• IFPRI Briefs
    “Indices can be powerful tools for international monitoring and advocacy, and if used in international rankings, can help foster a sense of healthy competition among countries. With this in mind, IFPRI’s Global Hunger Index (GHI) was ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    A team of researchers from the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO), and the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) collaborated to produce this ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Food aid is one of the constants of human experience. The storage of food as public provision against crises is a practice recorded since Babylonian times. Since the 1950s, the practice has taken on a more international (and often political) ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Brief 4 of the Research at a Glance series, “Biotechnology and Genetic Resource Policies”
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Recent IFPRI research shows how coordinated investments in regional agricultural trade and productivity can leverage regional growth dynamics and improve Africa’s competitiveness in an increasingly globalized world. This brief looks at ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    During the last 25 years, African policymakers have been bombarded with often conflicting advice on agricultural development strategy from an increasing array of international development agencies. In this brief, Christopher Delgado gives a ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    African farmers and agricultural policymakers have achieved a series of significant successes in agricultural development, although these successes are still inadequate in number and scale to counter Sub-Saharan Africa’s daunting ...
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  • IFPRI Briefs
    Si se espera alcanzar las metas fundamentales de mitigación y adaptación del cambio climático, la agricultura debe ser parte integral de las negociaciones internacionales sobre clima. El cambio climático y la agricultura están conectados en ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Poverty is a significant and persistent problem in developing countries. Over 1.1 billion people live in households that earn a dollar a day or less per person. Almost half of the population of South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa lives in absolute ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Poverty is a rural phenomenon in most of the developing world, especially the low-income developing countries. The rural poor make up more than 75 percent of the poor in many Sub-Saharan African and Asian countries. Accelerated public investments ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    For many years, governments and donors have promoted the generation of knowledge and technological innovations that improve farming and plant genetic resources in developing countries. Because of the “public good” nature of ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Science and technology (S&T) are major contributors to food security, poverty reduction, and economic growth, as has been proven in Asia since the early-1970s through the Green Revolution in agriculture. Continuing to secure such gains, ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The primary goal of agricultural research has been to increase agricultural production, particularly in high-potential areas. This has contributed enormously to reducing the number of people living in poverty worldwide, as well as to reducing ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    2020 Focus 16 Brief 2 Higher temperatures, more variable precipitation, and changes in the frequency and severity of extreme climate events will have significant consequences for food production and food security. However, the frequency of ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Research, invention, and adoption of agrotechnology have played an important role in improving human nutrition and health. Agrotechnology has introduced more effective plant breeds (such as high-yielding varieties), enhanced land management ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Agriculture and climate change are inextricably linked. Agriculture is part of the climate change problem, contributing about 13.5 percent of annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (with forestry contributing an additional 19 percent), compared ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    2020 Focus 16 Brief 1 If fundamental climate change mitigation and adaptation goals are to be met, international climate negotiations must include agriculture. Agriculture and climate change are linked in important ways, and this brief ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Earlier briefs in this series make the case that there is added value for the agricultural and health sectors in working more closely together to address problems of human well-being that fall at the intersection of the two sectors. Yet the ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Agriculture is the main source of livelihood of the majority of people affected by HIV and AIDS globally, and it is being progressively undermined by the disease. In Sub-Saharan Africa AIDS is affecting the rural landscape in ways that demand a ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Agriculture is fundamental to achieving nutrition goals: it produces the food, energy, and nutrients essential for human health and well-being. Gains in food production have played a key role in feeding growing and malnourished populations. Yet ...
  • 2020 Focus
    2020 Focus 16 • Note d’inf ormation 1 Si l’on veut atteindre les objectifs fondamentaux d’atténuation des changements climatiques et d’adaptation à ces changements, il faut y inclure l’agriculture. En effet, il existe des liens importants ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Like many other regional groups, the member countries of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)—Bangladesh , Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka—have taken steps toward forming a regional free ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Agricultural production relies on environmental services to transform raw inputs into the nutritious and diverse food that humans rely on for survival. Although the practice of agriculture is essential for human health, careless and inappropriate ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    To improve the ability of farmers in developing countries to reduce the burden of foodborne illness, government agencies need to take the following steps: (1) Implement a farm-to-table approach to agricultural health by focusing efforts on the ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Agriculture produces food fundamental for human health. It therefore seems obvious that agriculture, food, and health are related! Agriculture affects whether people have enough food to eat, whether it is of sufficient nutritional value, and ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Malaria, schistosomiasis (bilharzia), and Japanese encephalitis are the major vector-borne diseases whose increase or decrease can be attributed to agricultural water development (see table). Others include dengue fever, yellow fever, and ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Trigo looks at the elements of a strategy for technological development and institutional change to promote the goals of agricultural intensification, poverty alleviation, and resource conservation. He notes that the need for technological ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Like many other regional groups, the member countries of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)—Bangladesh , Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka—have taken steps toward forming a regional free ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Biodiversity provides essential components of healthy environments and sustainable livelihoods. One key component of biodiversity is agrobiodiversity-that is, the cultivated plants and animals that form the raw material of agriculture, the wild ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    For the practice of agroforestry to yield its full potential, it needs to bring health and nutrition to the fore. The figure presents a simple conceptual framework of agroforestry, health, and nutrition linkages that focuses on five pathways ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Asia’s economic crisis continues to reverberate globally, demonstrating the pivotal place of developing countries in world trade. It is now well established, if counterintuitive, that broad-based agricultural growth in developing countries ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    In agrarian developing countries the natural environment is a key determinant of both poverty and nutritional status. Climate, terrain, and soil characteristics drive the agricultural system, determining in large part cropping patterns, choice of ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Using both national-sample and program-level census survey data, we evaluate the distributional power of Mexico’s Programa Nacional de Educacion, Salud y Alimentacion (PROGRESA) transfers using the so-called distributional ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    One of the major components of the PROGRESA program has been directed toward improving the nutritional status of small children in poor rural communities in Mexico. Results suggest that PROGRESA may be having fairly substantial effects on ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “This study examines the poverty reduction implications of the introduction of three different agricultural technologies by government and NGOs in three rural sites across Bangladesh. The first is new vegetable seeds developed by AVRDC ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Development institutions and projects frequently seek to target poorer segments of the population. Yet, existing methods for evaluating their outreach are generally unsuited to most operational settings, since they are either too costly and ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The urban population in the developing world is expected to double to 4 billion by 2025, accounting for about 90 percent of global population growth….Managing the ongoing rapid urban growth in developing countries, and avoiding the bleak ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Ethiopia’s agricultural sector, which is dominated by smallscale, mixed-crop, and livestock farming, is the mainstay of the country’s economy. It constitutes more than half of the country’s gross domestic product, generates more ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This paper aims to empirically identify migrants’ assimilation process by examining their wage dynamics in one urban labor market of a developing country: Bangkok, Thailand. Although prior studies on migration highlight the effects of ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The authors describe the case study as follows: “Kenyan horticultural exports have grown at over 6 percent per year for the past 30 years. Since 1974 the value of Kenya’s horticultural exports has increased fourfold in constant dollar ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    A methodology to produce disaggregated estimates of inequality is implemented in three developing countries: Ecuador, Madagascar, and Mozambique. These inequality estimates are decomposed into progressively more disaggregated spatial units and ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The authors evaluate the size of the welfare losses from using alternative “imperfect” welfare indicators as substitutes for the conventionally preferred consumption indicator. They find that whereas the undercoverage and leakage ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “This study attempts to analyze changing patterns of land transfers and schooling investments by gender over three generations in customary land areas of Ghana’s Western Region. Although traditional matrilineal inheritance rules deny ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This paper presents new evidence on the proportion of women in poverty in ten developing countries. It compares poverty measures for males and females and male- and female-headed households, and investigates the sensitivity of these measures to ...
