• Discussion Papers
    During the decade from 1982/83 through 1992/93, Bangladesh was able to increase production of rice, its staple food, at a rate modestly higher than the growth in population. However, the growth in per capita supply remained stagnant, because of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In most countries in sub-Saharan Africa at present, the majority of the population is engaged in agriculture, with economies in the very early stages of structural transformation - the process whereby a predominantly agrarian economy is ...
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    The purpose of this study is twofold. On one hand, the objective is to assess the impact of new and more complex contracting schemes, as opposed to traditional marketing channels, on small farmers’ welfare. On the other hand, the study ...
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    “This study evaluates the domestic and international trade and marketing policies in India and analyzes the effects of deregulating domestic markets and liberalizing external trade on the food grain sector. Historically, India’s food ...
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    In response to slow growth in the agricultural sector and as part of a general shift towards a more market-oriented economy, the Government of Egypt started liberalizing the agricultural sector in 1987. Controls over wheat production and ...
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    CONTENTS: Introduction;concepts and rationale; concept of diversification; rationale for diversification; significance for IMR; Structural features of IMR and their relevance to diversification; evidence of diversification in the IMR; trends in ...
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    Indian agriculture is diversifying during the last two decades towards High-Value Commodities (HVCs) i.e., fruits, vegetables, milk, meat, and fish products. The pace has been accelerated during the decade of 1990s. HVCs account for a large share ...
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    The objective of this paper is to derive lessons from selected literature concerning the impact and the conditions of successful agricultural input market reform. The agricultural inputs of interest in this review are: fertilizers, seeds, ...
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    This study represents one of the first attempts to examine the process of adjustment within the farming and marketing sectors to the reform of agricultural markets in Egypt. Even though it is primarily based on rice sector data, it gives the ...
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    The high use of modern inputs in Egypt’s agricultural system well before the reforms has been very favorable to the development of private markets, particularly in the fertilizer sector. The level of adoption being very high, the usual ...
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    “Since the early 1990s, India has undergone substantial economic policy reform and economic growth. Though reforms in agricultural policy have lagged those in other sectors, they have nonetheless created a somewhat more open economic ...
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    As in many other developing countries, the concerns about food security in Indonesia during the 1980s and early 1990s resulted in policies aimed at achieving self-sufficiency in food crops. The Government of Indonesia (GOI) combined price ...
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    Since 1986, Vietnam started to move from a centrally-planned towards a market-oriented system. It underwent several major economic and trade reforms - a process which is still not completed. At the same time, it also started to open its economy. ...
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    The author argues that African rural areas behave differently from rural areas in fully commercialized market economies. In commercialized economies, price signals quickly induce factor flows, including items such as investment and technological ...
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    The South Asian countries are gradually diversifying with some inter-country variation in favor of high value commodities, namely fruits, vegetables, livestock and fisheries. Agricultural diversification is strongly influenced by price policy, ...
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    Some small-holders are able to generate reliable and substantial income flows through small-scale dairy production for the local market; for others, a set of unique transactions costs hinders participation. Cooperative selling institutions are ...
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    This paper investigates empirically the factors that influence real agricultural wage rates in Ghana, based on 1957 to 1991 data. The Johansen cointegration framework is used to examine long-run relationships among agricultural and urban wage ...
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    “This paper discusses a modeling approach that extends and improves the standard parity bounds model (PBM) of spatial market efficiency by analyzing the dynamic effects of marketing policy changes. The model facilitates an improved ...
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    “In Tanzania, as in many other developing countries, the conventional wisdom is that economic reforms may have stimulated economic growth, but that the benefits of this growth have been uneven, favoring urban households and farmers with ...
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    Food aid has played a useful role in Government of Bangladesh efforts to increase food security in the last three decades, adding to foodgrain availability, supplying wheat for targeted distribution to poor households, and helping to finance ...
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    Trends for major fisheries products are evaluated for the past two decades, using aggregate annual data. Major changes have been propelled by income growth, changes in preferences and health concerns about meat in developed countries, leading to ...
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    “This study uses data from 1996/97 through 1998/99 to examine the relative efficiency of production of crops in Bangladesh and their comparative advantage in international trade as measured by net economic profitability (the profitability ...
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    The objective of this paper is to analyze the best trade approach for Southern Mediterranean countries (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon and Turkey) that helps them increase market access and develop trade policies ...
