• Discussion Papers
    Most discussions on bargaining also say little about gender relations beyond the household, and about the links between extrahousehold and intrahousehold bargaining power. This paper spells out the nature of these complexities and their ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The 1991 Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) for Zimbabwe that we document in this paper is intended to provide benchmark data for economy-wide analysis under the MERRISA Project. Its construction is based on a three-step process: (1) building a macro ...
  • Discussion Papers
    As part of the Tanzania country study being done under the IFPRI research project on Macroeconomic Reform and Regional Integration in Southern Africa (MERRISA), a social accounting matrix (SAM) has been constructed for the base year 1992. A SAM ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper documents the construction of the 1995 Social Accounting Matrix for Zambia (ZAMSAM). The SAM incorporates economy-wide data in a consistent framework and provides the benchmark data for the analysis under the MERRISA project. Data ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The last few years have seen a proliferation of attempts by various institutions to create a framework that would enable analysts to have a broad overview of all transactions in the Malawian economy. It was decided that 1998, the most recent ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper documents the features of a 1998 social accounting matrix (SAM) for Thailand. It begins with a description of the overall economy both via a macro SAM and a national accounts balance sheet. The macro SAM was the result of aggregating a ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper provides a detailed documentation of an applied CGE model of Malawi - the first ever for Malawi - developed in the context of the project “Collaborative Research and Capacity Strengthening for Multi-Sector Policy Analysis in ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Since the late 1980s, Mexico has liberalized its agricultural sector, moving from a system of price supports, producer subsidies and consumer subsidies to a less distorting scheme in which market forces play a greater role. Coinciding with these ...
  • Discussion Papers
    A food demand system is proposed, based on demand for energy, variety, and tastes of foods. By specifying utility as an explicit function of these characteristics, the entire matrix of demand elasticities can be derived for n foods and one ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The regulatory approval of genetically modified crops in the field initially requires small, restricted experimental trials known as confined field trials. These small scale experiments provide researchers with important information on ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This working paper documents the construction of a 1993-94 Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) for Bangladesh. The SAM distinguishes 10 agricultural sectors -including two different kinds of rice technology - and 19 manufacturing sectors, out of 43 ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper uses a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model to simulate the short-run effects of alternative food- subsidy scenarios. Savings from reduced subsidy spending are used to reduce direct taxes uniformly for all household types. The ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Progress in combating hunger and undernutrition has been lagging for decades. Best practices to fight hunger and undernutrition have been available for a long while, but lack of political will among leaders and a lack of political power ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “The paper extends the household hedonic model, as a non-market valuation tool, by estimating a supply function for variety attributes of a subsistence crop in a developing country. The model is applied to bananas in Uganda, making use of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Egypt is a lower middle-income country with a per capita gross domestic product (GDP) in 2003 of US$3,949 measured in international dollars, or purchasing power parity (World Bank 2005a). In the decade from 1975 to 1985, Egypt enjoyed rapid ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This document summarizes findings from the Accra Urban Food and Nutrition Study (AUFNS) about the importance of care as an input to child nutrition and the relative contribution of various maternal and household resources to the provision ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Changes in real wages are often used to measure welfare changes. There is a problem, however, in interpreting measures of changes in factor returns when analyzing the impact of changes in taxes - such as tariffs and indirect taxes - that operate ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper presents a profile of poverty in Egypt for 1997. It assesses the magnitude of poverty and its distribution across geographic and socioeconomic groups, provides information on the characteristics of the poor, illustrates the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Using a regionally disaggregated computable general equilibrium model, we analyze the differential welfare impacts of a cash transfer program targeted at rural areas. The direct effect of the transfers decreases regional income differentials, but ...
  • Discussion Papers
    During the decade from 1982/83 through 1992/93, Bangladesh was able to increase production of rice, its staple food, at a rate modestly higher than the growth in population. However, the growth in per capita supply remained stagnant, because of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “The paper reports on the construction and testing of a Standard International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) computable general equilibrium model for South Africa. A 1998 social accounting matrix (SAM) for South Africa is compiled ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper examines differences in the spatial and temporal variations of rice yields in China and Brazil. Our analysis indicates that, in China, rice yields have converged over time and rice production has become increasingly homogeneous. In ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The link between economic distribution and social conflict-and the notion that this link arises from individuals’ sense of identification with those similar to them and their feelings of alienation from individuals with different ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper considers vulnerability reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) from a more aggregated macro viewpoint. We focus on risk related to agriculture, since vulnerability and agriculture are intimately linked in SSA due to the location of the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In Africa the global food crisis threatens the livelihoods of millions of people who because of high rates of poverty, hunger, malnutrition, and food dependency are already exceptionally vulnerable. In better circumstances, Africa’s ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In most countries in sub-Saharan Africa at present, the majority of the population is engaged in agriculture, with economies in the very early stages of structural transformation - the process whereby a predominantly agrarian economy is ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Ghana is an emerging success story in Africa and in a couple of years will become the first African country to achieve the first Millennium Development Goal of halving its national poverty rate. The government of Ghana has therefore extended its ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper describes how governments and philanthropic donors could drive innovation through a new kind of technology contest. We begin by reviewing the history of technology prizes, which operate alongside private intellectual property rights ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The purpose of this study is twofold. On one hand, the objective is to assess the impact of new and more complex contracting schemes, as opposed to traditional marketing channels, on small farmers’ welfare. On the other hand, the study ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Significant changes in the agricultural sector in northern Mali suggest that irrigation has made a large contribution to welfare increases over the past eight years. Using difference-in-differences, propensity score matching, and matched ...
  • Discussion Papers
    As patents and other forms of intellectual property become more pervasive in the next generation of biotechnologies, designing polices and practices to ensure sufficient freedom to operate (i.e., the ability to practice or use an innovation) will ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This study evaluates the domestic and international trade and marketing policies in India and analyzes the effects of deregulating domestic markets and liberalizing external trade on the food grain sector. Historically, India’s food ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This study focuses on public investments and policy reforms for leveraging growth spillovers at the African regional level. A conceptual framework that is built on the endogenous growth theory and the new economic geography is presented ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In response to slow growth in the agricultural sector and as part of a general shift towards a more market-oriented economy, the Government of Egypt started liberalizing the agricultural sector in 1987. Controls over wheat production and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper examines the impact of rainfall shocks on a measure of adult health, body mass, drawing on a unique panel data set of households residing in rural Zimbabwe. Controlling for individual, household, and community factors, and individual ...
  • Discussion Papers
    After protracted and difficult negotiations, agreement was recently reached on the dimensions of a South African-EU free trade deal. Because of South Africa’s prominence in the sub-region, implementation of this agreement will have an ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Uganda has experienced rapid economic growth and poverty reduction over the past decade but has failed to significantly improve incomes in its northern regions where prolonged conflict has hindered growth. We consider three strategies to close ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper studies an economy in which the government is not able to perfectly enforce tax compliance among operating firms, and compares it with a similar economy but with perfect tax enforcement. I develop a competitive general equilibrium ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Agricultural biodiversity is an environmental resource. Much of the agricultural biodiversity remaining in situ today is found on the semi-subsistence farms of poorer countries and the small-scale farms or home gardens of more industrialized ...
  • Discussion Papers
    CONTENTS: Introduction;concepts and rationale; concept of diversification; rationale for diversification; significance for IMR; Structural features of IMR and their relevance to diversification; evidence of diversification in the IMR; trends in ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Indian agriculture is diversifying during the last two decades towards High-Value Commodities (HVCs) i.e., fruits, vegetables, milk, meat, and fish products. The pace has been accelerated during the decade of 1990s. HVCs account for a large share ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Contrary to conventional economic theories, the relationship between income growth and the share of the population within the rural or agricultural sector is extremely diverse, even among regions starting from similar levels of development, such ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Malawi has experienced modest economic growth over the last decade and a half. However, agricultural growth has been particularly erratic, and while the incidence of poverty has declined, it still remains high. The Malawian government, within the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    An economywide, multimarket (EMM) model was developed for Rwanda to analyze the linkages and trade-offs between growth and poverty reduction goals at both macro- and micro-economic levels. The model includes 30 agricultural commodities or ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Over the past two decades, Uganda has experienced strong economic growth. However, agriculture has not performed as well as the rest of the economy in recent years, and while the incidence of poverty has declined, it is still substantially higher ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Zambia has experienced strong economic performance since 1999. However, agriculture has not performed as well as the rest of the economy, and although the incidence of poverty has declined, it still remains high. The Zambian government, within ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Accelerating growth and poverty reduction, and the ultimate achievement of structural transformation, are the critical policy challenges in present day Ethiopia. This paper examines relevant growth options in terms of their impact on overall ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The comparative effects on GDP and household incomes associated with various pathways of agricultural growth in Zimbabwe are investigated, based on SAM (social accounting matrix) multiplier analysis. Among the five growth paths considered, the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The objective of this paper is to derive lessons from selected literature concerning the impact and the conditions of successful agricultural input market reform. The agricultural inputs of interest in this review are: fertilizers, seeds, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The high use of modern inputs in Egypt’s agricultural system well before the reforms has been very favorable to the development of private markets, particularly in the fertilizer sector. The level of adoption being very high, the usual ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Since the early 1990s, India has undergone substantial economic policy reform and economic growth. Though reforms in agricultural policy have lagged those in other sectors, they have nonetheless created a somewhat more open economic ...
  • Discussion Papers
    As in many other developing countries, the concerns about food security in Indonesia during the 1980s and early 1990s resulted in policies aimed at achieving self-sufficiency in food crops. The Government of Indonesia (GOI) combined price ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Since 1986, Vietnam started to move from a centrally-planned towards a market-oriented system. It underwent several major economic and trade reforms - a process which is still not completed. At the same time, it also started to open its economy. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Public spending on agriculture in Nigeria is exceedingly low. Less than 2 percent of total federal expenditure was allotted to agriculture during 2001 to 2005, far lower than spending in other key sectors such as education, health, and water. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Using a similar analytical approach to a study in China, this paper analyzes the impact of agricultural research on urban poverty reduction in India. State level data from 1970 to 1995 were used in the empirical analysis. It is found that in ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This paper argues that the largely unrealized potential of agricultural science and technology (S&T) in promoting growth and poverty reduction in developing countries results from deeply rooted incompatibility among policy ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Participatory approaches are an increasingly prominent technique for designing agricultural strategies within Sub-Saharan Africa. However, such approaches are frequently criticized for either not involving enough stakeholders or limiting the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Breeding for food-staple plant varieties that load high amounts of iron and zinc in their seeds holds great promise for making a significant, low-cost, and sustainable contribution to reducing iron and zinc deficiencies in humans in developing ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “During the past several decades dramatic improvement has occurred in agricultural productivity and livelihoods in South and East Asia, stimulated by the Green Revolution and supported by several other factors. Nevertheless, hundreds of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper addresses the potential effects of a world agricultural trade liberalization scenario on poverty and regional income distribution in Brazil, using an interregional applied general equilibrium (AGE) and microsimulation model of Brazil, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    African countries tend to be affected by global agricultural policies in the same way as other economies but with much more severe economy-wide repercussions… The present discussion paper 1) examines the vulnerability of Africa economies ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The trend in real agricultural wages in Egypt is described well by an inverted U-shaped curve with a peak around 1985. But the rise and fall of real wages masks a complex dynamic process by which nominal wages adjust in response to changes in ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Events in Zimbabwe during seven years from the start of economic reforms in 1991 have highlighted the contradictions in the ideologies underlying economic development and institutional reform in the country. They have also highlighted the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper examines the role of agriculture and rural development, in general, in the most successful countries of Asia, termed, by the World Bank, the “East Asian Miracle.” The basic hypothesis of the paper is that agricultural ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The South Asian countries are gradually diversifying with some inter-country variation in favor of high value commodities, namely fruits, vegetables, livestock and fisheries. Agricultural diversification is strongly influenced by price policy, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper has been prepared in support of the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program (CAADP) roundtable in Ghana. The study also takes a fresh perspective on the role of agriculture for development in light of the global food ...
  • Discussion Papers
    As in most low-income countries, the majority of the poor population in Viet Nam is found in rural areas, where agriculture provides the primary means of livelihood. It has been argued that an agriculture-based development (ABD) strategy is more ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In this paper we describe how biophysical data can be used, in conjunction with agroecological concepts and multimarket economic models, to systematically evaluate the effects of agricultural R&D in ways that inform research priority setting ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Some small-holders are able to generate reliable and substantial income flows through small-scale dairy production for the local market; for others, a set of unique transactions costs hinders participation. Cooperative selling institutions are ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Although adequate country capacity is considered to be one of the critical missing factors in development outcomes, a lack of understanding of how capacity contributes to economic development and of how to account for the contribution of capacity ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper reports on two methods used for identifying alternative indicators of chronic and acute food insecurity. A need for alternative indicators exists since many of the “benchmark” or “gold standard” indicators (such ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Coffee is the most important export crop in Uganda and an important source of income among smallholder farmers in large parts of the country. The Robusta type dominates coffee production and Ugandan Robusta is demanded by roasters as a component ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In this article, we examine the economy-wide effects of three alternative growth paths for Indonesia’s industrial sector using SAM (social accounting matrix) multiplier analysis and CGE (computable general equilibrium) modeling. The context ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This paper reviews current trade-related regulations of genetically modified (GM) food and discusses their effects on developing countries. There is a large heterogeneity in current import approval and marketing policies of GM food ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper investigates empirically the factors that influence real agricultural wage rates in Ghana, based on 1957 to 1991 data. The Johansen cointegration framework is used to examine long-run relationships among agricultural and urban wage ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study addresses three main research questions: 1) What projects are most successful in promoting the objectives of raising agricultural productivity, improving natural resource management and reducing poverty? 2) What approaches enable them ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Using both national-sample and program-level census survey data, we evaluate the distributional power of Mexico’s Programa Nacional de Educacion, Salud y Alimentacion (PROGRESA) transfers using the so-called distributional ...
  • Discussion Papers
    One of the major components of the PROGRESA program has been directed toward improving the nutritional status of small children in poor rural communities in Mexico. Results suggest that PROGRESA may be having fairly substantial effects on ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study reports theory-testing laboratory experiments on the effect of yardstick competition on corruption. The results reveal that on the incumbent’s side, yardstick competition acts as a corruption-taming mechanism only if the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “CORPOICA and IFPRI implemented a research project in Ventaquemada, Colombia. The project’s goal was to asses the benefits of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) practices and the potential of Genetically Modified insect resistant (Bt) ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This study examines the poverty reduction implications of the introduction of three different agricultural technologies by government and NGOs in three rural sites across Bangladesh. The first is new vegetable seeds developed by AVRDC ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This study examines the poverty reduction implications of the introduction of three different agricultural technologies by government and NGOs in three rural sites across Bangladesh. The first is new vegetable seeds developed by AVRDC ...
  • Discussion Papers
    With the aid of an intertemporal, multi-region general equilibrium model, the authors study issues of agricultural trade liberalization, growth and capital accumulation in the context of a world economy moving towards a multi-polar structure. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Development institutions and projects frequently seek to target poorer segments of the population. Yet, existing methods for evaluating their outreach are generally unsuited to most operational settings, since they are either too costly and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    We analyze the evolution of Sub-Saharan Africa’s agricultural total factor productivity (TFP) over the past 40 years, looking for evidence of recent changes in growth patterns using a nonparametric Malmquist index. Our TFP estimates show a ...
  • Discussion Papers
    ” Meeting the food needs of the world’s growing population while reducing poverty and protecting the environment is a major global challenge. Genetically modified crops appear to provide a promising option to deal with this challenge. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This paper discusses a modeling approach that extends and improves the standard parity bounds model (PBM) of spatial market efficiency by analyzing the dynamic effects of marketing policy changes. The model facilitates an improved ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In many African countries, governments are re-thinking the role of the state in centrally providing certain goods and services. The rights and responsibilities for providing various public goods are being decentralized to lower levels of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Undernutrition of children 0-60 months old in Mozambique is much higher in rural than in urban areas. Food security is about the same, although substantial regional differences exist. Given these outcomes, we hypothesized that the determinants of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper models the assimilation process of migrants and shows evidence of the complementarity between their destination experience and upon-arrival human capital. Bayesian learning and dynamics of matching are modeled and empirically assessed, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Kenyan horticultural exports are often cited as a success story in African agriculture. Fruit and vegetable exports from Côte ‘Ivoire have received less attention, but the export value is similar to that of Kenya. This paper focuses on ...