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  • IFPRI Briefs
    In more than a dozen African countries the rate of undernourishment is more than 40 percent, exceeding 50 percent in those countries experiencing or emerging from armed conflict. As a result, more than a third of African children suffer stunted ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The objective of this report is to summarize progress towards measurement of selected childcare and feeding practices, and to discuss the feasibility and usefulness of these measurements in research and program contexts. This is the third in a ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    On average, a typical developing country in Africa is assisted by about 30 aid institutions in the implementation of development strategies, yet Africa is still far from achieving food and nutrition security. Adequate access to food that is ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “…IFPRI examined the effectiveness of community-based targeting following three recent emergencies: the 1998 floods in Bangladesh; the 2002 drought in Ethiopia; and the 2001-02 failed maize harvest in Malawi.” — ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    As the goals of international agricultural research move beyond increasing food production to the broader aims of reducing poverty, both agricultural research and studies of its impact become more complex. Yet examining the magnitude and ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    One of 8 briefs in Research at a Glance — Genetic Resource Policies: Promising crop biotechnologies for smallholder farmers in East Africa. Briefs 19-26
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    “This study is part of a larger effort to explore the impact of agricultural research on poverty reduction. It examines the diffusion and impact of hybrid maize in selected resettlement areas of rural Zimbabwe, paying particular attention ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “…IFPRI examined the effectiveness of community-based targeting following three recent emergencies: the 1998 floods in Bangladesh; the 2002 drought in Ethiopia; and the 2001-02 failed maize harvest in Malawi. All three cases show ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This paper reviews current knowledge and experience with food-based approaches to reduce vitamin A and iron deficiencies. It presents a review of recently published literature, highlights some of the lessons learned, and identifies knowledge gaps ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Many microfinance institutions (MFIs) receive public support. In return for this support, governments and donors demand MFIs not only become financially sustainable but also reach the poor, or even the poorest of the poor. Effective evaluation of ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “This paper contributes to the economic analysis of marriage and the family by examining and analyzing the relative importance of potential determinants of assets brought to marriages in rural Ethiopia. One potential determinant is ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The interactions between HIV/AIDS and food and nutrition insecurity are becoming clearer as research fills knowledge gaps. To address these gaps, different actors (from individual household members to national policymakers) need tools and ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Longitudinal household data can have considerable advantages over much more widely used cross-sectional data. The collection of longitudinal data, however, may be difficult and expensive. One problem that has concerned many analysts is that ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This paper examines attrition in the KwaZulu-Natal Income Dynamics Study (1993-1998) and assesses the extent of attrition bias for a specific empirical example. The analysis shows that 1993 first round nonresponse is largely unrelated to ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This paper uses a panel data of 347 households in Egypt to measure changes in household consumption between 1997 and 1999 and to identify causes behind the changes. Per capita consumption decreased for the households during this time and, while ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Recent trends in agricultural growth and food security in Eastern and Central Africa (ECA) have been discouraging. With very low labor productivity, yields, and growth rates, agriculture is unable to keep up with population growth or achieve the ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Growing concern over health risks associated with food products has prompted close examination of sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) standards in industrialized countries. Standards are employed to protect human health from toxic additives, ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    IFPRI is collaborating with CARE-Bangladesh to provide research and support for its SHAHAR project for improving urban livelihoods. This Country Report addresses the research focus, under Project Leader, James Garrett, and the key findings and ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
  • IFPRI Briefs
    IFPRI is collaborating with CARE-Bangladesh to provide research and support for its SHAHAR project for improving urban livelihoods. This Country Report addresses the research focus, under Project Leader, James Garrett, and the key findings and ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This policy brief is designed to help policymakers and practitioners understand the financial services needed by the poor. It is framed within lessons learned from a five-year IFPRI research program that examined, among other issues, the roles ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This is a review of the options for capacity strengthening for policy research, an overview of IFPRI’s work in this area, and a summary of the best practices in capacity strengthening, as shown by experience.