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    The poultry sub-sector is crucially important in the context of agricultural growth and improvement of diets of people in Bangladesh. The sub-sector is particularly important in that it is a significant source for the supply of protein and ...
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    The paper examines the possible impact of Doha agreement on Philippine poverty. Using a detailed CGE analysis, the agreement is observed to depress world demand for Philippine agricultural exports, and thus slightly increase poverty, especially ...
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    In this study, we outline the farm policy changes in the European Union, EU, and the United States, US, since 1996 and compare their levels of support under various policies. The producer support estimates for the EU are more than twice that of ...
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    Like many other Asian countries, the causal relationship between agricultural productivity and the incidence of rural poverty has been a widely debated subject in Bangladesh. A number of studies argued that the real agricultural wage rate was ...
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    “Although there is little consensus on the impact of trade liberalization on poverty and food security, it is nevertheless widely acknowledged that there is a need for governments to establish safety-nets to guard against any potentially ...
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    Processing of meat and crops accounts for a large share of manufacturing in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The paper assesses empirically the impact of hypothesized productivity change in agro-food processing on growth, trade, employment, and input ...
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    “A competitive partial-equilibrium spatial model with heterogeneous goods is constructed to evaluate effects of the removal of tariffs, tariff-rate quotas, and sanitary regulations on world poultry trade. The model distinguishes between ...
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    This paper explores the effect of transaction costs on aggregate supply and demand and marketed surplus. A five-good non-separable household model is used to illustrate the effect of transaction costs on a generic African household. Then, the ...
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    “This paper is an empirical analysis of the gains from contract farming in the case of poultry production in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. The paper finds that contract production is more efficient than noncontract production. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Economic reform programs assume that major goods are tradable, such that depreciation of the real exchange rate raises the value of output compared to factor costs in domestic currency. In Tanzania, major food staples that account for ...
  • Discussion Papers
    There have been different degrees of exchange rate disequilibrium in the developing countries during transition or reform periods since the mid 1980s. The level of the exchange rate and its misalignment can have significant impacts on ...
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    Most countries in sub-Saharan Africa have reduced or eliminated fertilizer subsidies and liberalized input marketing as part of the reform process that began in the early 1980s. The effect on fertilizer prices and use is one of the most ...
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    “This paper reports results of incorporating fish into IMPACT, a global model of food supply and demand that estimates market-clearing prices to 2020 for 32 commodities in 36 regions. It summarizes results for production, consumption, net ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Three factors, advent of new technology (HYV), development of infrastructure and market liberalization working in tandem have delivered favorable food security outcomes for Bangladesh. Bangladesh’s food-policy has benefited from a ...
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    Using urban price data for the period 1976 to 1992 and rural price data for the period 1982 to 1992, the study assesses the degree of market integration for wheat, maize and rice. The study finds that i) reforms have not destabilized foodgrain ...
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    Geographic targeting is often recommended as a way to improve the impact of social spending and infrastructure investments on rural poverty. Previous research shows that such targeting is not very accurate unless the geographic units are small. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    People in developed countries currently consume about 3 to 4 times as much meat and fish, and 5 to 6 times as much milk products per capita as in developing Asia and Africa. Meat, milk, and fish consumption per capita has barely grown in the ...
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    A major question that has surfaced in the changing context of world agriculture is whether the smallholders would ride the wave of globalization or be swept away. This paper addresses the debate with a four-fold objective: (1) it maps different ...
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    Using case studies from six Asian countries, this paper (a) assesses the relevance of underlying rationales for public intervention in foodgrain markets, (b) documents the existing policies and regulations that support operation of grain ...
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    “In the context of on-going market reform in developing countries, there is a need for an improvement in the existing methods of spatial market efficiency analysis in order to better inform the debate toward designing and implementing new ...
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    Indonesian economy has experienced some major changes during the last three decades and transformed from a predominantly agricultural economy to one that relies more heavily on its non-agricultural sector. Within agriculture, there has also been ...
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    World cotton prices have fallen by about 40 percent over the last two years, focusing attention on the effect of subsidies for cotton growers in depressing prices. This paper combines farm survey data from Benin with assumptions about the ...
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    “The overall objective of this research project is to assess the impacts of different types of government policies (pertaining to the domestic and external sectors) on the status of food security in the country, with particular emphasis on ...
