanied by globalization through trade and financial liberalization, both of which reinforce the importance of cities and economies of scale. Urban labor markets in 2020 are likely to become even more competitive ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “As the urban population in all developing regions grows over the next 20 years, governments and families will face unique challenges in their efforts to ensure the well-being of millions of children. They will have to take into account ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “Increasing urbanization in the developing world has brought a remarkably rapid shift toward a high incidence of obesity and noncommunicable diseases such as diabetes and coronary problems, at a time when large segments of the population ...
  • IFPRI Briefs