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Policies built on presumptions of separateness or on traditional notions of urban and rural livelihoods diminish the possibilities for economic growth and poverty reduction. More effective policies will take the diversity of livelihoods along the ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    One of 8 briefs in Research at a Glance — Genetic Resource Policies: Promising crop biotechnologies for smallholder farmers in East Africa. Briefs 19-26
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Converting agriculture to produce energy as well as food has become an important and well-funded global research goal as petroleum reserves fall and fuel prices rise. But the use of crop biomass-both grain and other plant parts-as a raw material ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This brief delineates two broad categories for bioenergy development - the exploitation of existing agricultural wastes and the establishment of energy plantations-and suggests high-priority steps for developing bioenergy in ways that benefit the ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Biomass energy programs offer a wide range of potential benefits for developing countries. Already traditional biomass products like firewood, charcoal, manure, and crop residues provide the main source of household energy use for some 2-3 ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Given Europe’s high import demand for fuel and its commitments to reduce CO2 emissions under the Kyoto Protocol, political pressure to implement strategies for the use of renewable energy is ever increasing. Thus, Europe aspires to use ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Rising world fuel prices, the growing demand for energy, and concerns about global warming are the key factors driving the increasing interest in renewable energy sources, and in biofuels in particular. But some policymakers and analysts have ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Global food production, so far, has increased continuously because cropped area has expanded and productivity per unit area has increased. In some regions of the world, however, there is little scope for further spatial expansion of agriculture. ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    One of 8 briefs in Research at a Glance — Promising crop biotechnologies for smallholder farmers in East Africa. Briefs 19-26
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Briefs 7-12 of the Research at a Glance series, “Biotechnology and Genetic Resource Policies: What Is a Genebank Worth?”
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Briefs 1-6 of the Research at a Glance series, “Biotechnology and genetic resource policies” List of Briefs: 1. Policy, National Regulation, and International Standards for GM Foods. / Peter W. B. Phillips 2. Biotechnology, ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Brazil is the world’s largest producer of ethanol, a biofuel used mainly in automobiles as an additive or alternative to gasoline. In the mid-1970s the country undertook a major program to produce ethanol, and since then the industry has ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Armed conflicts frequently lead to the destruction of food systems. Often, warring parties manipulate starvation as a deliberate tactic, using their control over access to food to attract and reward friends and humble and punish enemies. Such ...
  • 2020 Focus
    Currently, three-quarters of the world’s extremely poor—800 million people—live in rural areas and depend on agriculture and other rural jobs for their livelihoods. In Africa, the pervasive poverty in rural areas is often blamed on the fact that ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “This brief examines the economy-wide impact of implementing and financing a universal or basic income grant (BIG) in South Africa. The various financing scenarios suggested by the proponents of the grant are presented, and these are ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Fortified donated cereal blends can greatly contribute to improving the nutritional quality of complementary foods, but are not sufficient to completely close the iron and zinc gaps at current fortification levels in Haiti, even when combined ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The beef industry provides a window on food safety issues in China’s rapidly developing economy. This industry provides particularly useful insights because the government has targeted it for development and because it is dominated by ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The Guatemalan raspberry industry began exporting to the United States in the late 1980s, filling a market niche in the spring and fall when supplies were low. By 1996, Guatemalan raspberry exports were increasing rapidly, up 113 percent from the ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    As awareness grows about food safety issues, the need for countries to provide greater assurance about the safety and quality of food also grows….This brief reviews (1) how India utilizes the international framework for food safety ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Food safety and quality have become increasingly important in international fish trade. Stringent conditions imposed by major fish-importing nations in the developed world, which take in 80 percent of global fish exports, give food safety ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Mycotoxins are toxic chemical compounds produced by molds, which can have important consequences in human and animal health… The economic consequences of the presence of mycotoxins in food, feed, and agricultural crops can be severe. In ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Production and export of horticultural products are increasing rapidly in many developing countries. Rapid growth in horticultural production has been accompanied by heavy use of pesticides and by heightened concern over health effects associated ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Food safety standards that developed countries impose on developing-country exports have sometimes created a barrier to market access. But in Latin America today, the standards set by supermarkets in the region affect local producers far more ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    As developing countries open their economies further to trade, their food industries are striving to raise safety and quality standards in order to compete in new markets. Such is the case with the Colombian poultry industry. Critical questions ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    By the end of the 1970s, the Bangladesh seafood processing industry had expanded rapidly. But sanitary facilities, technology adaptation, and adequate training did not keep pace. Shrimp exports suffered in the late 1970s, and the U. S. Food and ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Cash transfer programs induce multiplier effects when recipients put the money they receive to work to generate additional income. The ultimate income effects are multiples of the amounts transferred. This paper analyzes the PROCAMPO program in ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Land tenure institutions in customary land areas of Sub-Saharan Africa have been evolving towards individualized ownership. Communal land tenure institutions aim to achieve and preserve the equitable distribution of land (and hence, income) ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The persistence of hunger in a world of plenty is the most profound moral contradiction of our age. Nearly 800 million people in the developing world (20 percent of the total population) are chronically undernourished. At least 2 billion suffer ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Achieving food security has been the overriding goal of agricultural policy in India. The introduction and rapid spread of high-yielding rice and wheat varieties in the late 1960s and early 1970s resulted in steady output growth for foodgrains. ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    In recent years, the countries of Latin America have made radical changes in their development strategies, including decentralization of government, privatization, and deregulation of markets. These changes have already affected the livelihoods ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This study explores the impact of changes in environmental conditions on intrahousehold labor allocation to the collection of environmental goods such as fuelwood and leaf fodder for a sample of rural Nepali households. Using household-level ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Child labor is widespread in developing countries, but its causes are debatable. Poverty is considered the primary reason, but many theoretical and empirical analyses show that other factors, such as lack of access to credit, poor school quality, ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This study investigates the effects of childcare on work and earnings of mothers in poor neighborhoods of Guatemala City. Recognizing that mothe’rs work status may depend on the availability of childcare, decisions to participate in the ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The future of China’s grain economy has been the subject of much debate. Some observers predict rapidly increasing grain imports that will strain the world’s productive capacity. Most of China’s own economists disagree: ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Maize is the primary food staple in southern Africa, and 50 percent of the total maize output in the area is produced in South Africa, where maize constitutes approximately 70 percent of grain production and covers 60 percent of the ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Millions of the rural poor now participate in collaborative forest management schemes under a variety of tenurial and organizational arrangements.We examine those arrangements and ask whether local people have indeed gained more access to ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Fisheries are complex and interdependent ecological and social systems that require integrated management approaches. The actions of one person or group of users affect the availability of the resource for others. Managing such common pool ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Since crop and animal pests destroy farmers’ production, this brief looks at the ways pests can be controlled either by individual farmers, by public programmes, or by “neighbors working