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    In the late 1990s, government policy in Bangladesh shifted in favor of increased public foodgrain stocks, setting official minimum stock targets of 1.0 to 1.2 million tons, as compared to operational targets of about 700 to 800 thousand metric ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Using detailed trader surveys in Benin, Madagascar, and Malawi, this paper investigates the presence of increasing returns in agricultural trade. After analyzing margins, costs, and value added, we find little evidence of returns to scale. ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The effect of recent agricultural market reforms in many developing countries is often measured through tests for market integration by analyzing co-variation of food prices. However, market integration studies often fail to link the discovery of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Financing for water projects, especially for irrigation, has been moving towards collapse in recent years due to declining donor and government funding. Some Indian states have undertaken innovative institutional reforms by setting up ...
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    Au bout d’une décennie de Nouvelle Politique Agricole, l’économie arachidière se trouve dans une situation de morosité sans précédent. Et comme l’a bien reconnu le rapport du Groupe de Reflexion Stratégique, qui a été mis sur ...
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    This essay describes the views of Philippines livestock sector stakeholders concerning the events and issues associated with the rapid rise in hog and poultry production, based on rapid reconnaissance interviews and gray literature from studies ...
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    “This study examines the impact of alternative price stabilization policies for edible oils and oilseeds in India on the farmers growing oilseeds, the consumers of edible oils and the processing sector with the help of a multi market ...
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    This paper examines how market institutions can affect links between urban and rural areas with specific emphasis on goods market integration in the national context.Traditionally, development researchers and practitioners have focused either on ...
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    Market integration analysis may be helpful in providing a photograph of the operation of local markets at a given point in time. However, the process of market reform in the context of structural and institutional deficiencies, rather than being ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The paper describes the spectacular growth of rice exports from Viet Nam during the period 1989 to 1997. From a situation of food shortages, the country is now the second largest rice exporter after Thailand. Export projections indicate that ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The response of local markets to sectoral and macroeconomic policy changes is a key determinant of the long term impact of policy reforms on reforming economies. In other words, changes in arbitrage costs that are associated with policy reforms ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The purpose of this paper is to provide a research approach and a set of different quantitative techniques for analysis of questions related to agricultural input market reforms. The broad objective of the Multi Country Project 1 (MP 1) ...
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    It has been long hypothesized that lack of access to credit is the main reason why, despite higher profitability of High Yielding Varieties (HYVs), farmers in developing countries continue to allocate a portion of their land to traditional crop ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Using survey data on traders and brokers in the Ethiopian foodgrain market, this paper reveals that the brokerage institution is critical to market performance in that it enables traders to circumvent the commitment problem of long-distance trade ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper looks at how Philippine trade reform which consists of tariff reduction and elimination of quantitative restrictions (QR) on rice imports will affect poverty within two world trade scenarios: Doha and free world trade. The impact of ...
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    High production and export subsidies in developed countries and high protection in both developed and developing countries have distorted rice trade. This study estimates the impact of rice policy distortions on developing countries’ rice ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture attempted to lower distortions in the global agricultural markets. However, the significant fall in commodity prices in late 1990s may have reduced the incentives for both developed and developing ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Spatially disaggregated maps of the incidence of poverty can be constructed by combining household survey data and census data. In some cases, however, statistical authorities are reluctant, for reasons of confidentiality, to release ...
  • Discussion Papers
    In many developing countries, governments rely on price-based measures (including border protection and subsidies on inputs and outputs) more than on budgetary payments to achieve agricultural policy objectives defined to include price ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The period of 1994 to 2004 was one in which rural households in Peru experienced dramatic changes in ownership rights through a large nation-wide land titling program and a significant opening of the economy to international trade. This paper ...
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    This paper studies liberalized grain markets in Madagascar and examines how property rights are protected and contracts are enforced among agricultural traders. We find that the incidence of theft and breach of contract is low and that the losses ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Although the techniques that are being used have become much more sophisticated, recent methodological developments in market research have hardly gone beyond the econometric test of market integration. While more efficient methods are being ...