  • Discussion Papers
    A methodology to produce disaggregated estimates of inequality is implemented in three developing countries: Ecuador, Madagascar, and Mozambique. These inequality estimates are decomposed into progressively more disaggregated spatial units and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “In Tanzania, as in many other developing countries, the conventional wisdom is that economic reforms may have stimulated economic growth, but that the benefits of this growth have been uneven, favoring urban households and farmers with ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Many prior studies find significant cross-sectional positive ordinary least squares (OLS) associations between maternal human capital (usually maternal schooling attainment) and children’s human capital (usually children’s schooling, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Developing countries allocate scarce government funds to investments in rural areas to achieve the twin goals of agricultural growth and poverty alleviation. Choices have to be made between different types of investments, especially ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The authors evaluate the size of the welfare losses from using alternative “imperfect” welfare indicators as substitutes for the conventionally preferred consumption indicator. They find that whereas the undercoverage and leakage ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The population of the developing world is becoming more urban. Are poverty and undernutrition beginning to relocate to urban areas as well? We use survey data on poverty (from 8 countries) and on child undernutrition (from 14 countries) to ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This study attempts to analyze changing patterns of land transfers and schooling investments by gender over three generations in customary land areas of Ghana’s Western Region. Although traditional matrilineal inheritance rules deny ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper presents new evidence on the proportion of women in poverty in ten developing countries. It compares poverty measures for males and females and male- and female-headed households, and investigates the sensitivity of these measures to ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Today’s resource boom in Africa, driven by Asian economic growth, offers new opportunities for resource-rich African countries. Contrary to the experience of previous booms, however, most mining profits now accrue to foreign companies, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In general, reported rates of return to agricultural R&D are high, but questions have been raised about upward biases in the evidence. Among the reasons for this bias, insufficient attention to attribution aspects. Matching of research ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The objective of this report is to summarize progress towards measurement of selected childcare and feeding practices, and to discuss the feasibility and usefulness of these measurements in research and program contexts. This is the third in a ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study quantitatively analyzes the general equilibrium effects of declines in world demand for tobacco products. The study finds that tobacco exports and production in the three developing countries, Malawi, Zimbabwe, and Turkey, would be ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “In this paper, the authors analyze the potential economic impacts of avian influenza (AI) in West Africa, taking Nigeria as an example. They find that, depending on the size of the affected areas, the direct impact of the spread of AI ...
  • Discussion Papers
    As the goals of international agricultural research move beyond increasing food production to the broader aims of reducing poverty, both agricultural research and studies of its impact become more complex. Yet examining the magnitude and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    As the goals of international agricultural research move beyond increasing food production to the broader aims of reducing poverty, both agricultural research and studies of its impact become more complex. Yet examining the magnitude and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This study is part of a larger effort to explore the impact of agricultural research on poverty reduction. It examines the diffusion and impact of hybrid maize in selected resettlement areas of rural Zimbabwe, paying particular attention ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper reviews current knowledge and experience with food-based approaches to reduce vitamin A and iron deficiencies. It presents a review of recently published literature, highlights some of the lessons learned, and identifies knowledge gaps ...
  • Discussion Papers
    While agricultural production statistics are reported on a geopolitical - often national - basis we often need to know the status of production or productivity within specific sub-regions, watersheds, or agro-ecological zones. Such ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This paper contributes to the economic analysis of marriage and the family by examining and analyzing the relative importance of potential determinants of assets brought to marriages in rural Ethiopia. One potential determinant is ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper highlights the difference between secure investor property rights and loosely defined individual property rights. Globalization and fiscal decentralization have intensified this difference. On the one hand, in the presence of mobile ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Longitudinal household data can have considerable advantages over much more widely used cross-sectional data. The collection of longitudinal data, however, may be difficult and expensive. One problem that has concerned many analysts is that ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper examines attrition in the KwaZulu-Natal Income Dynamics Study (1993-1998) and assesses the extent of attrition bias for a specific empirical example. The analysis shows that 1993 first round nonresponse is largely unrelated to ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper uses a panel data of 347 households in Egypt to measure changes in household consumption between 1997 and 1999 and to identify causes behind the changes. Per capita consumption decreased for the households during this time and, while ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The Ugandan coffee industry is facing some serious challenges, including low international prices in the international coffee market, aging coffee trees and declining productivity, and, more recently, the appearance of coffee-wilt disease, which ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper uses three-generation retrospective data from the rural Philippines to examine the role of the extended family, proxied by alternative measures of grandparent coresidence, on investments in children. An extension of the wealth model of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    South Africa is the only country in Africa that has both adopted genetically modified (GM) crops and developed a functional biosafety system to manage any risks related to the use of GM products. But it is also one of the only countries that ...
  • Discussion Papers
    We herein investigate the observed discrepancy between real and perceived commercial risks associated with the use of genetically modified (GM) products in developing countries. We focus particularly on the effects of GM-free private standards ...
  • Discussion Papers
    A key objective of China’s reform program was to reduce distortions in the economic system and enhance growth. However, when implemented in incremental and partial ways, local governments or individuals have chance to capture rents inherent ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper is devoted to better understanding of the Brazilian agricultural national policies towards domestic support and implications related to WTO rules. Domestic support has taken central stage in the last years and in light of a global ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Policy research on African agriculture is long on prescriptions for what needs to be done to spur agricultural growth but short on how such prescriptions might be implemented in practice. What explains this state of affairs? What might be ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Suicides in general, including farmers’ suicides, are a sad and complex phenomenon. Hence, their underlying causes need to be addressed within an equally complex societal framework. Here, we provide a specific case study on the potential ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This paper discusses how impact-oriented agricultural research for development systems in Africa can be better organized and managed. Specifically, the paper puts forth the argument that achieving the development targets set by African ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The International Service for National Agricultural Research¾on its own from 2002 until 2003, and as a division of the International Food Policy Research Institute thereafter has studied 124 public-private partnerships in agriculture in nine ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Food aid has played a useful role in Government of Bangladesh efforts to increase food security in the last three decades, adding to foodgrain availability, supplying wheat for targeted distribution to poor households, and helping to finance ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Cash transfer programs are rare in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper describes the evolution of a cash transfer program in major urban centers of Mozambique, from its inception in 1990 through two major reorganizations until October 1998. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In its Sixth World Food Survey released at the 1996 World Food Summit, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) reported that 841 million people in developing countries are chronically undernourished. This number and its ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Qualitative and quantitative methods in social science research have long been separate spheres with little overlap. However, recent innovations have highlighted the complementarity of qualitative and quantitative approaches. The Accra Food and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This paper assesses the economy-wide impact of implementing and financing a universal or basic income grant (BIG) in South Africa. The various financing scenarios suggested by the proponents of the grant are presented, and these are ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This paper assesses the economy-wide impact of implementing and financing a universal or basic income grant (BIG) in South Africa. The various financing scenarios suggested by the proponents of the grant are presented, and these are ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Strengthening national capacity for designing public policies and program interventions is fundamental for achieving development goals. Yet results of capacity strengthening programs have shown mixed results in the last fifty years. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Care is the provision in the household and the community of time, attention and support to meet the physical, mental, and social needs of the growing child and other household members (ICN 1992). This provision of time, attention, and support is ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Cash transfer programs induce multiplier effects when recipients put the money they receive to work to generate additional income. The ultimate income effects are multiples of the amounts transferred. This paper analyzes the PROCAMPO program in ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study explores the impact of changes in environmental conditions on intrahousehold labor allocation to the collection of environmental goods such as fuelwood and leaf fodder for a sample of rural Nepali households. Using household-level ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper presents an overview of macroeconomic and agricultural trends in Latin America and the Caribbean. It argues that world-level macroeconomic and agricultural cycles, of expansion during the 1960s and 1970s, and stagnation and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Trends for major fisheries products are evaluated for the past two decades, using aggregate annual data. Major changes have been propelled by income growth, changes in preferences and health concerns about meat in developed countries, leading to ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study attempts to identify characteristics of the existing child and the maternal care environment that could be used as a basis for designing policies and programs to improve the nutritional status of children. For the present study, all ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Many of the challenges facing children now are a function of the changing times, including increases in urbanization, political violence, changing family forms, and, in some a cases, decreased supplies of adequate food. This paper reviews the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study examines how quality, price, and access to curative health care influence use of modern public, modern private, and traditional providers among 3,000 children age 0-2 years in Cebu, Philippines. The analysis relies on a series of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Child labor is widespread in developing countries, but its causes are debatable. Poverty is considered the primary reason, but many theoretical and empirical analyses show that other factors, such as lack of access to credit, poor school quality, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper investigates children’s time allocation to schooling, home production, and market production using a unique data set collected from northern Mali. Production shocks from harvest period pest infestations induce households to ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study investigates the effects of childcare on work and earnings of mothers in poor neighborhoods of Guatemala City. Recognizing that mothe’rs work status may depend on the availability of childcare, decisions to participate in the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This analysis examines the implications of WTO accession for China’s domestic policies and institutions by identifying some of Chinese agricultural policies and institutional arrangements that may generate conflicts with WTO requirements ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper reviews recent agricultural policy changes in China and presents estimates of domestic support for the period 1996-2005. A set of relevant alternative subsidy-definition scenarios and their effects on the calculated levels of support ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The formula approach used in many trade negotiations involves large formula cuts in high tariffs, with flexibilities that allow smaller cuts for selected products. Difficulties in evaluating the effects of these exceptions can create major ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper investigates the impact of climate variability on maize yield in the Limpopo Basin of South Africa using the Generalized Maximum Entropy (GME) estimator and Maximum Entropy Leuven Estimator (MELE). Precipitation and temperature were ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Decentralization implies an increase in the number of stakeholders involved in the design and implementation of interventions. This paper draws upon the experience of a multi-stakeholder program in India which has sought to increase the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Hungarian home gardens are small-scale farms managed by farm households using traditional management practices and family labor. They generate private benefits for farmers by enhancing diet quality and providing food when costs of transacting in ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “CARE began PROSPECT (Program of Support for Poverty Elimination and Community Transformation) in 1998. PROSPECT aims to reduce poverty in peri-urban areas of Lusaka. It employs a community-based approach to carry out three types of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper examines the nature of community management of woodlots and investigates the determinants of collective action and its effectiveness in managing woodlots, based on a survey of 100 villages in Tigray, northern Ethiopia. We find that ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “To examine how local income distribution affects both a community’s ability to pay for schooling and the quality of that schooling, this research merges household and school census data from South Africa. Empirical results are ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This case study examines the scaling-up experiences of two microfinance institutions: the Nirdhan Utthan Bank Limited (NUBL) in Nepal and the Self-Help Group (SHG)-Bank linkage program of the National Agricultural Bank for Agriculture and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This study uses data from 1996/97 through 1998/99 to examine the relative efficiency of production of crops in Bangladesh and their comparative advantage in international trade as measured by net economic profitability (the profitability ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This paper analyzes the current and proposed biosafety systems in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda using a set of components and characteristics common to functional and protective biosafety regulatory systems. It also assesses how those ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “The purpose of the research paper is to characterize biological diversity related to millets in the semi-arid regions of India at various spatial scales of analysis (e.g., farm household versus community levels) and place that evidence in ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In the second half of the last century, both India and China have undergone major transitions and have moved to more liberalized economies. This paper relates the observed patterns in regional inequality to major events during this period. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper investigates whether inferences drawn about a population are sensitive to the manner by which those data are obtained. It compares information obtained using participatory appraisal techniques with a survey of households randomly drawn ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper introduces some relatively straightforward computational tools for estimating poverty measures from the sort of data that are typically available from published sources. All that is required for using these tools is an elementary ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In this paper we investigate whether a conditional cash transfer program such as the Programa Nacional de Educación, Salud y Alimentación (PROGRESA) can simultaneously combat the problems of low school attendance and child work. PROGRESA is a new ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “We explore how globalization, broadly conceived to include international humanrights norms, humanitarianism, and alternative trade, might influence peaceful and foodsecure outlooks and outcomes. The paper draws on our previous work on ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Intensive double or triple monocropping of rice has caused degradation of the paddy micro environment and reductions in rice yield growth in many irrigated areas in Asia. Problems include increased pest infestation, mining of soil micronutrients, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Since 1996, a growing coalition of stakeholders from the private sector, government and donor communities has promoted a new package of agronomic practices for smallholders in Zambia. The conservation farming (CF) system they advocate involves: ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper develops a model of differentiated consumers to examine the consumption effects of genetic modification (GM) under alternative labeling regimes and segregation enforcement scenarios. Analytical results show that if consumers perceive ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper synthesizes the results of five studies using household panel data from Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Mali, Mexico and Russia, which examine the extent to which households are able through formal and/or informal arrangements to insure their ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This paper explores risk sharing in the Zone Lacustre, Mali, as viewed through the lens of consumption smoothing. We find that idiosyncratic shocks appear to have little impact on consumption, and that households respond to these shocks in ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Contract farming is conventionally thought of as a form of industrial organization that helps to overcome high monitoring, supervision, and environmental mitigation costs incurred from ensuring a reliable and uniform-quality supply (from the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper investigates how the control and devolution of productive assets are allocated among husband and wife. Using detailed household data from rural Ethiopia, the authors show that assets brought to marriage, ownership of assets, control ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The international and local Nicaraguan media have widely reported on the “coffee crisis” in Latin America and there is substantial evidence that there has been a downturn and that this has been more severe in the coffee-growing ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Spending per scientist declined precipitously within African agricultural R&D agencies over the past several decades. In 1991, average cost per researcher across 147 R&D agencies was $119,300 in 1985 international dollars - or US$59,500 ...
  • Discussion Papers
    An economywide, multimarket model is constructed for Ghana and the effects of agricultural soil erosion on crop yields are explicitly modeled at the subnational regional level for eight main staple crops. The model is used to evaluate the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Using a mathematical-programming agricultural-sector model of Egypt, this paper analyzes mechanisms for allocating scarce water and for charging the farmers the Operation and Management (O&M) costs of irrigation and drainage, currently ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Worldwide, the number of genebanks and the amount of seed stored in them has increased substantially over the past few decades. Most attention is focused on the likely benefits from conservation, but conserving germplasm involves costs whose ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Cotton, textiles, and apparel are critical agricultural and industrial sectors in India. This study provides descriptions of these sectors and examines the key developments emerging domestically and internationally that affect the challenges and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Cotton, textiles, and apparel are critical agricultural and industrial sectors in Pakistan. This study provides descriptions of these sectors and examines the key developments emerging domestically and internationally that affect the challenges ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Costa Rican coffee farmers are almost fully exposed to world price variability. Yet, despite small farm sizes, specialization in coffee, and a marketing system that prolongs uncertainty and aggravates cash flow problems, this study finds that ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) for five Latin American countries (seven data sets) were used to explore the feasibility of creating a composite feeding index and to examine the association between feeding practices and child ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Traditional economic theory posits that a well-functioning capital market is a necessary condition for industrialization and economic growth. In reality, micro and small enterprises are ubiquitous because entrepreneurs can undertake low-return ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Since the 1970’s, the worldwide capacity of genebanks for ex situ conservation of crop genetic resources has increased greatly. This has increased the accessibility of landraces and wild and weedy relatives to crop breeders; in situ ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The key motivation behind this study is to explore the many patterns of interactions between economic and non-economic factors in sub-Saharan Africa (hereafter referred to as Africa) in order to map out a typology of different types of country ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Over the past decade, donor-funded policies and programs designed to address undernutrition in the Global South have shifted away from agriculture-based strategies toward nutrient supplementation and food fortification programs. Given the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Ethiopia holds large potential for dairy development due to its large livestock population, the favorable climate for improved, high-yielding animal breeds, and the relatively disease-free environment for livestock. Given the considerable ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper explores disparities in local public service provision between decentralized districts in Ghana using district- and household-level data. The empirical results show that districts’ geographic locations play a major role in shaping ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Decentralization has the potential to improve the accountability of government and lead to a more efficient provision of public services. However, accountability requires broad groups of people to participate in local government. Thus, voter ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The objective of this paper is to analyze the best trade approach for Southern Mediterranean countries (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon and Turkey) that helps them increase market access and develop trade policies ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Secondary crops are of increasing interest to policymakers and planners in developing countries because of a desire to diversify economic activities and because of their proven potential to raise farm incomes and rural employment. To assess this ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In this paper, we derive estimates for willingness to pay for rainfall-index based insurance contracts. Surveys were undertaken in four regions in Morocco, representing different mean and variability of rainfall conditions. Results indicate ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The poultry sub-sector is crucially important in the context of agricultural growth and improvement of diets of people in Bangladesh. The sub-sector is particularly important in that it is a significant source for the supply of protein and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This paper reviews the literature on the performance of commonly found social safety net programs in developing countries. The evidence suggests that universal food subsidies have very limited potential for redistributing income. While ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Although there is growing evidence of the increasing role of nonfarm activities in rural livelihoods, there is still relatively little empirical evidence regarding the factors that influence smallholder farmers to diversify into nonfarm ...