together”. This brief examines those ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “Dans le monde entier, les agriculteurs et les organisations de développement local utilisent et encouragent de nombreuses de technologies afin d’augmenter la production alimentaire mais le coût élevé des engrais chimiques et autres ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Farmers and local development organizations around the world use and promote a variety of technologies to increase food production. But the high cost of inorganic fertilizers and other agrochemicals often drives farmers to rely on locally ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    En el mundo en via de desarrollo, 200 millones de niños menores de cinco años, están mal nutridos. La mayoria de estos niños viven en la pobreza absoluta, nunca han tenido suficiente comida desde su nacimiento y jamás van a terminar una educación ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “CARE began PROSPECT (Program of Support for Poverty Elimination and Community Transformation) in 1998. PROSPECT aims to reduce poverty in peri-urban areas of Lusaka. It employs a community-based approach to carry out three types of ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “Yamauchi and Nishiyama are interested in the relationship between local inequality and the quality of human capital investment and growth. In this paper, they examine the impact of unequal income distribution on the ability of a community ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “This case study examines the scaling-up experiences of two microfinance institutions: the Nirdhan Utthan Bank Limited (NUBL) in Nepal and the Self-Help Group (SHG)-Bank linkage program of the National Agricultural Bank for Agriculture and ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) evaluated the FFE programme based on surveys of households and schools conducted in 2000. In 2003, IFPRI resurveyed the same households and schools to assess the impacts of the PES and ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This paper investigates whether inferences drawn about a population are sensitive to the manner by which those data are obtained. It compares information obtained using participatory appraisal techniques with a survey of households randomly drawn ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    In this paper we investigate whether a conditional cash transfer program such as the Programa Nacional de Educación, Salud y Alimentación (PROGRESA) can simultaneously combat the problems of low school attendance and child work. PROGRESA is a new ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “For more than two centuries, proponents and critics of an open global economy have debated whether the free flows of goods, services, and capital make the world more peaceful and food secure or instead exacerbate inequalities and ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Meeting food and livelihood security needs in developing countries will require the conservation and enhancement of natural resources that contribute to agricultural production. Chief among the resources to be sustainably managed are soils and ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Brief 6 of the Research at a Glance series, “Biotechnology and Genetic Resource Policies”.
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This paper synthesizes the results of five studies using household panel data from Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Mali, Mexico and Russia, which examine the extent to which households are able through formal and/or informal arrangements to insure their ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “This paper explores risk sharing in the Zone Lacustre, Mali, as viewed through the lens of consumption smoothing. We find that idiosyncratic shocks appear to have little impact on consumption, and that households respond to these shocks in ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This paper investigates how the control and devolution of productive assets are allocated among husband and wife. Using detailed household data from rural Ethiopia, the authors show that assets brought to marriage, ownership of assets, control ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The international and local Nicaraguan media have widely reported on the “coffee crisis” in Latin America and there is substantial evidence that there has been a downturn and that this has been more severe in the coffee-growing ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The Nicaraguan Red de Proteccion Social (RPS) suggests that successful safety nets can protect the most affected by crisis without abandoning conditionality.
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) for five Latin American countries (seven data sets) were used to explore the feasibility of creating a composite feeding index and to examine the association between feeding practices and child ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    La creciente variabilidad y la fuerte tendencia al alza en los precios mundiales de alimentos durante los últimos dos años han sido motivo de preocupación debido a que pueden aumentar la pobreza y el hambre a nivel mundial. Al mismo tiempo, el ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Brief 20 of the Research at a Glance series, Genetic Resource Policies: Promising Crop Biotechnologies for Smallholder Farmers in East Africa: Bananas and Maize.
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “Over the past decade, donor-funded policies and programs designed to address undernutrition in the Global South have shifted away from agriculture-based strategies toward nutrient supplementation and food fortification programs. Given the ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Reform of water policy is urgently needed to avert severe national, regional, and local water scarcities that will depress agricultural production and worsen water-related health problems. Water is abundant globally but scarce locally. Countries ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Is the agricultural sector in developing countries now facing the same neglect that it did in industrial countries some 200 years ago? This concern arises because agricultural investments are declining and donors are paying scant attention to ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Global population in the year 2020 will be a third higher than in 1995, but demand for food and fiber will rise by an even higher proportion, as incomes grow, diets diversify, and urbanization accelerates. However this demand is met, population ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Ethiopia’s agricultural sector, which is dominated by smallscale, mixed-crop, and livestock farming, is the mainstay of the country’s economy. It constitutes more than half of the country’s gross domestic product, generates more ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Poverty profiles are a useful way of summarizing information on the levels of poverty and the characteristics of the poor in a society. They also provide us with important clues to the underlying determinants of poverty. However, important as ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The promise of bioenergy is that it may help cope with rising energy prices, address environmental concerns about greenhouse gas emissions, and offer new income and employment to farmers and rural areas. In principle, there is a high degree of ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    There is a clear link between access to energy services and poverty alleviation and development. The first set of critical energy needs are those that satisfy basic human needs: fuel for cooking, heating and lighting, energy for pumping water, ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    IFPRI and FANRPAN outlined and managed a highly participatory process involving high-level policymakers, senior representatives of a range of stakeholder agencies, and respected scientific leaders, who came together for an integrated series of ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Household food security is an important measure of well-being. Although it may not encapsulate all dimensions of poverty, the inability of households to obtain access to enough food for an active, healthy life is surely an important component of ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    2020 Focus 16 Brief 4 Many opportunities exist for mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through better management of trees and soils. There is potential for both direct mitigation through better management of carbon in agricultural ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    How many microfinance institutions (MFIs) exist in the developing world? What are their current performances? In 1999, an International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) team on microfinance conducted a survey on MFIs in Asia, Africa, and ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Using data from fieldwork conducted in Nepal, the impact of a project designed to commercialize vegetables and fruits - the Vegetable and Fruit Cash Crop Program (VFC)- on male and female time allocation is examined. Using a rigorous time ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    High urbanization rates in Latin America are accompanied by an increase in women’s participation in the labor force and the number of households headed by single mothers. Reliable and affordable childcare alternatives are thus becoming ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Economic, political, and social changes have altered the landscape of both urban and rural areas—as well as the interactions between the two—faster than perceptions and policies can keep up. Policymakers, for instance, often view rural and ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “While nutritional intake in early childhood provides the basis for a child’s health capital, investments in schooling provide the basis for a child’s knowledge capital. That store of knowledge, in turn, will eventually be ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The countries of Eastern and Central Africa are heavily dependent on agriculture, and seeds are a key input in agricultural production.Yet in each country in Eastern and Central Africa, the seed industry faces different laws, standards, and ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Developing countries as a group have experienced rapid economic growth in the last three decades: between 1965 and 1990, their gross national product (GNP) per capita grew at an average annual rate of 2.5 percent to reach US$840 in 1990. However, ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The impact of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) on people’s lives and on development is staggering. Millions have died and livelihoods have been devastated, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This brief describes research in Bangladesh. The brief argues that poor diet quality and low bioavailability of dietary iron are important factors contributing to iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Nevertheless, can food-based interventions be ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    El notable aumento en el precio de los alimentos en los últimos dos años ha suscitado serias preocupaciones en torno a la alimentación y nutrición de los pobres en los países en desarrollo, y de manera más general, en torno a la inflación y al ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Muchos países en desarrollo han alcanzado impresionantes tasas de crecimiento agrícola en los últimos decenios….[pero] el hambre y la malnutrición persisten en muchos países, a menudo porque los antiguos patrones de crecimiento agrícola no ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The programme has a substantial positive impact on the diet of children. It also complements the basic livelihood strategies of poor urban women working outside the home.