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    This paper documents the role that personal relationships play in economic exchange. Original survey data show that agricultural traders in Madagascar perceive relationships as the most important factor for success in their business.Evidence ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Using data on agricultural traders in Madagascar, this paper shows that social capital has a large effect on efficiency. Better connected traders are shown to have significantly larger sales and gross margins than less connected traders after ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Viet Nam has undergone a profound transformation in recent years and, as a result of a series of macroeconomic and institutional reforms since 1986, it has made substantial progress toward becoming a market economy. As this transition continues, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    To meet its overall objective of ensuring food security for all households, the Government of Bangladesh undertakes several activities: it intervenes in markets to stabilize prices, targets food distribution to poor households and provides ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Rice is the lifeline of almost 70% of the world’s poor residing in Asia, where more than 90% of world rice production and consumption takes place. Rice trade liberalization therefore has tremendous implications for poverty. The world rice ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Farm-level diversification, the adoption of alternative income-generating activities by farm households, is rarely deemed an explicit objective by economists. Where agricultural transformation has occurred, markets function well and agriculture ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This report addresses the impact of rising smallholder incomes on local non-agricultural development in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. It determines how increased rural incomes are spent on a mix of goods and services, and debates the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    It is argued that dairying is vital to future viability of many small farms in East Africa and that high transactions costs for dairy production and marketing limit participation by asset- and information-poor smallholders. Case studies from ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This study examines the sources of crop income growth in Indian agriculture over the 1980s and 1990s. Using a method developed by Minot (2003), the analysis decomposes crop income growth into the contribution of yield increases, area ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Using weekly price data for two sub-periods, this paper analyzes how Ugandan maize market performed in the years following agricultural market liberalization in the early 1990’s. For each time period, the extent of integration, ...
  • Discussion Papers
    Using primary data from a survey of expert opinion, this paper identifies key successes emerging in African agriculture. Among these, major commodity-specific successes identified include breakthroughs in maize breeding across Africa, sustained ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “This paper accomplishes two objectives. First, it provides simulation results from a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model that have helped focus the debate about the potential effects of agricultural trade liberalization on ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The development of the maize seed industry and private seed companies in selected Sub-Saharan Africa countries over the past 95 years is outlined. The study provides evidence that seed industry development is an evolutionary learning-by-doing ...
  • Discussion Papers
    China’s and India’s rapid rise in the global arena has not only captured the attention of the world but has also set into motion a rethinking of the very paradigm of economic development….Today, China and India together account ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper attempts to define the nature, extent, scope, and implications of what the authors term the “Live stock Revolution” in developing countries. Looking forward to 2020, they argue that the structural shifts in world ...
  • Discussion Papers
    People in developed countries consume about 3 to 4 times as much meat and fish, and 5 to 6 times as much milk products per capita as in developing Asia and Africa. Yet, meat, milk, and fish consumption per capita has barely grown in the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    While research on the improvement of agricultural production has received considerable attention and funding, until recently postharvest activities have not attracted much attention from international research organizations. However, there is an ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The study carried out on behalf of the Conference of Ministers of Agriculture of West and Central Africa represents one of the first attempts to analyze the impact of the devaluation of the CFA Franc that took place in early 1994. Its main focus ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper summarizes the potential contributions of the new institutional economics to agricultural policy research, with particular emphasis on developing countries. The paper provides an overview of the new institutional economics and its ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper investigates the respective roles of spatial integration and arbitrage costs in explaining the adjustment of local prices to policy changes using the example of Ghana. We introduce a model of price formation and market integration that ...
  • Discussion Papers
    The paper analyzes the welfare impacts of alternative sequencing scenarios of agricultural market reforms in Malawi using a profit maximization approach. The simulation results show that, contrary to the sequencing path adopted in the ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper combines household survey and census data to construct a provincial poverty map of Vietnam and evaluate the accuracy of geographically targeted anti-poverty programs. First, the paper estimates per capita expenditure as a function of ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Among South Asian countries, Nepal has liberalized most extensively during the 1980s and 1990s on both fronts, domestic and external. Nepal is a least developed country with a gross national product of US $235 per capita in 2001 and second ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper is a description and an analysis of trade liberalization under CAFTA. It shows that in the short run the impact of the agreement is likely to be small. Since the U.S. already grants tariff-free access under the CBI, trade ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper examines the mechanisms that transmit isolation into poverty in Madagascar using household survey data combined with a census of administrative communes. Given the importance of agriculture to the rural poor, where nine out of ten poor ...
  • Discussion Papers
    This paper examines the effect of transaction costs of search on the institution of grain brokers in Ethiopia. Primary data are used to derive traders’ shadow opportunity costs of labor and of capital from IV estimation of net profits. A ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Rising per capita income, urbanization and globalization are changing the consumption basket in the developing countries towards high-value commodities (like fruits & vegetables, milk, meat, poultry, fish, etc.). This paper explores ...
  • Discussion Papers
    “Trade liberalization is expected to act positively on development and poverty alleviation, both of which have become a high priority of international community…The objective of this study is to examine the efficiency of trade ...