• IFPRI Briefs
    Food aid is one of the constants of human experience. The storage of food as public provision against crises is a practice recorded since Babylonian times. Since the 1950s, the practice has taken on a more international (and often political) ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    During the last 25 years, African policymakers have been bombarded with often conflicting advice on agricultural development strategy from an increasing array of international development agencies. In this brief, Christopher Delgado gives a ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Poverty is a significant and persistent problem in developing countries. Over 1.1 billion people live in households that earn a dollar a day or less per person. Almost half of the population of South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa lives in absolute ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Poverty is a rural phenomenon in most of the developing world, especially the low-income developing countries. The rural poor make up more than 75 percent of the poor in many Sub-Saharan African and Asian countries. Accelerated public investments ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The primary goal of agricultural research has been to increase agricultural production, particularly in high-potential areas. This has contributed enormously to reducing the number of people living in poverty worldwide, as well as to reducing ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Trigo looks at the elements of a strategy for technological development and institutional change to promote the goals of agricultural intensification, poverty alleviation, and resource conservation. He notes that the need for technological ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Like many other regional groups, the member countries of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)—Bangladesh , Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka—have taken steps toward forming a regional free ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Asia’s economic crisis continues to reverberate globally, demonstrating the pivotal place of developing countries in world trade. It is now well established, if counterintuitive, that broad-based agricultural growth in developing countries ...
  • Archive
    En Amérique Latine, la population est en grande majorité urbaine. Dès 1990, soixante-douze pour cent des habitants de la région résidaient dans les villes (figure 1). D’ici 2020, la population urbaine pourrait atteindre 83%. Au fil de son ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    In agrarian developing countries the natural environment is a key determinant of both poverty and nutritional status. Climate, terrain, and soil characteristics drive the agricultural system, determining in large part cropping patterns, choice of ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Global food production, so far, has increased continuously because cropped area has expanded and productivity per unit area has increased. In some regions of the world, however, there is little scope for further spatial expansion of agriculture. ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The persistence of hunger in a world of plenty is the most profound moral contradiction of our age. Nearly 800 million people in the developing world (20 percent of the total population) are chronically undernourished. At least 2 billion suffer ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Achieving food security has been the overriding goal of agricultural policy in India. The introduction and rapid spread of high-yielding rice and wheat varieties in the late 1960s and early 1970s resulted in steady output growth for foodgrains. ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    In recent years, the countries of Latin America have made radical changes in their development strategies, including decentralization of government, privatization, and deregulation of markets. These changes have already affected the livelihoods ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The future of China’s grain economy has been the subject of much debate. Some observers predict rapidly increasing grain imports that will strain the world’s productive capacity. Most of China’s own economists disagree: ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Farmers and local development organizations around the world use and promote a variety of technologies to increase food production. But the high cost of inorganic fertilizers and other agrochemicals often drives farmers to rely on locally ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Meeting food and livelihood security needs in developing countries will require the conservation and enhancement of natural resources that contribute to agricultural production. Chief among the resources to be sustainably managed are soils and ...
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    The population of the developing world has doubled since 1965 and now stands at 4.8 billion. This growth in human numbers has been a principal cause of a rising demand for food, water, and other life-sustaining resources in the past and will ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Reform of water policy is urgently needed to avert severe national, regional, and local water scarcities that will depress agricultural production and worsen water-related health problems. Water is abundant globally but scarce locally. Countries ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Is the agricultural sector in developing countries now facing the same neglect that it did in industrial countries some 200 years ago? This concern arises because agricultural investments are declining and donors are paying scant attention to ...
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    D’ici l’an 2020, la dégradation des sols pourrait constituer une grave menace mettant en danger la production alimentaire et les moyens d’existence ruraux, notamment dans les régions pauvres et de forte démographie dans le monde ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Developing countries as a group have experienced rapid economic growth in the last three decades: between 1965 and 1990, their gross national product (GNP) per capita grew at an average annual rate of 2.5 percent to reach US$840 in 1990. However, ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Employment programs, particularly labor-intensive public works (LIPW), have a long history in Sub-Saharan Africa, dating back to the 1960s. The programs expanded rapidly in the 1980s and early 1990s, especially in countries that experienced sharp ...
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    Creating a hunger-free world in the 21st century will require prevention and resolution of violent conflicts, as well as a concerted effort to rebuild war-torn societies. Between 1970 and 1990 violent conflicts led to hunger and reduced food ...