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Muchos gobiernos en países en desarrollo intentan estimular el crecimiento y la innovación agropecuaria estableciendo entidades de financiamiento, programas de extensión y centros de investigación pública, así como subvencionando actividades ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This paper presents a new methodological framework for measuring the level of household access to credit. It provides an analytical framework for examining the determinants of household credit limits and derives implications on information needed ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Employment programs, particularly labor-intensive public works (LIPW), have a long history in Sub-Saharan Africa, dating back to the 1960s. The programs expanded rapidly in the 1980s and early 1990s, especially in countries that experienced sharp ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “To end hunger and prevent the recurrence of famine and starvation, we need to take the following steps: invest in public health, child nutrition, education, women’s and girls’ social status, and other components of human ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    In contrast to widely held uncertainties about Sub-Saharan Africa’s ability to meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), recent successes in African smallholder farming show that agriculture could play a key role in helping the region ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Bioenergy crop systems can-if properly designed-yield significant benefits, both environmental and social. The right choice of biomass crops and production methods can lead to favorable carbon and energy balances and a net reduction in greenhouse ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “The “Cost of Basic Needs” (CBN) approach to drawing consumption-based poverty lines is widely applied and lays credible claim to being the best practice for estimating poverty measures. Unfortunately, a growing mass of evidence ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    With a per capita income of only about 20 percent of the African average, Ethiopia is one of the world’s poorest countries. More than 85 percent of the country’s population lives in rural areas, where agriculture is the main economic activity and ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    IFPRI assessed CARE-Ethiopia’s Urban Food-for-Work Project in order to draw lessons about how to work effectively in urban areas. This country study gives information on the research focus, under Project Leader, James Garrett, highlights of ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    IFPRI assessed CARE-Ethiopia’s Urban Food-for-Work Project in order to draw lessons about how to work effectively in urban areas. This country study gives information on the research focus, under Project Leader, James Garrett, highlights of ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    One of the common criticisms of poverty alleviation programs is that the high share of administrative (nontransfer) costs substantially reduces the programs’ impact on poverty. But very little empirical evidence exists on program costs. ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The authors set out a general equilibrium model for the evaluation of a domestically financed transfer program, which helps to combine the results from a computable general equilibrium model with disaggregated household data.Using a Mexican cash ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “In Ethiopia, while superficial examination suggests strong disincentive effects of food aid on labor supply and agricultural activities, these largely vanish under more careful statistical analysis.” — from Text
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Wealthy countries’ agricultural subsidies have also created unfair competition. African farmers not only have limited access to rich-country agricultural markets, but they also face unfair competition in their own domestic markets from ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Food security in Africa has substantially worsened since 1970. Although the proportion of malnourished individuals in Sub-Saharan Africa has remained in the range of 33-35 percent since around 1970, the absolute number of malnourished people in ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    In this brief, we learn that “combining technical innovations with collective action initiatives has been shown to lead to substantial farmer benefits. A number of farmer-led research and extension (FRE) approaches incorporate collective ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Urban expansion and issues of food supply and distribution to and in the cities have four major consequences for urban food security. The first is the competition between demands for land needed for housing, industry, and infrastructure and land ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    In the 1970s and 1980s, most African countries sold fertilizer at subsidized prices through state-owned enterprises. In response to the fiscal cost and ineffective implementation of these subsidies, as well as pressure from international ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    About 10 million people in southern Africa-Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland, Zambia, and Zimbabwe-are experiencing famine or the threat of famine.The immediate causes of the current crisis are drought, flooding, and low levels of crop ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “Fish production is an important source of livelihoods among the world’s poor, and fish consumption has long been known to have nutritional benefits. The dynamics of the world’s fisheries-and fish consumption-are changing, ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The synergy between food assistance and market development contributed to avoiding a food-price crisis. In addition to being well targeted, timely, and efficiently administered, food assistance needs to reach the vulnerable in sufficient amounts ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “Food aid programs have become increasingly important for disaster relief in many developing countries. In Ethiopia, a drought-stricken economy with one of the lowest per capita incomes in the world, food aid has amounted to almost 10 ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) conducted a comprehensive study of the efficiency of food distribution in food aid-supported programs in Bangladesh. The capacity and efficiency of the food distribution system was assessed ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    For many of the world’s poor, public safety-net programs are the only hope for a life free from chronic poverty and undernutrition. But the proper combination of incentives and support can be difficult to achieve. The International Food ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
  • IFPRI Briefs
    In the developing world the approval and cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops is largely limited to the commercial production of insect-resistant cotton in Argentina, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa…. Approvals of GM crops ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “This brief reviews the incidence and health consequences of biological pathogens in developing countries, as these are the most important food safety risks in those parts of the world, and provides an overview of possible methods ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    While not trade measures per se, food safety regulations and standards can impede trade and significantly affect the ability of developing countries to access markets, particularly in industrialized countries. In part, this reflects the growing ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Food safety issues have attracted international attention because they play an increasingly important role in determining whether developing countries have access to export markets.At the same time, food suppliers in developing countries face the ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “Agricultural advisory services play an important role in supporting the use of the agricultural sector as an engine of pro-poor growth and enabling small farmers to meet new challenges, such as accessing export markets, adopting ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This paper summarizes findings from a formative research study conducted in Haiti to develop a behavior change communication (BCC) strategy to improve infant and child feeding practices and to reduce childhood malnutrition. It describes the ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The community-driven development (CDD) approach has become increasingly popular because of its potential to develop projects that are sustainable, are responsive to local priorities, empower local communities, and more effectively target poor and ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Brief 21 in the Research at a Glance series— Genetic Resource Policies: Promising crop biotechnologies for smallholder farmers in East Africa: Bananas and Maize.