  • Discussion Papers
    En este informe se discuten los principales resultados de los diagnósticos participativos realizados durante el período comprendido entre junio de 2001 y mayo de 2002 en 95 comunidades (aldeas) en las zonas rurales de ladera en Honduras. El ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “On farm conservation of crop diversity poses obvious policy challenges in terms of the design of appropriate incentive mechanisms and possible trade-offs between conservation and productivity. This paper compares factors explaining the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Recent estimates showing increase in the incidence of poverty in Uganda has kindled interest in understanding the factors that cause changes in poverty, as the reversal of the positive trend in the 1990s threatens the government’s ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Recent estimates showing increase in the incidence of poverty in Uganda has kindled interest in understanding the factors that cause changes in poverty, as the reversal of the positive trend in the 1990s threatens the government’s ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Previous research on the determinants of credit rationing exclusively focused on the behavior of formal lenders who contract directly with an individual borrower. Based on a household survey in Madagascar, this paper presents an analysis of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper explores the determinants of farmers’ investments in indigenous soil and water conservation measures in the semi-arid tropics of India. Many types of indigenous conservation measures are observed in three study villages, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The paper uses the concept of credit limit to analyze the determinants of household access to and participation in informal and formal credit markets in Malawi. Households are found to be credit constrained, on average, both in the formal and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study investigates the micro-determinants of land use change using community, household and plot histories, an ethnographic method that constructs panel data from systematic oral recalls. A 20-year historical timeline (1975-1995) is ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Poverty profiles are a useful way of summarizing information on the levels of poverty and the characteristics of the poor in a society. For Egypt, while there has been some work on a descriptive analysis of the characteristics of the poor, to our ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This report presents an analysis of the structural determinants of living standards and poverty in Mozambique, which is based on nationally-representative data from the first national household living standards survey since the end of the civil ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Group lending has received much attention in recent years because of its perceived potential in providing financial services to poor households that lack traditional collateral. The analysis in this paper focuses on the effects of program design, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In this paper, we develop a theoretical farm household model of food crop production and marketing decisions, derive testable hypotheses concerning the determinants of these decisions, and test these hypotheses, using data on cereal production ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The UNICEF-expanded model for nutrition is used to analyze the circumstances of care in urban environments. The model postulates that there are six major types of care behaviors: feeding and breast-feeding, food preparation and handling, hygiene ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The gains to developing countries from agricultural reform in developed countries is found to benefit most, even the net food importers, although the gains vary depending on a country’s trade pattern. This results because the agricultural ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “The paper discusses the application of the Water Poverty Index (WPI) as a monitoring tool for Benin’s water sector. Benin is currently in a process of political decentralization shifting responsibility for and administration of rural ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “The choices that smallholder farmers are able to make are strongly conditioned by the geographic conditions in which they live. The importance of this fact for rural development strategy is not lost on policy makers. For example, the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “The choices that smallholder farmers are able to make are strongly conditioned by the geographic conditions in which they live. The importance of this fact for rural development strategy is not lost on policy makers. For example, the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper investigates the patterns and determinants of change in livelihood strategies (“development pathways”), land management practices, agricultural productivity, resource and human welfare conditions in Uganda since 1990, based ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper analyzes the role of social cohesion in economic and institutional development and, broadly, the creation of welfare in Latin America. The paper defines the concept of social cohesion with reference to the notions of social capital and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Household food security is an important measure of well-being. Although it may not encapsulate all dimensions of poverty, the inability of households to obtain access to enough food for an active, healthy life is surely an important component of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The first section of this paper reviews the most recent evidence on inequality in 18 Latin American countries and shows that in all but four the changes in inequality over the 1990s were small and insignificant. The distribution depends on the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    How many microfinance institutions (MFIs) exist in the developing world? What are their current performances? In 1999, an International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) team on microfinance conducted a survey on MFIs in Asia, Africa, and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Agricultural diversification towards high-value crops can potentially increase farm incomes, especially in a country like India where demand for high-value food products has been increasing more quickly than that for staple crops. Indian ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The question whether production flexibility payments to farmers are likely to be minimally trade distorting is considered in an inter-temporal and economy wide context. Our contribution lies in showing the circumstances, over time, under which a ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Analyses of how coveted central-government resources in Africa are shared have shown widespread patronage, ethnic cronyism, and pork-barrel politics. While some governments have attempted to rectify the situation by establishing revenue-sharing ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper addresses the question of whether Africa is an undertrading continent. We answer this question using a much-improved data set for obtaining predicted trade and by employing methods that correct for bias in estimates of undertrading. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Using data from fieldwork conducted in Nepal, the impact of a project designed to commercialize vegetables and fruits - the Vegetable and Fruit Cash Crop Program (VFC)- on male and female time allocation is examined. Using a rigorous time ...
  • Discussion Papers
    With growing water scarcity and increasing competition across water-using sectors, the need for water savings and more efficient water use has increased in importance in water resources management. Improvement in the physical efficiency of water ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Although most developing country cities are characterized by pockets of substandard housing and inadequate service provision, it is not known to what degree low incomes and malnutrition are confined to specific neighborhoods. This analysis uses ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Even though both “good governance” and “pro-poor growth” have become important concepts in development thinking and practice, studies that assess to which extent and how good governance contributes to pro-poor ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Because land is scarce, farmers in China increasingly have to rely on nonfarm activities to enhance their incomes. The functioning of rural nonfarm labor markets is therefore crucial in determining who has access to nonfarm employment. Previous ...
  • Discussion Papers
    It is widely believed that land tenure insecurity under a customary tenure system leads to socially inefficient resource allocation. This article demonstrates that land tenure insecurity promotes tree planting, which is inefficient from the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    High urbanization rates in Latin America are accompanied by an increase in women’s participation in the labor force and the number of households headed by single mothers. Reliable and affordable childcare alternatives are thus becoming ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Using an agriculture-focused CGE model for Zimbabwe with 1991 as base period, this paper examines quantitatively the income and equity effects of trade liberalization in isolation and in conjunction with potentially complementary changes in ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Previous research has suggested that urban agriculture has a positive impact on the household food security and nutritional status of low-socioeconomic status groups in cities in Sub-Saharan Africa, but a formal test of the link between ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The paper examines the possible impact of Doha agreement on Philippine poverty. Using a detailed CGE analysis, the agreement is observed to depress world demand for Philippine agricultural exports, and thus slightly increase poverty, especially ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In this study, we outline the farm policy changes in the European Union, EU, and the United States, US, since 1996 and compare their levels of support under various policies. The producer support estimates for the EU are more than twice that of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In a climate of rapid technological change, it is important to evaluate policies on the innovation incentives that result from the introduction of intellectual property rights as they relate to agricultural genetic resources. In this paper, we ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Econometric studies of the effects of research on productivity have typically imposed arbitrary restrictions on the length and shape of the R&D lag profile. These restrictions are likely to have biased up both the measured effects of R&D ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Like many other Asian countries, the causal relationship between agricultural productivity and the incidence of rural poverty has been a widely debated subject in Bangladesh. A number of studies argued that the real agricultural wage rate was ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The paper develops a metric of structural transformation that can account for the production of new varieties of goods embodying advancements in technological know-how and design. Our measure captures the dynamics of an economy’s ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Early childhood nutrition is thought to be an important input into subsequent academic achievement. This paper investigates the nutrition-learning nexus using a unique longitudinal data set, which follows a large sample of Philippine children ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This paper examines the effects of early childhood nutrition on schooling inputs and outcomes to assess the dynamic nature of human capital production, using panel data from South Africa. Height-for-age Z-score is used as a measure of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Phytoremediation is the use of living plants, known as hyperaccumulators which absorb unusually large amounts of metals in comparison to other plants. The use of classical plant breeding and new molecular techniques offers great potential ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Differences and similarities in the development paths taken by six East Asian economies (Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, South Korea, and Taiwan) provide a fertile ground for policy analysis from which important lessons are drawn and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Although there is little consensus on the impact of trade liberalization on poverty and food security, it is nevertheless widely acknowledged that there is a need for governments to establish safety-nets to guard against any potentially ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Encouraging signs of growth acceleration in Africa may herald a new development era of rapid transformation. In an effort to promote the future success of African transformation, we herein provide an extensive literature review on development ...
  • Discussion Papers
    When a new technology consists of sequences of innovations that culminate in a final consumer product, the balance between successive innovators is one of the main concerns in the design of the patent system. While intertemporal aspects of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper analyzes the economy-wide gains obtainable from the allocation of surface irrigation water to its most productive use, and evaluates a decentralized mechanism for achieving this result in a spatially heterogeneous environment. The ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Weather fluctuations, such as those caused by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), add to the riskiness associated with agricultural production. Improved predictive capacity may help ameliorate negative impacts of climate and weather shocks ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Processing of meat and crops accounts for a large share of manufacturing in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The paper assesses empirically the impact of hypothesized productivity change in agro-food processing on growth, trade, employment, and input ...
  • Discussion Papers
    We use a dynamic CGE model to quantitatively assess the economywide impact of HPAI in Ghana. The likely effect of an avian flu outbreak is modeled as demand or supply shocks to the poultry sector. Our analysis shows that, while chicken is a quite ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Two possible adaptation options to climate change for Sub-Saharan Africa are analyzed under the SRES B2 scenario. The first scenario doubles the irrigated area in Sub-Saharan Africa by 2050, compared to the baseline, but keeps total crop area ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The number of higher-education institutions and the students enrolled in them has grown rapidly throughout Africa since the early 1960s. The number of universities increased from less than 20 in 1960 to nearly 160 by 1996; student numbers grew ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The impact of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) on people’s lives and on development is staggering. Millions have died and livelihoods have been devastated, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “A competitive partial-equilibrium spatial model with heterogeneous goods is constructed to evaluate effects of the removal of tariffs, tariff-rate quotas, and sanitary regulations on world poultry trade. The model distinguishes between ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper explores the effect of transaction costs on aggregate supply and demand and marketed surplus. A five-good non-separable household model is used to illustrate the effect of transaction costs on a generic African household. Then, the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This paper is an empirical analysis of the gains from contract farming in the case of poultry production in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. The paper finds that contract production is more efficient than noncontract production. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper examines the allocation of productive resources within rural households of poor countries. Building upon the existing literature, it provides a consistent framework from which to study productive efficiency and intrahousehold equity. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This paper uses an asset-base framework to analyze the determinants of rural growth and sustainable poverty reduction for the three poorest countries in Central America: Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua…Using a combination of GIS ...
  • Discussion Papers
    While the Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) remains a hotly debated issue in all five Central American countries that are part of the treaty, most discussions are based on preconceived opinions rather than grounded in research-based ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper presents a new methodological framework for measuring the level of household access to credit. It provides an analytical framework for examining the determinants of household credit limits and derives implications on information needed ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper considers supply decisions by firms in a dynamic setting with adjustment costs and compares the behavior of an optimal control model to that of a rule-based system which relaxes the assumption that agents are explicit optimizers. In ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper evaluates the effect (in terms of private returns) of investment in education on wages in the rural Philippines. Statistical endogeneity of education in the wage function may result from (1) unobserved determinants of education that ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This pre-study on the “Status of Innovation in Nicaragua’s Agrifood Sector: Opportunities for Subsector Development” contributes to the existing information on agricultural innovation in Nicaragua. It thus aims to broaden ...
  • Discussion Papers
    There is a continuing need to use recent and consistent multisectoral economic data to support policy analysis and the development of economywide models. Updating and estimating input-output tables and social accounting matrices (SAMs), which ...
  • Discussion Papers
    There is a continuing need to use recent and consistent multisectoral economic data to support policy analysis and the development of economywide models. Updating and estimating input-output tables and Social Accounting Matrices (SAMs) for a ...
  • Discussion Papers
    A Generalized Maximum Entropy (GME) approach is adapted to empirically estimate crop-specific production technologies in Chinese agriculture. Despite a modest behavior assumption about equal marginal returns of non-land inputs among crops, this ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Monitoring rural household income is important for governments, donors, nongovernmental organizations, researchers, and others involved with development strategies, because increasing rural household income is a primary objective for achieving ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Income mobility can be viewed as a first-order Markov process, with a matrix of transition probabilities which measure how individuals move from an income status in time t to a new status in time t+1. Direct estimation of transition matrices is ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “The “Cost of Basic Needs” (CBN) approach to drawing consumption-based poverty lines is widely applied and lays credible claim to being the best practice for estimating poverty measures. Unfortunately, a growing mass of evidence ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper presents the construction of a 1996 regionalized Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) for Mexico. The SAM differentiates production across five regions, four rural and a fifth “national” urban region. The rural regions are ...
  • Discussion Papers
    United Kingdom (UK) demand for carnations by exporting country was estimated using a production version of the Rotterdam model, and model estimates were used to assess the effects of EU preferential trade agreements on import demand. Of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The notification of the level of domestic support to the World Trade Organization (WTO) is intended to reflect compliance with obligations entered into at the time of the Uruguay Round. WTO members have often been slow to provide notification of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper presents a framework for analyzing the contributions of government policies and exogenous (mostly, external) factors to the observed changes in the relative price of a tradable agricultural product. A decomposition analysis is ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The theorized impact of land tenure and titling on access to credit has produced mixed results in the empirical literature. Land tenure and titling is hypothesized to increase access to credit because of the enhanced land security provided and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In light of an increasing focus on new demand-driven extension approaches that aim at accelerating the adoption of innovative technologies by smallholder farmers in developing countries, greater analysis is needed of the role of rural social ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The authors set out a general equilibrium model for the evaluation of a domestically financed transfer program, which helps to combine the results from a computable general equilibrium model with disaggregated household data.Using a Mexican cash ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Economic reform programs assume that major goods are tradable, such that depreciation of the real exchange rate raises the value of output compared to factor costs in domestic currency. In Tanzania, major food staples that account for ...
  • Discussion Papers
    There have been different degrees of exchange rate disequilibrium in the developing countries during transition or reform periods since the mid 1980s. The level of the exchange rate and its misalignment can have significant impacts on ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “One in three pre-school children in the developing world is undernourished. As a consequence, their human rights are violated. In addition, they are more likely to have impaired immune systems, poorer cognitive development, lower ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Considering the heterogeneity of the countries of southern Africa and the presence of South Africa and other middle-income countries in the region, southern Africa has a unique opportunity to exploit agricultural potential and regional ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Identifying growth poles in the SSA region, strengthening linkages and generating mutual benefits across African countries is an important part of the strategy to promote agriculture-led growth at the Africa-wide scale. Using agricultural ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Agriculture plays a dominant role in nearly all the countries of East and Central Africa, and many face similar agroecological, climatic, and development challenges. As a result, significant scale economies can be made through the regionalization ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Two sets of issues loom large on the economic horizon of Malawi: poverty alleviation and the country’s vulnerability to shocks emanating from the outside world. In this paper, simulations with a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    To what extent do India’s rural poor share in agricultural growth? Combining data from 24 household sample surveys spanning 35 years with other sources, we estimate a model of the joint determination of consumption-poverty measures, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper uses farm survey data from Eastern Province, Zambia to show that regional income multipliers arising from agricultural growth may be stronger than previously thought for Sub-Saharan Africa. However, the growth multipliers are driven ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper investigates the effects of wheat genetic diversity and land degradation on risk and agricultural productivity in less favored production environments of a developing agricultural economy. Drawing production data from household survey ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Maize, the second most globally important staple crop after wheat, originated in Mexico, where it is typically grown as part of a set of associated crops and practices called the milpa system. This ancient mode of production is practiced today in ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “A typical private good is defined by its excludability and rivalry characteristics. Information embodied in a technology might not generate rivalry among its users. By contrast, excludability is certainly a characteristic of this kind of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The stochastic frontier production function is used to estimate agricultural efficiency index. Then, controlling for household characteristics and other exogenous variables, the efficiency index is regressed on the probability of being sick. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study, based on the data of China’s agricultural census of 1997, focuses on the land distribution among rural households and its effects on crop production structure and employment of labor and capital. The Census data show that the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Most countries in sub-Saharan Africa have reduced or eliminated fertilizer subsidies and liberalized input marketing as part of the reform process that began in the early 1980s. The effect on fertilizer prices and use is one of the most ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Governments around the globe are trimming their support for agricultural R&D, giving greater scrutiny to the support that they do provide, and reforming the public agencies that fund, oversee, and carry out the research. These contemporary ...
  • Discussion Papers
    While, politically speaking, China has a centralized government structure with strong top-down mandates, under the country’s current fiscal system, local governments are responsible for providing most local public goods and services. Large ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This paper reports results of incorporating fish into IMPACT, a global model of food supply and demand that estimates market-clearing prices to 2020 for 32 commodities in 36 regions. It summarizes results for production, consumption, net ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Food aid programs have become increasingly important for disaster relief in many developing countries. In Ethiopia, a drought-stricken economy with one of the lowest per capita incomes in the world, food aid has amounted to almost 10 ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) conducted a comprehensive study of the efficiency of food distribution in food aid-supported programs in Bangladesh. The capacity and efficiency of the food distribution system was ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Food aid remains significant for food availability in many low-income countries in sub-Saharan Africa, helping to reduce the gap between food consumption needs and supply from domestic production and inventories and commercial imports. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Three factors, advent of new technology (HYV), development of infrastructure and market liberalization working in tandem have delivered favorable food security outcomes for Bangladesh. Bangladesh’s food-policy has benefited from a ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Many African countries have moved into the production of non-traditional agricultural products, in an effort to diversify their exports and increase foreign currency earnings. However, in order to access developed country markets and urban ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The success of development policy depends on the ability to successfully anticipate the response of individuals to changing incentives. Often, however, actual responses differ from anticipated responses. One important reason for this divergence ...