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    Ces dernières années, les pays d’Amérique Latine ont radicalement changé leurs stratégies de développement, notamment la décentralisation des pouvoirs publics, la privatisation et la déréglementation de leurs marchés. Ces modifications se ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Meeting world food needs in the year 2020 will depend even more than it does now on the capabilities and resources of women. Women are responsible for generating food security for their families in many developing countries, particularly in ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Whose responsibility is it to assure food security in an age of globalization? Is improved governance at the international level our greatest need, or are governance deficits most severe at the national level? When national governments lag in ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Will developing countries adopt policies that promote the planting of genetically modified (GM) crops, or will they select policies that slow the spread of the GM crop revolution? The evidence so far is mixed. In some prominent countries such as ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Following implementation of the Uruguay Round agreement, reductions in price support programs, mainly in developed countries, will lead to reductions in food surpluses and stocks. As the developing countries open up their markets to world price ...
  • Archive
    Selon l’estimation du Programme commun des Nations Unies sur le VIH/sida, fin 1996, quelque 21,8 millions d’adultes et plus de 750.000 enfants étaient séropositifs (porteurs du virus de l’immunodéficience humaine - VIH), ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The challenge for agriculture over the coming decades will be to meet the world’s increasing demand for food in a sustainable way. Declining soil fertility and mismanagement of plant nutrients have made this task more difficult. In this ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Para disminuir el hambre en una época de globalización, ¿deberíamos acaso mejorar primero la gobernabilidad al nivel global o nacional? Mejorar la gobernabilidad a nivel global frecuentemente se presume ser de mayor necesidad. Sin embargo, en el ...
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    Dans l’optique du secteur du développement, l’Afrique subsaharienne est d’ordinaire considérée comme étant un tout homogène, aux problèmes analogues, exigeant donc des stratégies tout aussi analogues. La plupart des pays de la ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    By the year 2020 land degradation may pose a serious threat to food production and rural livelihoods, particularly in poor and densely populated areas of the developing world. Appropriate policies are required to encourage land-improving ...
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    Dans la plupart des pays en développement, la main-d’oeuvre rurale connaît une augmentation rapide, mais les possibilités d’emploi n’en suivent pas le rythme. Alors que les terres disponibles pour permettre l’expansion de ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Bien que de nombreux Indiens ne disposent toujours pas d’une nutrition adéquate, la situation alimentaire du pays est spectaculairement meilleure de nos jours qu’il y a trente ans. En 1970, la population de l’Inde était ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    A team of researchers from the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO), and the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) collaborated to produce this ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    In 1990 a total of 780 million people out of 4 billion in the developing world are living on diets that are not sufficient to maintain a healthy life, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). This implies ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Many developing countries will need to double their food production by 2020 if they are to successfully feed their burgeoning populations. This will require maintaining, if not increasing, current rates of growth in national food production, and ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    In the next 25 years, South Asia’s food requirements are likely to double, while its natural resource base is likely to shrink. The subcontinent, which carries 21 percent of the world’s population on just 3 percent of its land area, ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    In looking toward 2020, one of the most severe problems to be faced is an impending shortage of adequate supplies of fresh water essential for drinking and for growing crops. The Middle East, where a few waterways serve large areas of land ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “Given the number of undernourished people in the developing world and the increasingly complex risks to food security, policymakers are faced with an enormous agenda. Freeing people from hunger will require more and better-targeted ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    By 2020, current food production methods will be unable to meet the food demands of the growing world population. As high-productivity lands become more scarce and food demand increases, people will increase the cultivation of lands that were ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    About two-thirds of Africans depend on agriculture for their livelihoods. The fate of agricultural production, therefore, directly affects economic growth, social improvement, and trade in Africa. As the region’s population continues to ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The population of Latin America is now largely urban. By 1990, 72 percent of the people of the region were living in cities. By 2020, the urban population could reach 83 percent. With increasing urbanization, the region faces problems of poverty, ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “About 167 million children under five years of age -almost one-third of the developing world’s children -are malnourished. If they survive childhood, many of these children will suffer from poorer cognitive development and lower ...