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This paper assesses the impact of prime-age mortality on human capital formation and labor markets by examining, first, the impact on adolescents, who may leave school in order to enter the labor market, and second, the impact on adult females ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Past successes in African agriculture can point the way to promising avenues for achieving similar success in the future. Drawing lessons from past success requires identifying a range of successful and less successful episodes and then studying ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Meeting world food needs in the year 2020 will depend even more than it does now on the capabilities and resources of women. Women are responsible for generating food security for their families in many developing countries, particularly in ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Includes briefs 19-26: 19- Assessing the Impact of Crop Genetic Improvement in Sub-Saharan Africa: Research Context and Highlights By Melinda Smale 20- Crucial Determinants of Adoption: Planting Material Systems for Banana and Maize By ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Briefs 13 - 18 of the Research at a Glance series, “Genetic Resource Policies: What is Diversity Worth to Farmers?” 13- Introduction: On-Farm Genetic Resources and Economic Change 14- Traits and Taxonomies—Building Blocks for ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Urban Challenges to Food and Nutrition Security
  • IFPRI Briefs
    In the Accra Urban Food and Nutrition Study, IFPRI collaborated with the Noguchi Memorial Institute of Medical Research and the World Health Organization to examine the nature of urban poverty and how it relates to food insecurity and ...
  • Lectures, Speeches, and Testimony
    This brief is based on a presentation by the two authors in Amsterdam on September 27, 2006, in celebration of World Food Day on global mechanisms to reduce hunger, and on subsequent dialogues. A world in which people are food secure is a ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Human activities such as fossil fuel burning and deforestation have significantly increased the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases (GHG) leading to global climate change. Global climate change and its associated weather extremes pose ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Strong upward trends and increased variability in global food prices during the past two years have led to concern that hunger and poverty will increase across the world. At the same time, rising food prices provide an incentive and opportunity ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The economic impact of globalization, particularly on poverty, and the changes in agri-food markets have received much attention in recent years. However, the intersection of these two trends has been neglected. The present volume fills this gap ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Whose responsibility is it to assure food security in an age of globalization? Is improved governance at the international level our greatest need, or are governance deficits most severe at the national level? When national governments lag in ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Land is still among the most important assets of the rural population in the developing world. Land resources are governed by a variety of tenure systems based on statutory, customary, or religious law. At the same time, many national, ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Will developing countries adopt policies that promote the planting of genetically modified (GM) crops, or will they select policies that slow the spread of the GM crop revolution? The evidence so far is mixed. In some prominent countries such as ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The “Green Revolution” of the 1960s and 1970s produced an unprecedented growth in agriculture in developing countries. The authors of this Brief examine the Green Revolution’s impacts on agricultural production and its social ...
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  • IFPRI Briefs
    IFPRI evaluated the Government of Guatemala’s Community Day Care Centers Program to determine its effects on children’s nutrition and on their mothers’ wages and employment opportunities. This study provides data on the ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    IFPRI evaluated the Government of Guatemala’s Community Day Care Centers Program to determine its effects on children’s nutrition and on their mothers’ wages and employment opportunities. This study provides data on the ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “This discussion paper examines trends in inequality in Mozambique, which in 1996 was one of the world’s poorest countries. In fact, it was so poor that mean per capita consumption was actually below the absolute poverty line. Between ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    La complexité des causes de la crise actuelle en matière d’alimentation et d’agriculture exige une réponse exhaustive. Compte tenu de l’urgence de l’aide à apporter aux personnes et aux pays dans le besoin, le premier ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The health and nutritional status of women is important for both the quality of their lives and the survival and healthy development of their children. Adequate nutrition is a human right for all, and the two-way link between nutritional ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Despite rapid economic growth in recent years, Mozambique remains a very poor country. Expenditure-based poverty measures are reflected in widespread food insecurity and poor health status. In recognition of these problems, the Government of ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The current food price crisis has received widespread attention, but discussions to date have largely overlooked the gender dimensions of the crisis. More than 15 years of rigorous research on gender and intrahousehold resource allocation suggest ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The complex causes of the current food and agriculture crisis require a comprehensive response. In view of the urgency of assisting people and countries in need, the first set of policy actions- an emergency package-consists of steps that can ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “To effectively address the interactions between HIV/AIDS and food insecurity, there’s a need to fill knowledge gaps. strengthen capacity, and learn-by-doing in partnership with people who are directly affected.” — ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “There is hardly need these days to repeat that HIV/AIDS is devastating African societies and economies, threatening the hard-won human development gains of the past several decades. The changes to the development landscape wrought by AIDS ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Die vielschichtigen Ursachen der gegenwärtigen Krise im Bereich der Nahrungsmittelproduktion und Landwirtschaft erfordern eine umfassende globale Antwort. Angesichts der dringend benötigen Hilfe besteht der erste Maßnahmenkatalog - ein ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This paper uses project and household data to