  • Discussion Papers
    An important issue in WTO trade negotiations is whether further liberalization of trade and agricultural policies may help or hinder food security in WTO member countries, especially the developing countries. The WTO recognizes various ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In MENA, household food insecurity, which is closely related to poverty and undernourishment, is most severe in rural areas and concentrated within Iraq, Sudan, and Yemen. 25% of the MENA population may be poor and 7% undernourished. The key to ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Countries in Southern Africa have engaged in a variety of trade liberalization initiatives. In this paper, the authors use a multi-country, computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to analyze the impact of trade liberalization on countries, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The paper develops a framework for the design and analysis of pluralistic agricultural advisory services and reviews research methods from different disciplines that can be used when applying the framework. Agricultural advisory services are ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper summarizes findings from a formative research study conducted in Haiti to develop a behavior change communication (BCC) strategy to improve infant and child feeding practices and to reduce childhood malnutrition. It describes the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The community-driven development (CDD) approach has become increasingly popular because of its potential to develop projects that are sustainable, are responsive to local priorities, empower local communities, and more effectively target poor and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper documents the computer code implementing the CE-SAM estimation technique in GAMS (General Algebraic Modeling System). It defines the estimation problem in a deterministic setting; extends the approach to include a stochastic treatment ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper presents new evidence on the association between gender and poverty based on an empirical analysis of 11 data sets from 10 developing countries. The paper computes income- and expenditure-based poverty measures and investigates their ...
  • Discussion Papers
    An increasing literature examines the association between restricted fetal or early childhood growth and the incidence of diseases in adulthood. Little is known, however, about gender difference in this association. We assess the impact of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper reviews the econometric evidence on gender differences in agricultural productivity. It provides a methodological overview and a critique of (1) production function-based estimates of technical and labor productivity differences by ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Within many African households, agricultural production is simultaneously carried out on many plots controlled by different members of the household. Detailed plot-level agronomic data from Burkina Faso provides striking evidence of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper seeks to contribute to the literature on village governance and local public goods provision. Using data from 144 village-level governments in India’s Tamil Nadu state, we examine whether the gender and caste of village ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper examines the impact of prime-age adult mortality on the transition from school to the labor market of adolescents and on decisions by female adults to participate in the labor force in South Africa. The analysis focuses on that ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper analyzes the ways in which gender issues affect property rights and the use of natural resources in developing countries. It examines the informal practices of resource use, usually involving multiple uses by multiple users. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In this paper, we present a comparative analysis of the extent to which indirect taxes, tariffs, and exchange rates affected relative price incentives for agricultural production in a representative sample of 15 developing countries in the 1990s. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Geographic targeting is often recommended as a way to improve the impact of social spending and infrastructure investments on rural poverty. Previous research shows that such targeting is not very accurate unless the geographic units are small. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Agricultural production statistics reported at country or sub-national geopolitical scales are used in a wide range of economic analyses, and spatially explicit (geo-referenced) production data are increasingly needed to support improved ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Advocates of the use of genetic engineering techniques in agriculture contend that this new biotechnology promises increased productivity, better use of natural resources and more nutritious foods. Opponents, on the other hand, are concerned ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Genetically modified (GM) food crops have the potential to raise agricultural productivity in Asian countries, but they are also associated with the risk of market access losses in sensitive importing countries. We study the potential effects of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper analyzes price, production and trade consequences of changing consumer preferences regarding the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food production. The analytical framework used is an empirical global general equilibrium ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper uses an asset-base framework to analyze the determinants of rural growth and sustainable poverty reduction for the three poorest countries in Central America: Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua…Using a combination of GIS mapping ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Global climate change poses great risks to poor people whose livelihoods depend directly on the use of natural resources. Mitigation of the adverse effects of climate change is a high priority on the international agenda. Carbon trading, under ...
  • Discussion Papers
    People in developed countries currently consume about 3 to 4 times as much meat and fish, and 5 to 6 times as much milk products per capita as in developing Asia and Africa. Meat, milk, and fish consumption per capita has barely grown in the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In the second half of the 1990s, a series of developments led to a renewed academic and policy interest in the intersection of macroeconomic policy and poverty issues in developing countries. The focus of that work was domestic macroeconomic ...
  • Discussion Papers
    A major question that has surfaced in the changing context of world agriculture is whether the smallholders would ride the wave of globalization or be swept away. This paper addresses the debate with a four-fold objective: (1) it maps different ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “For the health community, globalization offers opportunities but also poses important challenges. Dramatic progress has been made in the area of health over the past forty years; however, improvements have been unequally distributed across ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Ser capaz de responder y reaccionar ante las demandas de los productores no implica necesariamente que se generen las mejores soluciones técnicas. Generar innovaciones adecuadas requiere de la participación de muchos: líderes y otros productores, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study uses data from a representative survey of households with preschoolers in Accra, Ghana to (1) examine the importance of care practices for children’s height-for-age z-scores (HAZ); and (2) identify subgroups of children for whom ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Poverty in rural India has declined substantially in recent decades. This steady decline in poverty was strongly associated with agricultural growth, particularly the green revolution, which in turn was a response to massive public investments in ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Using case studies from six Asian countries, this paper (a) assesses the relevance of underlying rationales for public intervention in foodgrain markets, (b) documents the existing policies and regulations that support operation of grain ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “In the context of on-going market reform in developing countries, there is a need for an improvement in the existing methods of spatial market efficiency analysis in order to better inform the debate toward designing and implementing new ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Public investment, together with institutional and policy reforms, has contributed substantially to rapid economic growth in rural China since the late 1970s. This rapid growth has also led to dramatic reductions in rural poverty. In this study ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This study assesses which agricultural subsectors have the strongest capacity to drive economic growth and poverty reduction in Ethiopia, and what kind of agricultural and nonagricultural growth is needed to achieve the millennium ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper presents an applied microsimulation model built on household data with explicit treatment of heterogeneity of skills, labor preferences and opportunities, and consumption preferences at the individual and/or household level, while ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Using 1996-97 and 2002-03 nationally representative household surveys, we examine the extent to which growth in Mozambique has been pro-poor. While all sections of society enjoyed a rapid annual increase in consumption between the sample ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Trade liberalization is a central part of South Africa’s post-Apartheid development strategy. However, despite considerable reforms, the country has failed to generate pro-poor growth, with both unemployment and inequality worsening ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Despite rapid economic growth in recent years, Mozambique remains a very poor country. Expenditure-based poverty measures are reflected in widespread food insecurity and poor health status. In recognition of these problems, the Government of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Indonesian economy has experienced some major changes during the last three decades and transformed from a predominantly agricultural economy to one that relies more heavily on its non-agricultural sector. Within agriculture, there has also been ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “We analyze the implications of the HIV/AIDS pandemic in Tanzania for labor markets and human capital accumulation. Three analyses are undertaken. First, we examine the 2000/01 Labor Force Survey and compare it with the 1990/91 Labor Force ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “There is hardly need these days to repeat that HIV/AIDS is devastating African societies and economies, threatening the hard-won human development gains of the past several decades. The changes to the development landscape wrought by AIDS ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper estimates the economic impact of HIV/AIDS on KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) and the rest of South Africa (RSA). We extend previous studies by employing an integrated analytical framework that combines the following: firm-level surveys of workers’ ...
  • Discussion Papers
    As in other countries in the southern Africa region, a human development catastrophe is unfolding in Mozambique. Recently released data estimate HIV prevalence rates amongst the adult population in the year 2000 at around 12% with substantial ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper develops a framework to measure the impact of agricultural research on urban poverty. Increased investments in agricultural R&D can lower food prices by increasing food production, and lower food prices benefit the urban poor ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper reviews design features by which safety nets might do more with less. It reviews the current evidence on their success in practice-including three brief reviews of southern Africa experience-and suggests a role for future policy ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper presents results from a study that identified patterns of social interaction among small farmers in three agricultural subsectors in Bolivia-fish culture, peanut production, and quinoa production-and analyzed how social interaction ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study constructs a regional CGE model of China to analyze the differential regional impacts of China’s WTO accession on agricultural production, trade, and farmers’ income. The results show that China’s WTO accession will ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Almost unaffected by the 2008 wave of soaring world food prices, Ugandan local market prices exhibit signs of high price volatility in the first quarter of 2009. At the household level, while net producers may reap some benefits from this ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Food as a human right was first laid down 50 years ago in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The last 10 years, in particular, have witnessed an increased recognition of the importance of the human rights approach for designing policies ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper uses project and household data to examine the ability of 100 or so public works projects in Western Cape Province, South Africa, to target benefits-both direct and indirect-to those living below the poverty line. We find that public ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Output in Chinese agriculture has grown rapidly for the last several decades, as reported by the Statistical System in China. However, reported total output is aggregated using constant prices, which has been proven to be inappropriate by many ...
  • Discussion Papers
    There have been competing arguments about the effect of public infrastructure on productivity in the literature. Level-based regressions generally show a much higher return to public capital than private capital, while difference-based ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The reliability of food security rating, a variant of the more familiar wealth ranking procedure, was tested in a rural area of Western Honduras. Twenty workshop sessions were conducted in 13 different communities, with members of organized small ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Many countries have recognized the need to revive agricultural advisory or extension services (the terms are used interchangeably here) as a means of using agriculture as an engine of pro-poor growth; reaching marginalized, poor, and female ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper investigates whether human capital affects the productivity and labor allocation of rural households in four districts of Pakistan. The investigation shows that households with better-educated males earn higher off-farm income and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Human milk is a food that meets all conditions for an infant’s nutrition security and is the most important food for more than 10 percent of the population in Sub-Saharan Africa (children less than three years of age). Statistics on ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The overall objective of this paper is to develop an appropriate conceptual and analytical framework to better understand how prospects for growth and poverty reduction can be stimulated in rural Honduras. We employ complementary quantitative and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper presents the main findings of a quantitative evaluation of the Red de Protección Social (RPS), a conditional cash transfer program in Nicaragua, against its primary objectives. These included supplementing income to increase household ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The paper departs from the standard practice that takes the estimated marginal effects of either the amount of credit received or membership in a credit program as measures of the impact of access to credit on household welfare. The marginal ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper reviews the literature on the subject of the role of improved agricultural technology in alleviating poverty in developing countries. Focusing primarily on improved cultivars produced by the international agricultural research system, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Contract farming is seen by proponents as a way to raise small-farm income by delivering technology and market information to small farmers, incorporating them into remunerative new markets. Critics, however, see it as a strategy for agribusiness ...
  • Discussion Papers
    World cotton prices have fallen by about 40 percent over the last two years, focusing attention on the effect of subsidies for cotton growers in depressing prices. This paper combines farm survey data from Benin with assumptions about the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Climate change continues to have major impact on crop productivity all over the world. While many researchers have evaluated the possible impact of global warming on crop yields using mainly indirect crop simulation models, there are relatively ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper introduces a modeling method which simulates a village’s response to population and market pressure. The method combines a linear programming model with a biophysical model of soil condition and plant growth. The linear ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Previous studies implicitly assume uniform price-effects across regions or provinces within countries. They also do not address the issue of integration between the world food market and local markets. Instead, they assume a complete transmission ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Land degradation, in the form of soil erosion and nutrient depletion, threatens food security and the sustainability of agricultural production in many developing countries. Governments and development agencies have invested substantial resources ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study focuses on the possible impact of the MFA phase-out on the world economy. Starting from analyzing trends in world textile and apparel trade, the study found that the developing countries were a growing factor in world T&A trade in ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper uses an agricultural sector model to evaluate the effects of an ambitious and ongoing policy reform program on agricultural production and resource use in Egypt. The results show that Egypt has already gained from the policy reforms, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The competition for limited water resources between agriculture and more highly valued domestic and industrial water uses is rapidly increasing and will likely require the transfer of water out of agriculture. This paper reviews and synthesizes ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Extreme interannual variability of precipitation within Ethiopia is not uncommon, inducing droughts or floods and often creating serious repercussions on agricultural and non-agricultural commodities. An agro-economic model, including mean ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study investigated the impacts of access to inventory credit, input supply shops, fertilizer microdosing demonstrations, and other factors on farmers’ use of inorganic fertilizer and other inputs in Niger and on crop yields. We found ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The government of Uganda is currently decentralizing many of its services including those directly related to agriculture and the environment. Non-government organizations (NGOs) and community-based organizations (CBOs) are being asked to take ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper investigates the impacts of a social forestry program in Indonesia, Hutan Kamasyarakatan (HKm), based on analysis of a survey of 640 HKm and comparable non-HKm plots in the Sumberjaya watershed of southern Sumatra, and of the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “The overall objective of this research project is to assess the impacts of different types of government policies (pertaining to the domestic and external sectors) on the status of food security in the country, with particular emphasis on ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper has been prepared as part of the Zambia country study of the Macroeconomic and Regional Integration in Southern Africa (MERRISA) project and serves as a background paper for modeling exercises. The paper focuses on analyzing ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In the late 1990s, government policy in Bangladesh shifted in favor of increased public foodgrain stocks, setting official minimum stock targets of 1.0 to 1.2 million tons, as compared to operational targets of about 700 to 800 thousand metric ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “The decline in soil fertility in smallholder systems is a major factor inhibiting equitable development in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Some areas fallow in order to strength soil fertility for later planting, but as populations increase, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This case study explores the development, dissemination, adoption, and impact of improved tree fallows in rural western Kenya. The processes of technology development and dissemination throughout the region are described and analyzed. To analyze ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “We examine access to, use of, and participation in decisions on improved water supply in the Volta basin of Ghana, one of the first countries to introduce a community-based approach to rural water supply on a large scale. While 71 percent ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Contract farming is emerging as an important form of vertical coordination in the agrifood supply chain in India, and its socioeconomic consequences are attracting considerable attention in public policy debates. This study is an empirical ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper examines the impact of wheat transfers and cash incomes on wheat consumption and wheat markets. Using propensity score- matching techniques, the total marginal propensity to consume (MPC) for wheat is, on average, 0.33, ranging from ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Does a restrictive foreign trade regime reduce the effectiveness of agricultural productivity growth in promoting overall income growth and equity? Based on counterfactual simulations using a multi-sector, computable general equilibrium (CGE) ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “The paper examines, taking into account the urban-rural divides, the changes and welfare implications of income diversification in Zimbabwe following macroeconomic policy changes and droughts of the early 1990s. Data from two comparable ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Three types of trade policy adjustments to deal with an unsustainable current account deficit are examined in this paper for their economywide income and equity effects, based on the results of simulation experiments using a CGE model of the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    With poverty studies having shifted their focus from household poverty to individual poverty, a number of studies have started to examine ntrahousehold resource allocation, especially gender bias within the household as potential causes of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    A lack of data often makes biological management decisions difficult and has been an area of contention in the debate over the approval of transgenic crops. Our knowledge of agricultural and natural systems is limited and our ability to gain ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Pollution of the environment by metals and organic contaminants is an intractable global problem, with cleanup costs running into billions of dollars using current engineering technologies. The availability of alternative, cheap and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Using detailed trader surveys in Benin, Madagascar, and Malawi, this paper investigates the presence of increasing returns in agricultural trade. After analyzing margins, costs, and value added, we find little evidence of returns to scale. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The demand for extending intellectual property protection to agriculture in developing countries has met with counterclaims for granting farmers’ rights. Developing countries are currently attempting to fulfill these demands by evolving new ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In this study, we examined India’s domestic support policies to understand their classification and measurement for the purposes of official World Trade Organization (WTO) notifications. We then employed the underlying methods to prepare ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Rapid industrial development and urbanization transfer more and more land away from agricultural production, threatening China’s capability to feed itself. This paper analyzes the determinants of land use by modeling arable land and sown ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    A cluster of information and communications technologies (ICTs) has not only pervasively penetrated the world of communications and entertainment, but also affected the way we earn and spend, heal and learn, save and search, and share ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper provides an assessment of information flows and the acquisition of knowledge in water governance of the Upper East Region, Ghana. These flows are patchy, often parallel, disconnected or slow. In many cases a great deal of information ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Green Revolution technologies have not been widely adopted in Africa. What are the chances that they will play a major role in the near future? This paper shows that the enabling infrastructure, especially rural roads and irrigation systems are ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The effect of recent agricultural market reforms in many developing countries is often measured through tests for market integration by analyzing co-variation of food prices. However, market integration studies often fail to link the discovery of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “La innovación es la introducción exitosa de nuevos conocimientos y tecnologías en los procesos social y productivo. Las formas convencionales de fomentar la innovación en la agricultura y la industria alimentaria en los países en ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This report analyzes the relationship between the adoption of innovation packages in quinoa cultivation and absorptive capabilities in resource poor farming communities in four micro-regions of the Bolivian Altiplano. The innovation ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This report presents the results of a study on local innovation in four peanut-producing regions in Bolivia. It aimed at identifying the type of organizations and mechanisms contributing the most to the adoption of innovations. The theoretical ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Traditional approaches to innovation systems policymaking and governance often focus exclusively on the central provision of services, regulations, fiscal measures, and subsidies. This study, however, considers that innovation systems ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Innovation systems perspectives on agricultural research and technological change are fast becoming a popular approach to the study of how society generates, disseminates, and utilizes knowledge, and how such systems can be strengthened ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Financing for water projects, especially for irrigation, has been moving towards collapse in recent years due to declining donor and government funding. Some Indian states have undertaken innovative institutional reforms by setting up ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Tomato, cabbage, and garden egg (African eggplant, or Solanum aethiopicum) are important crops for small-scale farmers and migrants in the rural and peri-urban areas of Ghana. Genetic modification has the potential to alleviate poverty through ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Poverty mapping applies models of household welfare developed from detailed household consumption and expenditure surveys to the extensive but less detailed data from national censuses. A poverty map for Malawi, developed by drawing upon ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper draws together findings from different elements of a research project examining critical components of pro-poor agricultural growth and of policies that can promote such growth in poor rural economies in South Asia and Sub-Saharan ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Increasing competition for water across sectors increases the importance of the river basin as the appropriate unit of analysis to address the challenges facing water resources management; and modeling at this scale can provide essential ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Ethiopia is at a critical crossroads with a large and increasing population, a depressed national economy, insufficient agricultural production, and a low number of developed energy sources. The upper Blue Nile basin harbors considerable ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Changing perceptions of resource ownership have altered international exchange of genetic resources. After summarizing the role of genebanks and issues related to property regimes, this paper presents an empirical study of one of the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Thailand has experienced economic growth well above world averages for about 40 years. It is a challenge to understand the sources of this high growth path, and in particular why growth has not slowed down with assumed decreasing returns to ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Against the background of increasing interest in closer economic relations in the Middle East, the contribution that greater integration of markets might make to improving food security in the region is investigated, using a quantitative ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The paper reviews recent theory and empirical evidence testing unitary versus collective models of the household. In contrast to the unitary model, the collective model posits that individuals within households have different preferences and do ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study explores the intrahousehold impact of transfer of modern agricultural technology from a gender perspective. The data suggest that group-based programs targeting women have a greater potential to address gender relations within the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Banana is a staple crop consumed by Ugandan households. The Uganda National Agricultural Research Organization has implemented conventional and biotechnology programs that seek improving bananas and address the crop’s most important pest ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Over the past three decades the development of agricultural research staff in sub-Saharan Africa has been impressive. Developments in agricultural research expenditures were less positive. Many of the developments of the past decade in personnel, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Latin America and the Caribbean are relatively well endowed with water resources. However, population growth and rapid urbanization are putting considerable pressure on water available for irrigation. Local and regional water scarcity problems ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Although dietary diversity is universally recognized as a key component of healthy diets, there is still a lack of consensus on how to measure and operationalize it. This paper focuses on the issues of dietary diversity in developing countries. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper uses data from national household expenditure surveys to explore whether food insecurity is more severe in South Asia or Sub-Saharan Africa. It employs two indicators of the diet quantity dimension of food insecurity, or the inability ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Recent research has shown that improving women’s decisionmaking power relative to men’s within households leads to improvements in a variety of well-being outcomes for children. In South Asia, where the influence of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This document summarizes 24 months of extensive research by the International Food Policy Research Institute designed to evaluate whether PROGRESA has been successful at achieving its goals. The evaluation analyzes what has been the impact of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    There have been intensive debates on the role of aid in promoting economic development in developing countries by using cross-country analyses. Cross-country regression assuming linear relationship between aid and growth and without taking into ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Are public transfers targeted toward children largely neutralized by the household, as the theory of altruism implies, or is there an intrahousehold “flypaper effect” whereby such transfers “stick” to the child? This paper ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Strategies for boosting the agricultural economies of developing countries usually focus on small farms, attempting, for example, to link smallholders with markets through production chain development. However, such strategies often fail to ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of Japan’s agricultural domestic policy since 1995 in the context of the current international negotiations in the WTO Doha Round, which has as one aim further reductions of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Water management in the Pirapama River Basin in northeastern Brazil is affected by both water quantity and water quality constraints. The region is known for significant sugarcane-based ethanol production—which is key to the Brazilian economy and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    La biotecnología agropecuaria ha demostrado tener amplio potencial para ayudar a mejorar la eficiencia de la agricultura, el crecimiento económico y las políticas dirigidas a combatir a la pobreza, tanto en América Latina como en el resto del ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The authors use individual observations from a panel of families during the period of the peso crisis in Mexico to investigate whether and how labor market shocks, as proxied by changes in the gender- and age-specific unemployment rates in the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper develops a theoretical model of land leasing that includes transaction costs of enforcing labor effort, risk pooling motives and non-tradable productive inputs. We test the implications of this model compared to those of the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    There is widespread agreement on the need for land reform in Zimbabwe as a means of reducing poverty. This paper assesses the potential consequences of a land-reform scheme that draws on proposals from Zimbabwe’s government in 1998 and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The tax and subsidy system in Egypt in 1986-88 was very distorted, involving large, sectorally variegated, output taxes and subsidies. In agriculture, there were also major input subsidies and no charges for water. In this paper, an ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “El presente reporte tiene como objetivo principal identificar dinámicas institucionales que permitan aumentar la efectividad de las políticas científicas, tecnológicas y de innovación agrícolas en países en desarrollo. La gran mayoría de ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In this paper, the impact of alternative development strategies on growth and poverty is assessed in an economywide framework, using Egypt as a case study. The analysis is guided by the following question: By pursuing a development strategy ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Au bout d’une décennie de Nouvelle Politique Agricole, l’économie arachidière se trouve dans une situation de morosité sans précédent. Et comme l’a bien reconnu le rapport du Groupe de Reflexion Stratégique, qui a été mis sur ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This study investigates the impacts of rural poverty on farmers’ land management decisions, crop production and incomes, based upon analysis of data from the 1999/2000 Uganda National Household Survey. We find that the impacts of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Food supply chains are being transformed in a number of developing countries due to widespread changes in urban food demand. To better anticipate the impact of this transformation and thus assist in the design of appropriate policies, it is ...
  • Discussion Papers
    With high population density and limited land availability, Vietnam’s Red River Delta is undergoing a major transformation as its economic base moves away from subsistence farming towards intensive, high-value food production for export and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “”This paper uses longitudinal data from 15 villages in rural Ethiopia to explore the nature and consequences of these links. It addresses the following questions: (1) What are the links between rural households and local urban ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study analyses seven factors used to explain the conversion of forest to pasture in Central America between 1979 and 1994: 1) favorable markets for livestock products, 2) subsidized credit and road construction, 3) land tenure policies, 4) ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper uses income decomposition techniques to demonstrate the importance of livestock income in improving rural income distribution. It is based on three-year household panel data (1986 to 1989) from rural Pakistan. The paper first ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This essay describes the views of Philippines livestock sector stakeholders concerning the events and issues associated with the rapid rise in hog and poultry production, based on rapid reconnaissance interviews and gray literature from studies ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “With urban dwellers purchasing 80 percent or more of their food, understanding urban employment is critical to designing policies and programs to address urban hunger and poverty. Reviewing the literature, but also using data from ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In developing countries, identifying the most effective community-level governance structure is a key issue and, increasingly, empirical evaluation of the effects of democratization on the provision of local public goods is needed. Since the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper takes a local perspective on global food price shocks by analyzing food price transmission between regional markets in Ghana. It also assesses the impacts of differential local food price increases on various household groups. Taking ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The sustainability of natural resource management depends not only on appropriate technology and prices, but also upon the institutions involved in resource management at the local level. This discussion paper aims to identify factors which ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper examines how political institutions and local power structures interact with and influence local public resource allocation in the Indian state of Karnataka. We use data from 80 village councils and 225 villages to examine how this ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “In the subsistence-oriented, semi-arid production systems of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, India, the environment is marginal for crop growth and often there is no substitute for millet crops. Across communities, farmers grow thirteen ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Changes in India’s seed regulations during the 1990s favored the growth of privately- as compared to publicly-funded sectors. Most advances have been made in the major millet crops, sorghum and pearl millet, as compared to finger ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This paper examines the impact of preschool malnutrition on subsequent human capital formation in rural Zimbabwe using a maternal fixed effects-instrumental variables (MFE-IV) estimator with a long-term panel data set. Representations of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “As a result of Zambia’s dependence on copper mining, both the falling world copper price and the possible withdrawal of investment from the mining sector might seriously threaten economic growth and stability. Accordingly, the impact ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Using a Computable General Equilibrium model for Egypt based on data for 1991/92, this paper analyzes the short-run impact of removing price-distorting subsidies for oil products sold domestically and for commodities covered by the consumer ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Trade liberalization in the early 1990s in Bangladesh has enabled the private sector to respond with market-stabilizing inflows of rice and wheat following major production shortfalls. At the same time, easing of restrictions on foreign ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper describes, in quantitative terms, the macroeconomic adjustments effectively implemented and accompanying agricultural and overall economic performance, particularly since 1980, in four low-income countries in Southern Africa, namely, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Using a CGE (computable general equilibrium) model for Zimbabwe with 1991 as base period, this paper examines quantitatively the income and equity effects of macroeconomic reform measures in isolation and in conjunction with potentially ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Assessment of the welfare impacts of low-frequency events, such as macroeconomic crises and stabilizations, are often confounded by sampling and nonsampling errors that generate fluctuations in household survey-based welfare indicators; they are ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This synthesis revisits the “maize success story” in Sub-Saharan Africa, drawing selectively from an extensive published literature about maize seed technical change and related policies. The review focuses on the countries of Kenya, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Despite the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement, which brought to an end 20 years of civil war in the Sudan, this country continues to experience smaller-scale conflicts, particularly around access to and control of natural resources. Some ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Drought is a recurrent and often devastating threat to the welfare of countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) where three-quarters of the arable land has less than 400 mm of annual rainfall, and the natural grazings, which support a ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This study examines the impact of alternative price stabilization policies for edible oils and oilseeds in India on the farmers growing oilseeds, the consumers of edible oils and the processing sector with the help of a multi market ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper analyzes the vulnerability of South African farmers to climate change and variability by developing a vulnerability index and comparing vulnerability indicators across the nine provinces of the country. Nineteen environmental and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This study analyzes work, childcare arrangements, and earnings of mothers in the poor neighborhoods of Guatemala City and Greater Accra, Ghana, two urban areas where formal- and informal-sector work differ in importance. Unlike previous ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In Malawi, maize is the major crop and food staple. Given limited off-farm employment opportunities, much-needed increases in household income for improving food security must come from gains in agricultural productivity through better technology ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper seeks to understand how market imperfections affect the behavior of consumers in China’s rural economy. A theoretical and empirical model is developed and estimated using a household-level data from six counties in Hebei ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study analyzes how market imperfections affect land productivity in a degraded low-potential cereal- livestock economy in the Ethiopian highlands. A wide array of variables is used to control for land quality in the analysis. Results of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper examines how market institutions can affect links between urban and rural areas with specific emphasis on goods market integration in the national context.Traditionally, development researchers and practitioners have focused either on ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Rapid growth in the agricultural sector is central to any strategy for slashing poverty and hunger on the African continent. Yet investments aimed at increasing agricultural productivity need to be linked to market opportunities if they ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The paper describes the spectacular growth of rice exports from Viet Nam during the period 1989 to 1997. From a situation of food shortages, the country is now the second largest rice exporter after Thailand. Export projections indicate that ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Improvements in agricultural productivity and reductions in marketing costs in Mozambique are analysed using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. The model incorporates detailed marketing margins and separates household demand for ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The response of local markets to sectoral and macroeconomic policy changes is a key determinant of the long term impact of policy reforms on reforming economies. In other words, changes in arbitrage costs that are associated with policy reforms ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Modern crop production is based on only a few plant species. Particularly in marginal environments of developing agricultural economies, many less well-known agricultural or non-timber forest species, continue to be grown, managed or ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper examines the effect of AIDS-related mortality of the prime age adult population on marriage behavior among women in Malawi. A rise in prime-age adult mortality increases risks associated with the search for a marriage partner in the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The institution of marriage plays some role in determining one’s risk of exposure to HIV. Since the transmission of HIV in the population is mainly through sexual activity, avoiding infection depends on risk-avoiding behavior. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The rapidly changing nature of the global food and agriculture system suggests the need to rethink how innovation can contribute to developing-country agriculture. While scientific and technological changes in agriculture can help foster ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Parallel to the growing attention being devoted to the relationship between empowerment and development, an increasing number of tools are being developed to measure empowerment and determine the link between these two phenomena. This paper ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper examines a subjective measure of child labor as an alternative to hours data for eliciting the distribution of children’s time between work, school, and leisure. The subjective child labor questions that were developed have two primary ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Defining and interpreting food security, and measuring it in reliable, valid and cost-effective ways, have proven to be stubborn problems facing researchers and programs intended to monitor food security risks. This paper briefly reviews the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper focuses on dynamics within couples, although the authors recognize that dynamics among extended family members and across generations are of substantial interest. Decisions about resource allocations, control over economic resources, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The purpose of this paper is to provide a research approach and a set of different quantitative techniques for analysis of questions related to agricultural input market reforms. The broad objective of the Multi Country Project 1 (MP 1) ...
  • Discussion Papers
    It has been long hypothesized that lack of access to credit is the main reason why, despite higher profitability of High Yielding Varieties (HYVs), farmers in developing countries continue to allocate a portion of their land to traditional crop ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Adaptation to climate change involves changes in agricultural management practices in response to changes in climate conditions. It often involves a combination of various individual responses at the farm-level and assumes that farmers have ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper discusses the potential long-term effects of micronutrient malnutrition in early childhood on obesity and related disease outcomes. The links between early micronutrient malnutrition, stunting, and subsequent short adult stature - ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper uses data envelopment analysis and new data from Burkina Faso to test the impact of intercontinental and continental migration on technical efficiency in the production of two cereals-millet and sorghum-by rural households. Econometric ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper explores the diversity of the experience of migrants to rural, peri-urban, and urban areas using a unique longitudinal data set from the Philippines. In 2003 and 2004, the Bukidnon Panel Study followed up with 448 families in rural ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper applies Gini and concentration coefficient decomposition as well as the Foster-Greer-Thorbecke poverty index and a welfare function to new data from Burkina Faso to test the relationship between long-distance international migration ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The effects of trade on women vary by socio-economic characteristics, sector and country. This paper assesses how well such effects can be captured by a gendered social accounting matrix (SAM) and computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. These ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The worsening degradation of natural resources urgently requires the adoption of more sustainable management practices. This need has led to growing interest and investment in monitoring systems for tracking the condition of natural resources. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    A tremendous increase in the number of orphans associated with a sharp rise in prime-age adult mortality due to AIDS has become a serious problem in Sub-Saharan Africa. In fact, more than 30 percent of school-aged children have lost at least one ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The approach of this study is to examine the effects of household asset ownership patterns on the morbidity status of male and female preschoolers, measured as the number of illness days in the two weeks preceding the household survey.Section 2 ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “For a number of reasons, progress in improving child feeding practices in the developing world has been remarkably slow. First, complementary feeding practices encompass a number of interrelated behaviors that need to be addressed ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Do the countries which grow share the same features as those which decline? How can some countries achieve such long-term sustainable growth while others fail so badly? This paper builds on the emerging literature on growth asymmetries by ...
  • Discussion Papers
    A growing body of evidence suggests that conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs can have strong, positive effects on a range of welfare indicators for poor households in developing countries. However, the contribution of individual program ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The study attempts to measure the total benefits from rice varietal improvement research in China and India using variety adoption and performance data over the last two decades. It then uses genetic or pedigree information to partition the total ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The objective of this study is to simulate the effect of population pressure, market integration, technological improvement and policy decisions on natural resource management in the hillsides of Honduras. To do so, we developed a bioeconomic ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Natural disasters can be extremely disruptive to farmers and to others whose incomes depend on a successful crop. Society can gain from more efficient sharing of crop and natural disaster risks. However, the costs associated with traditional ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This paper describes the dramatic cassava transformation that has taken place in Nigeria and Ghana over the past 50 years. From a rural subsistence crop, cassava has become a major cash crop sold in urban markets, a source of livestock ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Upon arrival in a new location, migrants collect information from a variety of sources: their own resources, job postings, and informal networks of friends and neighbors, including those who have moved to the destination from the same place of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Since the late 1970s dramatic economic changes have taken place in the agricultural sector in the highlands of Guatemala. The introduction of new export crops, such as snow peas, broccoli, and miniature vegetables, has led to yet another ...
  • Discussion Papers
    As a result of the Uruguay round, Norway was committed to reducing its domestic support for agriculture, in particular its aggregate measurement of support (AMS), which was to be reduced by 20 percent. We show that Norway has complied with its ...
  • Discussion Papers
    For effective decisionmaking, policymakers and program managers often need detailed information about the welfare of the population, including knowledge about which specific areas are most affected by poverty and undernutrition. Household sample ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Using survey data on traders and brokers in the Ethiopian foodgrain market, this paper reveals that the brokerage institution is critical to market performance in that it enables traders to circumvent the commitment problem of long-distance trade ...