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    Un monde libéré de la faim, au 21e siècle : il faudra pour cela prévenir et régler les conflits violents et engager un effort concerté afin de rebâtir les sociétés ravagées par la guerre. De 1970 à 1990, les hostilités ont entraîné la faim et ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Earlier 2020 briefs identified annual growth rates for world population of 1.7 percent per year based on United Nations projections and per capita income growth in low- and middle-income economies of 2.9 percent as the major driving forces for ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    In the mid-1960s, when projections of global starvation were common, no one questioned the role of mineral fertilizer (plant nutrients, mainly nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium from inorganic sources) in promoting food production in the ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The population of the developing world has doubled since 1965 and now stands at 4.8 billion. This growth in human numbers has been a principal cause of a rising demand for food, water, and other life-sustaining resources in the past and will ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The condition of the world’s natural resource base in the year 2020 largely depends on whether poverty has been eradicated. Poverty and environmental degradation are closely linked, often in a self-perpetuating negative spiral in which ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    During the last half century, a number of individuals and institutions, including the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and IFPRI, have engaged in projections of future food demand, supply, and related variables. In ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The possibility of an emerging cereal gap of serious proportions by the year 2020, is a useful illustration of the kind of constructive dialogue IFPRI hopes to encourage. It responds to several quite recent developments, notably the rapid ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Faced with limited resources and the need to feed 90 million more people every year, governments and donors want to know whether they should invest in regions with inherent potential to be highly productive, or in less-favored areas where large ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Agricultural research and development (R&D) is big business. Worldwide investments in public-sector agricultural R&D totaled about US$17 billion in 1990. But “business as usual” may not be sustainable. As governments trim ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Grain traders in 1995 may have wondered if they were about to relive the world food crisis of the early 1970s. Prices for wheat, rice, and maize shot up during the year, grain stocks continued a three-year fall, fertilizer prices increased, and ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “…The assessment of past trends, future prospects, and policy options reported here stems from the tradition of joint studies of roots and tubers in developing countries by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Russia’s food economy is undergoing a fundamental transition. Rapid changes and adjustments are still taking place in the market and pricing systems, in the subsidies to output and input markets and the credit market, and in the process of ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Global population in the year 2020 will be a third higher than in 1995, but demand for food and fiber will rise by an even higher proportion, as incomes grow, diets diversify, and urbanization accelerates. However this demand is met, population ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This paper presents an overview of changing food consumption patterns in Taiwan and China. It finds that consumption of meat quadrupled in Taiwan between the periods 1959-61 and 1989-91, while per capita rice consumption declined by one-half. In ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “The topic of family farms has been gaining prominence in the academic, policy, and donor communities in recent years. Small farms dominate the agricultural landscape in the developing world, providing the largest source of employment and ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This paper assembles empirical evidence on the nonfarm sector and analyzes policies for affecting future rural development. It reviews trends in trade and services, cottage industries, and small industries, among others. It examines linkages ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    AIDS is a human tragedy and a major health problem. The scale of the disease is so large that it now raises questions about the impact of AIDS on the future development path of many of the world’s poorest developing countries. Through its ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    In this policy brief we argue that the agroecological approach to food production offers more hope of combating hunger in a sustainable fashion than does the more conventional “green revolution” strategy. While agroecological ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    World population was about 2.5 billion in 1950; by 1988 it had doubled. Despite this unprecedented population explosion, global food supply kept pace with the additional demand for food. A technological revolution after World War II in the ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The right to food has always been recognized as a valid and fundamental right of the individual. In the absence of food, other political and economic rights and freedoms are meaningless. Global food supplies have for many years been more ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Tropical forests are disappearing rapidly—with potentially high social costs in biodiversity loss and carbon emissions. While agriculture is critical to the long-term solution of sustainable livelihood and food security in the humid ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The fishing industry’s aggressive and expanding search for fish from the sea reached a turning point in 1990. After many years of increasing production, the global marine and inland catch from natural stocks declined from the 1989 peak of ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    After seven years of arduous negotiations under the auspices of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations was concluded in late 1993. The United States approved the agreement in late ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Developing Asia as a whole has taken remarkable strides since the food crises of the 1960s. Improvements in food security, poverty reduction, and per capita income initiated by the Green Revolution have been substantial and lasting. Although life ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The world’s population, today numbering some 5.5 billion people, may approach 12 billion by the end of the next century. By the year 2020, 26 years from today, it will most likely have increased by about 2.5 billion to a total of 8 billion ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    World production of cereals increased from 1966 to 1990, representing an average annual growth rate of 3.9 percent during the period. Although the developed market economies (DME) produced the bulk of world cereals, their share decreased from 54 ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Future directions of food supply and demand will be determined by the interaction of various market forces (such as prices, population, and income) as they will be affected by decisions and policies of farmers, national governments, and ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Fertilizers have played an important role in increased crop production, especially in cereal yields, and will continue to be a cornerstone of the science-based agriculture required to feed the expanding world population. Fertilizers replenish the ...