examine the ability of 100 or so public works projects in Western Cape Province, South Africa, to target benefits-both direct and indirect-to those living below the poverty line. We find that public ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “…Workfare programmes have been used across Asia, Africa, and Latin America to provide the poor with income transfers, help them cope with income shocks, and create assets by constructing much-needed infrastructure-which, once built, ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Economists have engaged for some time in developing methodologies for assessing the economic impact of agricultural research and in undertaking empirical studies to measure this impact.1 In recent years they have documented more than 1,800 ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This paper presents the main findings of a quantitative evaluation of the Red de Protección Social (RPS), a conditional cash transfer program in Nicaragua, against its primary objectives. These included supplementing income to increase household ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Numerous studies indicate that agricultural production is sensitive to climate variability, and lack of infrastructure in developing countries increases vulnerability to extreme climate events. In Ethiopia, the historical climate record indicates ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The premise of a rights-based approach to ensuring adequate food is empowering poor people and those who are food insecure. Empowerment is integral to any strategy that moves away from the benevolence model of food aid and instead emphasizes ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The 2007-08 international food price crisis caused hardship on a number of fronts. The steep rise in food prices led to economic difficulties for the poor and generated political turmoil in many countries. The crisis could also result in ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Following implementation of the Uruguay Round agreement, reductions in price support programs, mainly in developed countries, will lead to reductions in food surpluses and stocks. As the developing countries open up their markets to world price ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    While famines and other episodes of severe hunger receive significant press coverage and attract much public attention, chronic hunger and malnutrition are considerably more prevalent in Africa. It is estimated that 14 percent of children are ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This paper examines the impact of wheat transfers and cash incomes on wheat consumption and wheat markets. Using propensity score- matching techniques, the total marginal propensity to consume (MPC) for wheat is, on average, 0.33, ranging from ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “The paper examines, taking into account the urban-rural divides, the changes and welfare implications of income diversification in Zimbabwe following macroeconomic policy changes and droughts of the early 1990s. Data from two comparable ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The development community is increasingly in agreement that providing adequate hard infrastructure (i.e., capital-intensive infrastructure such as rural telecommunications, electrification, and rural roads) is an important step in the process of ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    What can be done to increase the effective participation of women in food and nutrition security in Africa? This brief advocates a two-pronged approach. First, eradicate discrimination against women, and second, promote catch-up by implementing ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This paper examines the equity implications of the evolution of land rights from communal land tenure to individualization in customary land areas in Western Sumatra. This brief sets forth policy implications: Preference for sons in the ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This brief is based on Information and Communication Technologies for Development and Poverty Reduction: The Potential of Telecommunications, ed. Maximo Torero and Joachim von Braun (Johns Hopkins University Press and IFPRI, 2006) The ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Brief 5 of the Research at a Glance series, “Biotechnology and Genetic Resource Policies”.
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Por muchos años, los gobiernos y donantes han promovido la generación de conocimiento e innovaciones tecnológicas para mejorar la producción y los recursos fitogenéticos en los países en desarrollo. A causa de la naturaleza de la investigación ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The synergy between food assistance and market development contributed to avoiding a food-price crisis. In addition to being well targeted, timely, and efficiently administered, food assistance needs to reach the vulnerable in sufficient amounts ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “This study aims to assess the value of poverty mapping to public-works projects undertaken by the World Food Programme (WFP) with the government of Malawi in its Food for Assets and Development (FFASD) program….Poverty mapping is a ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This brief considers the benefits and costs of alternative tenure and institutional arrangements and the impact of existing legal and policy frameworks on the sustainability and equity of pastoral production systems under three categories of ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Ethiopia possesses abundant water resources and hydropower potential, yet less than 5 percent of irrigable land in the Blue Nile basin has been developed for food production, and more than 80 percent of Ethiopians lack access to electricity. ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The challenge for agriculture over the coming decades will be to meet the world’s increasing demand for food in a sustainable way. Declining soil fertility and mismanagement of plant nutrients have made this task more difficult. In this ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Brief 3 of the Research at a Glance series, “Biotechnology and genetic resource policies”
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The recent food crisis, combined with the energy crisis and emerging climate-change issues, threatens the livelihoods of millions of poor people as well as the economic, ecological, and political situation in many developing countries. Progress ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The paper reviews recent theory and empirical evidence testing unitary versus collective models of the household. In contrast to the unitary model, the collective model posits that individuals within households have different preferences and do ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This study explores the intrahousehold impact of transfer of modern agricultural technology from a gender perspective. The data suggest that group-based programs targeting women have a greater potential to address gender relations within the ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Brief 7 of the Research at a Glance series, “Biotechnology and Genetic Resource Policies: What is a Genebank Worth?”