  • Discussion Papers
    An important component of the current debate about agriculture trade negotiations is whether further liberalization of trade and agricultural policies may help or hinder food security in WTO member countries. These concerns were formulated first, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This paper presents an empirical case study about farmer management of rice genetic resources in two communities of Nepal, drawing on interdisciplinary, participatory research that involved farmers, rice geneticists, and social scientists. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Two empirical regularities in the beef-cattle sector have been observed for a long time. First, the time-series for cattle stock exhibits strong cyclicity with a period of several years. Second, beef supply seesms to be negatively related to ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The paper shows how the so-called distributional characteristic of a policy instrument can be additively decomposed into two components; one that captures the targeting efficiency of the instrument, the other its redistributive efficiency. Using ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Agricultural development policies and programs, including extension and support for innovation, implicitly assume that the whole target population has the ability to innovate. Recent research in neuroscience, education, social sciences and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This article analyzes the on-site and off-site economic impacts of various sustainable land management (SLM) practices in Kenya. Long-term trial data are used to establish the relationship between SLM practices and maize yield. The analysis of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    For the past two decades, Bangladesh has enjoyed steady growth in per capita incomes enabling a significant reduction in poverty. An increase in rice productivity, achieved through a combination of improved seeds, increased fertilizer use, and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The determinants of local organizational density and the impacts of local and external organizations on collective and private natural resource management decisions are investigated based on a survey of 48 villages in central Honduras. Factors ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “A vast literature has accumulated since crop varieties with transgenic resistance to insects and herbicide tolerance were released to farmers in 1996 and 1997. A comparatively minor segment of this literature consists of studies conducted ...
  • Discussion Papers
    We introduce a maximum entropy approach to parameter estimation for computable general equilibrium (CGE) models. The approach applies information theory to estimating a system of nonlinear simultaneous equations. It has a number of advantages. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper examines the relationship between community participation and the efficacy of interventions designed to reduce poverty. We develop some simple analytics that are used to structure a review of the extant literature and motivate the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Using survey data from the Upper East region of Ghana collected in 2005, the paper evaluates the household- and community-level factors influencing women’s and men’s decisions to participate in off-farm activities, either in the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “In the early 1990s, Thailand launched an ambitious program of decentralized governance, conferring greater responsibilities upon sub-district administrations and providing fiscal opportunities for local development planning. This process ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study develops an analytical framework to account for sources of rapid economic growth in China. The traditional Solow approach includes only two sources, i.e. increased use of inputs and technical change. We expanded the approach to include ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Based on a survey of 48 communities in central Honduras, this paper identifies the major pathways of development that have been occurring in central Honduras since the mid-1970s, their causes and implications for agricultural productivity, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper is based on community-level data from 188 villages in rural Madagascar. The survey that was conducted in 1997 made extensive use of long-term recall questions ascertaining changes during the past 10 years in rice yields, wages, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper looks at how Philippine trade reform which consists of tariff reduction and elimination of quantitative restrictions (QR) on rice imports will affect poverty within two world trade scenarios: Doha and free world trade. The impact of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Bangladesh has witnessed major strides in providing financial services to the rural poor. These services are provided largely through innovative group-based credit programs of several nongovernmental organizations. The implicit but widespread ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Because trace minerals are important not only for human nutrition, but for plant nutrition as well, plant breeding holds great promise for making a significant low-cost and sustainable contribution to reducing micronutrient deficiencies in ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Local farming communities throughout the world face binding productivity constraints, diverse nutritional needs, environmental concerns, and significant economic and financial pressures. Developing countries address these challenges in different ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Markets for non-timber tree products (NTTPs) are widely viewed with great promise because of their potential for achieving a range of development objectives. Markets can, of course, be influenced by policy, but in order to do so, market ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The paper examines the impact of industrial protection, agricultural export taxes, and overvaluation of the exchange rate on the balance between the agricultural and non-agricultural sectors. A variety of agricultural terms-of-trade indices are ...
  • Discussion Papers
    High production and export subsidies in developed countries and high protection in both developed and developing countries have distorted rice trade. This study estimates the impact of rice policy distortions on developing countries’ rice ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study evaluates the potential impact of the recent rise in world food prices on the Moroccan economy and possible policy options to respond to it. The study focuses mainly on the poverty effects of such an external shock and the possible ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This study was conducted with the main objective of determining the linkages between poverty and land management practices in Uganda. The study used the 2002/03 Uganda National Household Survey (UNHS) and more focused data collected from a ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Concerns about harmful environmental impacts are frequently raised in research and policy debates about population growth in the hills and mountains of developing countries. Although establishing wildlife corridors and biosphere reserves is ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study uses aerial photographs and survey data from sixty four parishes in east-central Uganda to identify the factors affecting conversion of woodlands and traditional grazing areas to agriculture. Regression analysis shows that customary ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper uses cross section-time series data on 57 communities in Malawi to determine statistically the factors determining changes in land use, tree cover, and crop yield. The econometric model is developed from a theoretical model which also ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture attempted to lower distortions in the global agricultural markets. However, the significant fall in commodity prices in late 1990s may have reduced the incentives for both developed and developing ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “The objective of measuring poverty is usually to make comparisons over time or between two or more groups. Common statistical inference methods are used to determine whether an apparent difference in measured poverty is statistically ...
  • Discussion Papers
    A complete and updated series on poverty measures for India is presented spanning the period 1951-1994. The series are presented at the all-India level as well as for 15 major states, and for rural and urban sectors separately. Key features of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This paper presents the poverty analysis of the 1997 98 Malawi Integrated Household Survey. The analysis developed basic needs poverty lines, using consumption-based measures of welfare to classify households and individuals as poor and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Spatially disaggregated maps of the incidence of poverty can be constructed by combining household survey data and census data. In some cases, however, statistical authorities are reluctant, for reasons of confidentiality, to release ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Typical living standards surveys can provide a wealth of information about welfare levels, poverty, and other household and individual characteristics. However, these estimates are necessarily at a high level of aggregation, because such ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This report provides an evaluation of the community-level effects of the Programa Nacional de Educacion, Salud, y Alimentacion (PROGRESA) using household-level data from various rounds of PROGRESA’s evaluation sample (the Encuesta de ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The development of effective and sustainable economic policies for Tanzania requires access to appropriate databases. One such database is a social accounting matrix (SAM) that details the structure of the entire economy, taking into account the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper examines the role of price incentives in the observed decline in cotton production during the 1980s and in the apparent improvement in recent years. The following determinants (in an accounting sense) of the changes in the relative ...
  • Discussion Papers
    We identify a set of development priorities for agriculture that cut across West Africa, at both the country and the regional level, to achieve economy-wide growth goals in the region. To do this, we adopt a modeling and analytical framework that ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In many developing countries, governments rely on price-based measures (including border protection and subsidies on inputs and outputs) more than on budgetary payments to achieve agricultural policy objectives defined to include price ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The adoption of more efficient farming practices and technologies that enhance agricultural productivity and improve environmental sustainability is instrumental for achieving economic growth, food security and poverty alleviation in sub-Saharan ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In recent years, Brazil has become a considerable player in agricultural markets for a number of commodities. Such agricultural growth in Brazil has largely been the result of gains in productivity over the last several decades. Still, there ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Using data that enables us to distinguish between the different components of program participation (i.e., knowledge, application, and acceptance), we investigate the determinants of household behavior and program implementation in a social ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Feeding practices are an important determinant of the nutritional status of infants and children. It is therefore useful to measure and describe infant and child feeding practices in a number of contexts. Such measurements could enable (1) ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The period of 1994 to 2004 was one in which rural households in Peru experienced dramatic changes in ownership rights through a large nation-wide land titling program and a significant opening of the economy to international trade. This paper ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper studies liberalized grain markets in Madagascar and examines how property rights are protected and contracts are enforced among agricultural traders. We find that the incidence of theft and breach of contract is low and that the losses ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Zambia is one of the poorest countries in Africa. Despite substantial reform during the 1990s, the economy has remained heavily dependent on urban-based mining. Copper’s long-standing dominance led to a strong bias against ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Using Tanzania as a test case, this study demonstrates how household survey data can be used to assess the impacts of public investments on growth and poverty. A two step procedure is used. First, household survey data are used to link ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper develops a method for decomposing the contributions of various types of public investment on regional inequality and applies the method to rural China. Public investments are found to have contributed to production growth in both the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This paper studies the relevance of agricultural policies for avoiding Dutch Disease, which affects many less developed countries experiencing a resource boom. Using a computable general equilibrium model calibrated for Chad, we study the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Flooding is a normal part of the ecology of Bangladesh. The 1998 flood was especially serious because of its depth and duration. At its peak, the flood covered two-thirds of the country, causing severe damage to the rice crop and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    For poor countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, poverty reduction usually requires a combination of well-distributed economic growth and increased investment in human capital, especially among the poor. Two key areas for such investment are education ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study is part of a collaborative project between the International Food Policy Research Institute and the Arab Planning Institute in Kuwait on public policy and poverty reduction in the Arab region. The purpose of this paper is to assess ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The objective of this paper is to review trends in government expenditures in the developing world, to analyze the causes of change, and to develop an analytical framework for determining the differential impacts of various government ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Public-private partnerships have become increasingly important as an arrangement that serves to encourage innovation in agricultural production chains in Latin America. However, some observers have expressed concern that this institutional ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Public-private partnerships offer potentially important opportunities for pro-poor agricultural research in developing countries. Yet in the international agricultural research community-and with regard to the Consultative Group on ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Plant transformation research has achieved outstanding progress in the development of transgenic crops over the past decades, and the research results have been spread through journal publications and patents. With the recent emergence of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The role of school quality in determining educational outcomes has received much research attention in the United States. However, in developing countries, where a significant part of the school age population never attends school, policymakers ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In this research, the quality of foreign japonica rices was evaluated in terms of prices relative to Japanese domestic retail prices. Then, retail prices, consumer benefit, and competitiveness among the foreign rices in the Japanese market were ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Fiscal federalism has been argued to intensify regional competition and promote economic growth. This paper is the first, to our knowledge, to empirically assess the patterns and extent of strategic tax competition between geographically ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This paper examines dynamic changes in educational quality and equity differences in the public school system between Black and other racial groups in post-apartheid South Africa, using the ratio of learners to educators in each school, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Few policies are as universally accepted as raising primary school enrolment in developing countries, but the policy levers for achieving this goal are not straight forward. This paper merges household survey data with detailed school supply ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The diversity of urban areas presents substantial challenges to the validity of information from rapid assessments, yet CARE’s experiences in Bangladesh and Tanzania suggest a number of ways that rapid assessment procedures can be ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Using district-level data on public expenditures from 2000 to 2006, and household-level production data from the 2005/06 Ghana Living Standards Survey, this paper estimates the returns to different types of public investments across four ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The civil war in Sierra Leone, caused by a mix of political, social, and economic factors, had a huge impact on the overall economy in general and on the performance of the agricultural sector in particular. The agricultural research system of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper presents an approach to reconciling household surveys and national accounts data that starts from the assumption that the macro data represent control totals to which the household data must be reconciled. The economic data gathered in ...
  • Discussion Papers
    How rapidly will child undernutrition respond to income growth? This study explores that question using household survey data from 12 countries. In addition, data on the undernutrition rates since the 1970s available from a cross-section of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In order to realize agricultural potential and to increase agricultural yields, India’s extension system has experienced major conceptual, structural, and institutional changes since the late 1990s. This paper reviews existing reform ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Increasing water scarcity, rising costs of irrigation subsidies, and general economic liberalization are creating strong incentives for comprehensive water reform with establishment of tradable water rights and the development of markets in these ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Many developing countries are currently in the process of designing regulatory systems that should allow them to use genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for agricultural development, while also managing the food safety and environmental risks ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The development pattern in Ghana is characterised by a north-south divide in which the north lags far behind the south. This paper sets out to identify avenues for pro-poor growth in Ghana, focussing on agricultural opportunities, particularly in ...
  • Discussion Papers
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper documents the role that personal relationships play in economic exchange. Original survey data show that agricultural traders in Madagascar perceive relationships as the most important factor for success in their business.Evidence ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper examines the direct, first-rounds impact of two types of remittances-internal and external remittances-on income distribution and asset accumulation in rural Pakistan. Using income decomposition techniques on a three-year panel ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper analyzes the repayment rates of credit groups belonging to three group-based credit programs in Bangladesh: the Association for Social Advancement (ASA), the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC), and the Rangpur Dinajpur Rural ...
  • Discussion Papers
    A total of 294 studies of returns to agricultural R&D (including extension) were compiled and these studies provide 1,858 separate estimates of rates of return. This includes some extreme values, which are implausible. When the highest and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Over the past several decades, China has made tremendous progress in market integration and infrastructure development. Demand for natural resources has increased from the booming coastal economies, causing the terms of trade to favor the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    It has been argued in the literature that China is underurbanized in large part because of restrictions on migration. While the presence of migration barriers can help explain why existing cities fail to achieve their optimal size, it cannot ...
  • Discussion Papers
    HIV/AIDS is a slow-moving, devastating shock that kills the most productive members of society, increases household dependency ratios, reduces household productivity and caring capacity, and impairs the intergenerational transfer of knowledge. It ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Using data on agricultural traders in Madagascar, this paper shows that social capital has a large effect on efficiency. Better connected traders are shown to have significantly larger sales and gross margins than less connected traders after ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Viet Nam has undergone a profound transformation in recent years and, as a result of a series of macroeconomic and institutional reforms since 1986, it has made substantial progress toward becoming a market economy. As this transition continues, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper presents an agriculture-focused computable general equilibrium model that can be used to analyze the economy-wide impacts of changes in technology, market structure, and the foreign exchange rate on resource allocation, production, and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper presents an agriculture sector focused Computable General Equilibrium (AG-CGE) model for analyzing the economy-wide impacts of changes in technology, protection, and market structure on resource allocation, production, and trade in ...
  • Discussion Papers
    To meet its overall objective of ensuring food security for all households, the Government of Bangladesh undertakes several activities: it intervenes in markets to stabilize prices, targets food distribution to poor households and provides ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This case study builds on an ongoing large-scale quantitative research project undertaken by BIDS/IRRI since 1987 originally in 64 unions from 57 districts of the country. It adds a qualitative research component to examine the impact of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Rice is the lifeline of almost 70% of the world’s poor residing in Asia, where more than 90% of world rice production and consumption takes place. Rice trade liberalization therefore has tremendous implications for poverty. The world rice ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Compared to both Canada and the United States, Australia has been slow to approve commercial planting of transgenic crops. Two probable reasons exist for the slow approval rate of transgenic crops in Australia. The first reason is community ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Production systems in low-income developing countries are generally poorly diversified, focusing on rainfed staple crop production and raising livestock. These activities are inherently risky and investment and production decisions by farm ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper uses panel data from Bangladesh, Ethiopia, and Malawi to examine the impacts of natural disasters on schooling investments, with a particular focus on the roles of ex-ante actions and ex-post responses. We find that the importance of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Since 1985, the Chinese government has given high priority to building roads, particularly high-quality roads that connect industrial centers. This report evaluates the contribution roads have made to poverty reduction and economic growth in ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Recent attempts to quantify the sources of growth in Chinese agriculture have attributed an exceptionally large share of this growth to the contemporary institutional and market reforms within China. To analyze this important issue we use a newly ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Using time series data, this paper analyses the relative contributions of terms of trade and non-price variables in explaining agricultural growth in recent decades in India. Agricultural growth is largely explained by expansion of irrigation, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Like many developing countries, China and India followed development strategies biased in favor of the urban sector over the last several decades. These development schemes have led to overall efficiency losses due to misallocation of resources ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In this study, an economywide model focused on Morocco’s rural economy is used as a laboratory for analyzing issues at the core of such a rural development strategy.The model is used to explore the effects of alternative scenarios for water ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Farm-level diversification, the adoption of alternative income-generating activities by farm households, is rarely deemed an explicit objective by economists. Where agricultural transformation has occurred, markets function well and agriculture ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The objective of IFPRI’s multicountry research program on rural financial policies for food security of the poor is to identify policies and institutional arrangements that help the poor integrate themselves into sustainable savings and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This report addresses the impact of rising smallholder incomes on local non-agricultural development in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. It determines how increased rural incomes are spent on a mix of goods and services, and debates the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Agriculture in Ethiopia is changing. New players, relationships, and policies are influencing how smallholders access and use information and knowledge. Although this growing complexity suggests opportunities for Ethiopian smallholders, too ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Kenya’s economy is relatively diverse, with both agricultural and industrial potential. However, the economy has performed poorly over the last decade, and poverty and inequality have risen. This paper examines the impact of alternative ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Continued industrialization in China and increase in its agricultural productivity imply that surplus rural workers will to be attracted into non-agricultural production activities and, consequently, will have the opportunity to increase their ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The dynamic rural nonfarm sector in China has been a major contributor to the country’s remarkable growth, while in India the growth in output and employment in this sector has been rather stagnant. The paper argues that the observed ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper reviews hypotheses about the impacts of rural population growth on agriculture and natural resource management in developing countries and the implications for productivity, poverty, and natural resource conditions. Impacts on ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “While many community-driven development (CDD) initiatives may be successful, their impact is often limited by their small scale. Building on past and ongoing work on CDD, this study addresses the fundamental question: how can CDD ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This paper discusses enabling and constraining factors related to the scaling-up of the Scaling Up HIV/AIDS Interventions Through Expanded Partnerships (STEPs) initiative, supported by Save the Children U.S.A.(SC), to combat HIV/AIDS in ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This paper discusses the factors that enabled and constrained the scaling up of a multisectoral poverty alleviation program called Kudumbashree, initiated by the government of Kerala (GOK), India, in 1998 to eradicate poverty by 2008. It ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper analyzes two potential trade liberalization scenarios - a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) and possible links between MERCOSUR and the European Union (EU) - in a world computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. The model also ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper assesses how the Programa Nacional de Educacion, Salud, y Alimentacion (PROGRESA) program has affected the school enrollment of Mexican youth in the first 15 months of its operation. PROGRESA provides poor mothers in poor rural ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “We examine access to, use of, and participation in decisions on improved water supply in the Volta basin of Ghana, one of the first countries to introduce a community-based approach to rural water supply on a large scale. While 71 percent ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Since the early 1990s, Uganda has been one of Africa’s fastest growing countries. However, at the sub-national level, growth has been uneven due to civil conflict in the northern region. Using a panel of household and community level ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Over the last two decades, several seed-related programs have been initiated in eastern Kenya to improve farmers’ access to quality seeds of dryland cereals and legumes. They are provided during two occasions, regular and emergency times. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper reviews the structure and performance of the sorghum and millet seed sector in Mali. The Sahel is the origin of pearl millet and sorghum, seed selection and management of these crops is embedded in local cultures, and most producers of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This paper analyzes an ongoing effort by national, regional, and international partners to raise awareness, promote dialogue, and catalyze consensus-building mechanisms among stakeholder groups on the role of biotechnology in agricultural ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This study, which examines the role of public-private partnerships in international agricultural research, is intended to provide policymakers, research managers, and business decisionmakers with an understanding of how such partnerships ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper uses household survey panel data of 416 rural households to study livestock asset dynamics in the north-east of Ethiopia. The period under examination (1996-2003) was marked by severe environmental shocks, including a series of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Droughts, hurricanes and other environmental shocks punctuate the lives of poor and vulnerable populations in many parts of the world. The direct impacts can be horrific, but what are the longer-term effects of such shocks on households and their ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Developing countries have to allocate limited government resources for rural areas among different investment activities and regions to achieve the twin goals of productivity growth and poverty alleviation. This is particularly important at a ...
  • Discussion Papers
    La innovación es de suma importancia para el desarrollo productivo en la agricultura Boliviana, por tratarse de un sector caracterizado por bajos niveles de innovación en cuanto a la incorporación de nueva tecnología y conocimiento en los ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Much of the debate over whether or not developing countries gain from regional trade agreements (RTA’s) has focused on two characteristics that are common to developing countries: their relatively high tariffs and their high trade ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Recently scientists have started to examine how land-uses and land-use technologies can help mitigate carbon emissions. The half million small-scale farmers inhabiting the Amazon frontier sequester large stocks of carbon in their forests and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In contrast to uniformly pessimistic assessments about Sub-Saharan Africa’s (hereafter Africa) ability to meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), this paper examines recent trends in poverty, malnutrition, and growth to delineate ...
  • Discussion Papers
    It is argued that dairying is vital to future viability of many small farms in East Africa and that high transactions costs for dairy production and marketing limit participation by asset- and information-poor smallholders. Case studies from ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper examines the impact of cooperatives on smallholder commercialization of cereals, using detailed household data from rural Ethiopia. We review the involvement of cooperatives, in terms of who participates and where they are located. We ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This working paper documents the construction of the 1994 and 1995 Mozambican social accounting matrices (SAMs). The aggregate macro-SAM is called MACSAM, and the disaggregated version is MOZAM. With 13 agricultural and two agricultural ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper documents the construction of social accounting matrices (SAMs) for Vietnam for 1996 and 1997. The data sources used to construct the SAMs include national accounts statistics, government budget data, the official 1996 input-output ...
  • Discussion Papers
    South African households live in an environment characterized by risks, and many face a significant probability of experiencing economic losses that threaten their daily subsistence. Using household panel data that include directly solicited ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The goal of this paper is to determine the nature of the causal relationship between “social capital,” as measured by household membership in formal and informal groups and household welfare in South Africa. Using a recently collected ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper explores the idea of how wealth is distributed across social groups (ethnic or language groups, gender, etc.) and how such distribution fundamentally affects the evolution of economic inequality. By providing microfoundations suitable ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This paper empirically identifies social learning and neighborhood effects in schooling investments in a new technology regime. The estimates of learning-investment rule from farm household panel data at the onset of the Green Revolution ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Using detailed data from rural Pakistan, this paper investigates whether human capital, learning by doing, gender, and one’s status within the family affect the division of labor within households. Results suggest the presence of returns to ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Urban-rural comparisons of childhood undernutrition suggest that urban populations are better-off than rural populations. However, these comparisons could mask the large differentials that exist among socioeconomic groups in urban areas. Data ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This review of recent literature explores the challenges to urban food and nutrition security in the rapidly urbanizing developing world. The premise of the manuscript is that the causes of malnutrition and food insecurity in urban and rural ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This study examines the sources of crop income growth in Indian agriculture over the 1980s and 1990s. Using a method developed by Minot (2003), the analysis decomposes crop income growth into the contribution of yield increases, area ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper analyzes the wheat market in South America, with a focus on MERCOSUR. It argues that wheat markets in South America have undergone significant changes over the last decade, driven by the world macroeconomic and agricultural cycle of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    A biotechnology revolution is proceeding in tandem with international proliferation of intellectual property regimes and rights. Does the intellectual property impede agricultural research conducted in, or of consequence for, developing ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Many of the countries in the Southern Africa region have very sketchy trade data, due to disruptions in data collection (caused by war in the case of Mozambique and sanctions-induced secrecy in South Africa, for instance) or weak statistical ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Because the conditions for agricultural development vary considerably across space, we need to develop methods that allow us to take such variability into account when evaluating development strategies for particular crops or farming ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Two increasingly shared perspectives within the international development community are that (a) geography matters, and (b) many government interventions would be more successful if they were better targeted. This paper unites these two notions ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper examines dynamics in public good accessibility and cross-community inequality in Indonesia, using village-level panel data from 2000 to 2006 from their decentralized public-good allocation system. The introduction of decentralization ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Using weekly price data for two sub-periods, this paper analyzes how Ugandan maize market performed in the years following agricultural market liberalization in the early 1990’s. For each time period, the extent of integration, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The spatial dimension of economic policy is often important. However, as opposed to partial-equilibrium multi-region programming models, existing multi-region Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) models have rarely explicitly treated geographical ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “From a theoretical perspective crop yields should tend to converge over time and space as: growth in yield potential exhibits diminishing returns; an increasing share of farmers shift to using high yielding varieties (HYVs); barriers to ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “The rural nonfarm economy (RNFE) accounts for roughly 25 percent of full-time rural employment and 35-40 percent of rural incomes across the developing world. This diverse collection of seasonal trading, household-based and large-scale ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Low agricultural productivity, land degradation and poverty are severe interrelated problems in the East African highlands. While the proximate causes of such problems are relatively well known, the underlying causes are many and complex, and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper investigates the impacts of population growth, market access, agricultural credit and technical assistance programs, land policies, livelihood strategies and other factors on changes in land management, natural resource conditions and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper examines the role of postsecondary agricultural education and training (AET) in Sub-Saharan Africa in the context of the region’s agricultural innovation systems. Specifically, the paper looks at how AET in Sub-Saharan Africa can ...
  • Discussion Papers
    A major premise of this paper is that the failure-or limited achievements-of many large-scale nutrition programs is very often a function of insufficient sustainable capacities within communities and organizations responsible for implementing ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The Asian financial crisis led to a major devaluation of the Indonesian exchange rate, macro instability, and the need for a “structural adjustment” program. The real devaluation affects prices throughout the economy and has a major ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Pig production in the Philippines has intensified in the urban and peri-urban areas in response to a radical structural change in the pig industry and a growing demand for pork products. Alongside this rapid growth is the emergence of societal ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This paper explores the global prevalence of an emerging phenomenon: the coexistence of a stunted child and an overweight mother in the same household. It also tests whether this phenomenon is associated with a country’s level of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Using primary data from a survey of expert opinion, this paper identifies key successes emerging in African agriculture. Among these, major commodity-specific successes identified include breakthroughs in maize breeding across Africa, sustained ...
  • Discussion Papers
    For more than two decades, the United States has been an important player in a global partnership for agricultural research through its investments in the work of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), a network of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Very limited empirical analyses are done on evaluating how changes in the retail environment affect diet and health status of consumers, especially in developing countries. The major objective of this study is to shed some light on some of these ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Smallholder producers in marginal and semiarid areas of eastern Kenya have not benefited greatly from research investments made in improvement of crops grown in such environments (sorghum, millet, and legumes, including pigeonpea) either by the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper explores the implications of preference heterogeneity between wives and husbands in nonresource-pooling rural West African households for the effect of crop price changes on agricultural production, i.e., their supply response. A ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Sustainable irrigation water management should simultaneously achieve two objectives: sustaining irrigated agriculture for food security and preserving the associated natural environment. A stable relationship should be maintained between these ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Current trends in demography, agricultural production and rural environment in the developing countries suggest that so-called “marginal lands” must play a larger and probably growing role in food supply and economic development for ...
  • Discussion Papers
    India’s agricultural growth has been sufficient to move the country from severe food crises of the 1960s to aggregate food surpluses today. Most of the increase in agricultural output over the years has taken place under irrigated ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Successful food policy implementation is preceded by a defined policymaking process drawing from a sound information base. Yet too often the knowledge generated through food policy research does not become part of the local body of information ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “…There are sharply divergent views as to how much narrowly targeted interventions actually benefit the poor. These result from differing assessments of three issues: whether better targeting outcomes are likely to be achieved, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Since the transition to democracy, South African public works programs are to involve community participation, and be targeted to the poor and women. This paper examines the targeting performance of seven programs in Western Cape Province, and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This report reevaluates PROGRESA’s targeting methods since the program began adding beneficiary households through a process called “densification.” The authors first evaluate PROGRESA’s accuracy in targeting both at the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Thisreport examines the degree to which child malnutrition, infectious disease, and mortality, as well as poverty, overcrowding, substandard housing, and lack of access to basic services, tend to concentrate in particularly disadvantaged ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper develops a frontier shadow cost function approach to estimate empirically the effects of technological change, technical and allocative efficiency improvement in Chinese agriculture during the reform period (1980-93). The results ...
  • Discussion Papers
    With the Biotech Revolution, questions are being asked about what role the government should play in the process-does public research in developing countries play a role? Can governments speed the spread of technology by offering complementary ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This paper accomplishes two objectives. First, it provides simulation results from a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model that have helped focus the debate about the potential effects of agricultural trade liberalization on ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper uses a “natural experiment” in Canadian divorce law reform to discriminate empirically between unitary and Nash-bargained models of the household. Using time-series data from three Canadian provinces, it demonstrates that ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Current agricultural negotiations in the World Trade Organization are grappling on how to fully integrate agriculture within the general rules for trade in goods. The notion of multifunctionality of agriculture has been suggested as a reason to ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Between 1993 and 1996, two developments occurred in world grain markets which posed a potential threat to the food security of import-dependent developing countries. First, starting in later 1994, real grain prices increased, limiting the ability ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper explores and compares the impact of different types of public spending on rural household welfare in Ethiopia. The analysis of public financial and household-level data reveals that returns to road investments are significantly higher ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Agriculture plays a crucial role in the economy of sub-Saharan Africa. A feature of particular significance about the region is that the majority of households are heavily dependent on agriculture as their major source of livelihood. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    National agricultural research systems in Africa increased markedly in size throughout the past three decades, but from an especially small base. In 1961, public systems in 33 of 48 African countries employed fewer than 25 full-time equivalent ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Life in urban areas presents special challenges for maternal child care practices. Data from a representative survey of households with children less than 3 years of age in Accra were used to test a number of hypothesized constraints to child ...
  • Discussion Papers
    A common criticism of antipoverty programs is that the high share of administrative (nontransfer) costs substantially reduces their effectiveness in alleviating poverty. Yet there is surprisingly little hard empirical evidence on such ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In contrast to a perception that ex situ collections of germplasm are rarely used, this empirical case study reveals large quantities of germplasm samples distributed by the U.S. National Germplasm System to many types of scientific institutions ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Micronutrient deficiencies are particularly severe in Bangladesh. Understanding howhousehold income, food prices, parental education and nutritional knowledge, and culturally-based customs and food preferences interact to determine food ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Egyptian labor market is moving from a period of high overall unemployment to one where unemployment is increasingly concentrated among specific groups whose access to the private-sector labor market is limited. Educated young women are more ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper presents a regionally disaggregated computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of Mexico in order to examine the differential effects of external shocks across the regions. The model demonstrates how the internal migration regime is ...
  • Discussion Papers
    China’s and India’s rapid rise in the global arena has not only captured the attention of the world but has also set into motion a rethinking of the very paradigm of economic development….Today, China and India together account ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Cotton is the largest source of export receipts of several West African countries. Statistics however show a decreasing tendency in cotton yields and an increasing tendency in pesticide use. Under this circumstances there appear to be ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Notwithstanding the ambiguous research and productivity promoting effects of plant variety protections (PVPs), even in developed countries, many developing countries have adopted PVPs in the past few years to comply with their Trade-Related ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Labeling of genetically modified (GM) foods is a contentious issue and internationally, there is sharp division whether such labeling ought to be mandatory. This debate has reached India where the government has proposed mandatory labeling. In ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper develops a model of heterogeneous producers to examine the economic causes of IPR infringement and its consequences for the welfare of the interest groups and the pricing and adoption of a new technology (i.e., a genetically modified ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The Borana people are the predominant ethnic group on the Borana Plateau in southern Ethiopia, who have recently increased their reliance on crops. Rainfall in the region averages between 353 mm to 873 mm; variability is high, with coefficients ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “In this paper we analyze the effect on output, employment and poverty of two (2) alternative versions of further trade liberalization — one representing free trade world wide (WTO) and the other a Western hemisphere free trade bloc ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In 1993, India introduced quota-based political reservations for women in rural areas with the objective to promote gender equality in human development by making rural service provision and local governance inclusive and responsive to the needs ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The U.S. Plant Variety Protection Act (PVPA) of 1970 was meant to strengthen intellectual property protection for plant breeders. A model of investment under partial excludability is developed, leading to the hypotheses that any increase in ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This paper describes the emergence of improved traditional planting pits (zaï) in Burkina Faso in the early 1980s as well as their advantages, disadvantages and impact. The zaï emerged in a context of recurrent droughts and frequent ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The successful management of transgenic technology is likely to depend on the economic behavioral response of farmers to the regulated use of transgenic crops. A well-studied example is the widespread use of Bt-corn, in the United States, and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper examines the role of the extended family on investments in children, using data from a retrospective survey of three generations in the rural Philippines. Econometric results show that interactions between grandparent characteristics ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Sugar is one of the most highly protected agricultural commodities worldwide. This protection depresses trade opportunities and the prices received by exporters without preferential market access. For this reason, dialogues about sugar policy are ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The GAPVU cash transfer program is an important safety net for urban Mozambique. The coverage of the program is impressive within the urban sector, reaching about 16 percent of all urban households. Although the mean transfer amount is just over ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper analyzes the income and equity effects of the dramatic growth in rice yield in the Philippines during the “green revolution” period 1965-1980 using a modified Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) framework. Proportionately larger ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper attempts to define the nature, extent, scope, and implications of what the authors term the “Live stock Revolution” in developing countries. Looking forward to 2020, they argue that the structural shifts in world ...
  • Discussion Papers
    For 30 years, U.S. food and nutrition scientists and policymakers concerned with food and nutrition have explored the possibility of making the human right to food (HRF) the moral and legal cornerstone of U.S. domestic and international ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper investigates whether public investments that led to improvements in road quality and increased access to agricultural extension services led to faster consumption growth and lower rates of poverty in rural Ethiopia. Estimating an ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This case study explores the relationships between agroforestry-based soil fertility replenishment (SFR) systems (improved fallows and biomass transfer) and poverty reduction in rural western Kenya. It further examines the role that ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Addressing longer-term issues of economic development in Egypt, the paper employs a dynamically recursive computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to assess the outcomes associated with two types of development approaches over the period ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Early childhood nutrition is thought to have important effects on education, broadly defined to include various forms of learning. We advance beyond previous literature on early childhood nutrition on education in developing countries by (1) ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In this paper we develop a dynamic CGE model to examine the impact of CAFTA on production, employment and poverty in Honduras. We model four aspects of the agreement: tariff reductions, quotas, changes in the rules of origin for maquila and more ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In this paper we develop a dynamic CGE model to examine the impact of CAFTA on production, employment and poverty in El Salvador. We model four aspects of the agreement: tariff reductions, quotas, changes in the rules of origin for maquila and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In developing countries, common property resources (CPRs) can be an important source of income for certain individuals within households. This paper demonstrates that if a change in the management of CPRs imposes costs on these individuals, or ...
  • Discussion Papers
    We combined a hydro-crop model with a dynamic general equilibrium (DCGE) model to assess the impacts of climate variability and change on economic growth and poverty reduction in Zambia. The hydro-crop model is first used to estimate the impact ...
  • Discussion Papers
    We compare the impact of alternative domestic and global trade liberalization scenarios on five economies in Southern Africa. The study applies a computable general equilibrium model that employs standardised 12-sector social accounting matrices ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study documents how poor small-scale farmers in lowland tropical Mexico use improved maize germplasm and how this contributes to their well-being. It does this by assessing both the direct adoption of improved varieties and examining the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    People in developed countries consume about 3 to 4 times as much meat and fish, and 5 to 6 times as much milk products per capita as in developing Asia and Africa. Yet, meat, milk, and fish consumption per capita has barely grown in the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    While research on the improvement of agricultural production has received considerable attention and funding, until recently postharvest activities have not attracted much attention from international research organizations. However, there is an ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Green Revolution technologies were developed and promoted to boost food supplies and foster development, both of which were expected to create “breathing space” for achieving demographic transitions in developing countries through ...
  • Discussion Papers
    While the Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) remains a hotly debated issue in all five Central American countries that are part of the treaty, most discussions are based on preconceived opinions rather than grounded in research-based ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The study carried out on behalf of the Conference of Ministers of Agriculture of West and Central Africa represents one of the first attempts to analyze the impact of the devaluation of the CFA Franc that took place in early 1994. Its main focus ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper uses a two-country, computable general equilibrium (CGE), trade model to analyze the impact on Mexico and the U.S. of the precipitous peso depreciation in late 1994 and early 1995, and of the policy response to the crisis. The model ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study estimates the impacts of different types of government expenditure on agricultural growth and rural poverty in Thailand. The results show that, despite Thailand’s middle-income status, public investments in agricultural R&D, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper reviews the experience of the use of computable or applied general equilibrium (CGE or AGE) models to affect public policy. The range of issues on which CGE models have had an influence is quite wide, and includes structural adjustment ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Malaria afflicts many people in the developing world, and due to its direct and indirect costs it has widespread impacts on growth and development. The global impact of malaria on human health, productivity, and general well-being is profound. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) models, it is typically assumed that agricultural resources are smoothly substitutable in neoclassical functions, with flexible prices generating market equilibrium in a setting with full resource ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper summarizes the potential contributions of the new institutional economics to agricultural policy research, with particular emphasis on developing countries. The paper provides an overview of the new institutional economics and its ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The nutritional transition currently occurring in Asia is one facet of a more general demographic/nutritional/epidemiological transition that accompanies development and urbanization, marked by a shift away from relatively monotonous diets of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Transgenic crops are relatively new technologies being adopted rapidly in the United States and in a few other countries. The economic impacts of these technologies have, thus far, been estimated in a piecemeal fashion. The purpose of this study ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The objective of this paper is to review the agricultural trade and domestic policies of the Philippines and to provide an assessment of the types and levels of domestic support relative to the rules of the World Trade Organization (WTO). Changes ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Egypt has a large food subsidy program that has created a relatively effective social safety net, but it has also drained budgetary resources and proved to be poorly targeted toward the poor. Discussions about reforming the system to improve its ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This study offers new conclusions on the economic cost of a failed Doha Round. The first section is devoted to an analysis of how trade policies evolve in the long and medium runs. We show that even under normal economic conditions, policymakers ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper presents an innovative participatory method to visualize, discuss and analyze the power of different actors in a given governance field. The Power Mapping Tool was first used to analyze the governance effects of Community-Based Natural ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “New technologies are critical to enhancing agricultural productivity and reducing poverty in many developing countries. While public-sector investment in research has historically driven technological change in agriculture, recent trends ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Zambia is one of the poorest countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Almost three-quarters of the population were considered poor at the start of the 1990s, with a vast majority of these people concentrated in rural and remote areas. This extreme ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Poverty measures and profiles are used increasingly to guide antipoverty policies in low-income countries. An essential element in these analyses is the specification of a poverty line. However, there are many different methods for setting ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper provides a nuanced perspective on debates about the potential for Africa’s smallholder agriculture to stimulate growth and alleviate poverty in an increasingly integrated world. In particular, the paper synthesizes both the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Wenzhou used to be one of the poorest regions in eastern China. With limited arable land, poor road access to major cities, and little support from the upper level governments, this region seemed to lack all the conditions necessary for economic ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper examines future prospects for rainfed cereal production, and its importance in the evolving global food system. First, the paper undertakes a critical synthesis of the literature to assess three primary ways to enhance rainfed cereal ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In a context of liberalized financial systems, microfinance allows millions of households, usually excluded from classical financial services, to begin or reinforce their own activities and become microentrepreneurs. Yet, in spite of the success ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In recent years the planting of eucalyptus trees in Ethiopia has expanded from State owned plantations to community woodlots and household compounds. In an environment suffering from severe woody biomass shortages water scarcity, erosion and land ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The calorie-income demand elasticity is an important parameter in the development literature and in the policy arena. Yet, there is very little evidence on the extent to which it can be considered as an unchanging parameter or a time-shifting ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The paper analyzes the welfare impacts of alternative sequencing scenarios of agricultural market reforms in Malawi using a profit maximization approach. The simulation results show that, contrary to the sequencing path adopted in the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    We herein investigate the short-run macroeconomic impact of aid in small developing countries (SDCs) by using a vector auto regression (VAR) model to study the impact of aid on net import (absorption) and domestic demand (spending). We focus on ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper combines household survey and census data to construct a provincial poverty map of Vietnam and evaluate the accuracy of geographically targeted anti-poverty programs. First, the paper estimates per capita expenditure as a function of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper uses cross-sectional individual data from the 1994 Integrated Household Survey of Romania to analyze the determinants of male and female wages in public and private enterprises. Using quantile regression, the rate of return to ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Collaboration between government and non-government organizations has been a recurrent feature of many development interventions in India. This paper is based on case studies of 11 such programs.
  • Discussion Papers
    The lack of ex-ante evaluation of germplasm in genebanks has been the single most prevalent and long-standing complaint of plant breeders about the management of genebanks. Advances in biotechnology offer the possibility of faster, cheaper, and ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The Heckscher-Ohlin-Samuelson (HOS) model in international trade theory provides a powerful general-equilibrium paradigm for analyzing the impact of changes in trade on factor returns. In the HOS model, factor returns are determined solely by ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This report describes the methods and results of an operations research undertaken to assess the effectiveness of World Vision (WV)’s food assisted maternal and child health and nutrition (MCHN) program in the Central Plateau region of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    A dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model is used to explore alternative scenarios for 1990-2020 in areas critical for Egypt’s economy — productivity growth, investment, foreign trade, and water. The model is formulated as ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Local farming communities throughout the world face productivity constraints, environmental concerns, and diverse nutritional needs. Developing countries address these challenges in a number of ways. One way is public research that ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Empirical evidence and microeconomic theory suggest that, in many settings, farm household production and consumption decisions are “non-separable.” Non-separability may have important policy implications, including lack of response ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper assesses total factor productivity (TFP) growth in India, examines the sources of productivity growth, including public and private investment, and estimates the rates of return to public investments in agriculture. The results show ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “There is a continuing debate about the role of changes in trade on the evolution of relative wages particularly the skilled-unskilled wage gap. In the 1980’s, the wage gap widened considerably in the United States, and there was an ...
  • Discussion Papers
    We extend the Salter-Swan model to include both factor markets and semi-traded goods. In our model, changes in relative factor prices depend on changes in world commodity prices, factor endowments, and the trade balance. In contrast, only changes ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “New advances in biotechnology have enhanced production of maize, soybeans, and cotton. Consumer reactions to the new technology have been mixed. Both the supply shock, from an increase in productivity or a reduction in input use, and the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In this study, a dynamically recursive general equilibrium model of Morocco is used to examine alternative trade and domestic policy scenarios involving the implementation of the EU Association Agreement for the period 1998-2012. The model has a ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Among South Asian countries, Nepal has liberalized most extensively during the 1980s and 1990s on both fronts, domestic and external. Nepal is a least developed country with a gross national product of US $235 per capita in 2001 and second ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The debate over the impact of regional trade agreements (RTAs) on world welfare hinges upon (1) whether they are net trade creating or trade diverting and (2) whether they impede multilateral trade liberalization. Theoretical models are ambiguous ...
  • Discussion Papers
    We examine the effect of trade protection rates on evasion in three African countries: Kenya, Mauritius, and Nigeria. In capturing the effect of trade protection on tariff evasion, we use a much improved measure of trade protection from MacMAP ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Morocco is currently about to start reducing industrial protection in the context of its association agreement with the European Union. However, agriculture, which represents the major income source for the disfavored rural population, is the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In Mali, liberalization of seed markets for sorghum and millet, the staple food crops, has not advanced at the same rate or with the same measurable success as liberalization of grain markets. Most seed of these crops is uncertified and continues ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper examines the mechanisms that transmit isolation into poverty in Madagascar using household survey data combined with a census of administrative communes. Given the importance of agriculture to the rural poor, where nine out of ten poor ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper examines the effect of transaction costs of search on the institution of grain brokers in Ethiopia. Primary data are used to derive traders’ shadow opportunity costs of labor and of capital from IV estimation of net profits. A ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper explores the relationship between group membership and trust. Specifically, the authors examine (1) the importance of trust in the decision to join groups, (2) the subsequent ability of groups to generate trust, and (3) the influence ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The 2002 U.S. farm bill has been widely criticized for increasing subsidies with detrimental effects on competing agricultural producers abroad and for undermining U.S. leadership in achieving liberalized world agricultural trade. This paper ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Climate change is expected to have serious environmental, economic, and social impacts on South Africa. In particular, rural farmers, whose livelihoods depend on the use of natural resources, are likely to bear the brunt of adverse impacts. The ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In this paper we present the findings of a qualitative investigation into some dimensions and implications of policy volatility in the realms of natural resource (NR) governance and devolution in contemporary Sudan, with particular reference to ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper uses models of irreversible investment under uncertainty to examine the investment and abandonment behavior of poor rural households. It considers the decision of Ugandan coffee-farming households to invest in or abandon coffee trees. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper examines past and proposed U.S. domestic support in light of current and potential World Trade Organization (WTO) constraints. It provides a brief review of U.S. farm policies since the Uruguay Round WTO agreements went into effect, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This review of recent literature explores the urban face of food and nutrition security in a more comprehensive, integrated way than most previous efforts. The review is organized around a conceptual framework that identifies food insecurity, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper considers urban-rural location and education as the main causes of expenditure inequality and attempts to examine inequality changes associated with urbanization and educational expansion in Indonesia from 1996 to 2002, using ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The objective of this study is to validate the World Food Programme’s (WFP) method of establishing the prevalence of food insecurity. WFP’s method has two parts: (1) the construction of a Food Consumption Score (FCS) and (2) the classification of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Drawing data from four different integrated household surveys in rural areas of Mali, Malawi, and two national surveys in Côte d’Ivoire, this paper tests the validity of proxy measures of household wealth and income that can be readily ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Ugandan smallholder farmers produce the nation’s major food crop using numerous banana varieties with distinctive attributes, while coping with important biotic constraints and imperfect markets. This empirical context motivates a ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Rising per capita income, urbanization and globalization are changing the consumption basket in the developing countries towards high-value commodities (like fruits & vegetables, milk, meat, poultry, fish, etc.). This paper explores ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Increased regional inequality has been a major concern in many emerging economies like China, India, Vietnam and Thailand. However, even a large inequality is observed within the lagging regions. The objective of this paper is to look into what ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Recent water sector reforms, increased scarcity and vulnerability of existing water resources, combined with declining public funding available for large-scale infrastructure investment in the sector have led to an increased awareness by the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The paper presents a “Watershed Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Model “for the Olifants River Catchment.” A CGE provides an appropriate framework in which to explore policy alternatives for achieving more efficient water ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Water markets provide one of the most promising institutional mechanisms for increasing access to irrigation from groundwater, particularly for tenants and small farmers. While water markets are found in all provinces of Pakistan, they are most ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The increasing demand for water and limited degree of cost recovery for irrigation water delivery are important challenges for policymakers in Indonesia. To meet the increasing demand for water, it is important to reduce water use in irrigated ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper analyzes how water resources development and water policy reform can be deployed to address the twin problems of food insecurity and water scarcity in Africa and, in particular, Sub-Saharan Africa. The paper reviews the current status ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The growing attention to water rights in recent years reflects the increasing scarcity and competition for this vital resource. Because rights are at the heart of any water allocation system, they are also critical for any reallocation. Not only ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper examines the impact of improved water access on health and incomes in the developing world, drawing on contributions from public health, economics, and anthropology. It argues that the “biological” pathways are reasonably ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Despite achieving a significant cost reduction over the past two decades, the absolute cost of food subsidies in Egypt is still high relative to the benefits received by the poor. There is scope for better targeting food subsidies, in particular ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Policies of devolving management of resources from the state to user groups are premised upon the assumption that users will organize and take on the necessary management tasks. While experience has shown that in many places users do so ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “The dietary transition in the developing world is accelerating toward an increased burden of chronic disease. It is increasing human mortality and disease burdens, and it is lowering economic productivity. The dietary transition is driven ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Trade liberalization is expected to act positively on development and poverty alleviation, both of which have become a high priority of international community…The objective of this study is to examine the efficiency of trade ...
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    Most investigations into the importance and determinants of adult cognitive skills assume that (1) they are produced primarily by schooling, and (2) schooling is statistically predetermined or exogenous. This study uses longitudinal data ...
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    Growth in the first post-reform decade in Latin America has been disappointing, largely because of a severe slowdown after 1995 in the countries in South America. Per capita income grew at only .9% per year between 1995 and 1999 compared to 2.7% ...
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    This paper aims to answer how best to model education attainment, which is an individual-level variable, in household-level income functions. The accepted practice in the literature is to use the education level of the household head. This paper ...
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    Two contrasting hypotheses about what motivates Dominican migrants to send remittances to their rural parents in the Sierra are tested: (1) an investment in potential bequests and (2) an insurance contract between parents and migrant children. ...
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    This paper analyzes the macroeconomic assumptions, demand and supply parameters, and structures of the models used in projecting China’s future food supply, demand, and trade. Projections from these models vary greatly, from China being ...
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    Rural poverty rankings of Indian states in 1990 were very different from 1960. This unevenness in progress allows us to study the causes of poverty in a developing rural economy. We model the evolution of various poverty measures, using pooled ...
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    “While ample evidence documents that urban children generally have better nutritional status than their rural counterparts, recent research suggests that urban malnutrition is on the rise. The environment, choices, and opportunities of ...
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    We herein use a world Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model to simulate 143 potential trade reforms and seek solutions to the issues hampering progress in the Doha Development Agenda (DDA). Inside the domain defined by all these possible ...
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    The paper compares the effects of productivity growth in agriculture in a standard CGE model and an adjusted CGE model with special features in order to replicate partial equilibrium behavior of traded agricultural sectors within a general ...
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    “We examine the spatial determinants of the prevalence of poverty for small spatially defined populations in rural Malawi. Poverty prevalence was estimated using a small-area poverty estimation technique. A theoretical approach based on the ...
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    The major objectives of this paper are to shed some light on the mechanism that generates interregional economic imbalances among communities in rural China. Central to this issue is the development of township and village enterprises (TVEs) ...
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    This paper examines how differences in the bargaining power of husband and wife affect the distribution of consumption expenditures in rural Bangladeshi households. Two alternative measures of assets are used: current assets and the value of ...
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    This paper reviews donor experience with the design of development projects that are sensitive to gender-specific constraints. The review finds that the gap between intentions and implementation as regards gender-sensitivity is larger in ...
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    This study explores the impact of changes in land tenure institutions on women’s land rights and the efficiency of tree resource management in Western Ghana. We find that customary land tenure institutions have evolved toward individualized ...
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    This paper explores the patterns and determinants of empowerment, income generation, and environmental sustainability under varying degrees of woodlot management in Tigray, Ethiopia. Our analysis is based upon a survey of 120 collectively ...
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    Data collected from a 1997 household survey carried out in Accra, Ghana, are used to look at the crucial role that women play as income earners and in securing access to food in urban areas. The high number of female-headed households and the ...
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    The objective of this paper is to present a survey of trade issues in agriculture from the perspective of developing countries. Developing countries are a large percentage of the World Trade Organization (WTO) membership, and agriculture is ...