  • IFPRI Briefs
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The synergy between food assistance and market development contributed to avoiding a food-price crisis. In addition to being well targeted, timely, and efficiently administered, food assistance needs to reach the vulnerable in sufficient amounts ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    It has long been known that good nutrition is essential to children’s physical and cognitive development, but recent evidence sheds new light on the optimal timing of interventions to improve child nutrition and the long-term effects of ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Agricultural research capacity is an important factor in building food security and economic stability in Africa. Furthermore, new and better-targeted technologies are essential to this process, and a well-developed and well-supported ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Governments are now shifting their role from direct management of irrigation systems to regulation of the water sector, provision of support services to water user associations, and capacity building among water user associations and irrigation ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Although dietary diversity is universally recognized as a key component of healthy diets, there is still a lack of consensus on how to measure and operationalize it. This paper focuses on the issues of dietary diversity in developing countries. ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “Recent research has shown that improving women’s decisionmaking power relative to men’s within households leads to improvements in a variety of well-being outcomes for children. In South Asia, where the influence of ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This document summarizes 24 months of extensive research by the International Food Policy Research Institute designed to evaluate whether PROGRESA has been successful at achieving its goals. The evaluation analyzes what has been the impact of ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This brief provides an overview of the major investment trends in agricultural research in Central America since the early 1980s, drawing on a new set of data developed through a comprehensive survey by the International Food Policy Research ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    A l’instar de la plupart des régions en développement, l’Amérique latine se trouve confrontée à une tâche accablante : remplir, dans les vingt-cinq ans à venir, les besoins alimentaires de populations croissantes, tout en réduisant la ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This policy brief is designed to help policymakers and practitioners understand the financial services needed by the poor. It is based on a five-year IFPRI research program that examined, among other issues, the roles government should play in ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Para disminuir el hambre en una época de globalización, ¿deberíamos acaso mejorar primero la gobernabilidad al nivel global o nacional? Mejorar la gobernabilidad a nivel global frecuentemente se presume ser de mayor necesidad. Sin embargo, en el ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    El papel de la mujer en la economía se ha subestimado con frecuencia y su trabajo en la agricultura ha sido invisible por mucho tiempo. Las autoridades normativas, pese a haber en focado los programas de población, salud y nutrición en la mujer ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Both food for work and free distributiona are reaching poor and vulnerable households ahd have a positive direct impact on weight-for-height. The benefits of the programmes vary depending on the sex of the child, and at times, the sex of ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Au cours de la dernière décennie, le système de recherche agricole tunisien a connu d’importantes transformations, favorisées par la volonté du gouvernement national de développer le secteur agricole et d’importants projets de la Banque Mondiale ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The authors use individual observations from a panel of families during the period of the peso crisis in Mexico to investigate whether and how labor market shocks, as proxied by changes in the gender- and age-specific unemployment rates in the ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    By the year 2020 land degradation may pose a serious threat to food production and rural livelihoods, particularly in poor and densely populated areas of the developing world. Appropriate policies are required to encourage land-improving ...
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  • IFPRI Briefs
    This study attempts to identify the impacts of land tenure institutions on the efficiency of farm management based on a case study of paddy rice and upland cinnamon production in the Kerinci Valley in West Sumatra, where most of ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This study attempts to identify the impacts of land tenure institutions on the efficiency of farm management based on a case study of paddy rice and upland cinnamon production in the Kerinci Valley in West Sumatra, where most of ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Customary land areas in Western Ghana have been evolving towards individualized ownership. Inherited and temporarily allocated family lands are being transferred to wives and children as inter-vivos gifts, to be planted with cocoa. Giving gifts ...
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  • IFPRI Briefs
    Depuis le début des années 80, l’effectif des chercheurs agricoles au Maroc a augmenté de façon constante. Les dépenses consacrées à la R&D agricole ont suivi une évolution plus irrégulière correspondant aux fluctuations des financements du ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The programme has a substantial positive impact on the diet of children. It also complements the basic livelihood strategies of poor urban women working outside the home.
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Le présent rapport de politique alimentaire présente la synthèse de la recherche actuelle sur les fonctions que les femmes remplissent pour garantir la sécurité alimentaire dans le monde en développement. Il présente les éléments probants ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    L’augmentation de la productivité agricole et de la sécurité alimentaire ne peut se concevoir sans l’aide de technologies nouvelles et améliorées ainsi que de leur large dissémination, processus qui empruntera la voie des institutions ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Bien que de nombreux Indiens ne disposent toujours pas d’une nutrition adéquate, la situation alimentaire du pays est spectaculairement meilleure de nos jours qu’il y a trente ans. En 1970, la population de l’Inde était ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
  • IFPRI Briefs
    In Africa and elsewhere, safety nets were promoted in the 1980s as a response to the (presumably short-term) adverse effects of structural adjustment. Though some safety nets had a developmental component, safety nets are still largely associated ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    With high population density and limited land availability, Vietnam’s Red River Delta is undergoing a major transformation as its economic base moves away from subsistence farming towards intensive, high-value food production for export and ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “”This paper uses longitudinal data from 15 villages in rural Ethiopia to explore the nature and consequences of these links. It addresses the following questions: (1) What are the links between rural households and local urban ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The linkages between livestock and health are significant, particularly for the poor, whether as livestock raisers or as consumers of meat and milk, or even as users of the environment. The processes of livestock production and consumption bring ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    A team of researchers from the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO), and the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) collaborated to produce this ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Data from many countries show that the concentration of poverty and malnutrition is shifting from rural to urban areas. Although many rural people move to the cities seeking to improve their well-being, they often remain mired in poverty and ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “With urban dwellers purchasing 80 percent or more of their food, understanding urban employment is critical to designing policies and programs to address urban hunger and poverty. Reviewing the literature, but also using data from ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    According to the author, “Given the vital importance of public goods in providing basic services necessary for alleviating poverty and in managing the local natural resource base for sustainable development, this brief offers an approach to ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “This paper examines the impact of preschool malnutrition on subsequent human capital formation in rural Zimbabwe using a maternal fixed effects-instrumental variables (MFE-IV) estimator with a long-term panel data set. Representations of ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    La complejidad de las causas de la actual crisis alimentaria y agrícola requiere de una respuesta integral. En vista de que es urgente prestar asistencia a las poblaciones y los países necesitados, la primera serie de acciones de política -un ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “During the first half of the 20th century, African farmers transformed maize from a minor imported foodcrop into the continent’s principal staple food. In the second half of the century, newly independent governments launched support ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Africa faces a difficult challenge in meeting the main target of the first Millennium Development Goal - to halve the number of people suffering from malnutrition and hunger by 2015. Bridging the digital divide through the development and use of ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    One of the pillars of rural development in francophone Africa, the cotton sector serves as a principal motor of economic development, generating benefits to farmers, rural communities, private traders, cotton companies, and national ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    In 1990 a total of 780 million people out of 4 billion in the developing world are living on diets that are not sufficient to maintain a healthy life, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). This implies ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Many developing countries will need to double their food production by 2020 if they are to successfully feed their burgeoning populations. This will require maintaining, if not increasing, current rates of growth in national food production, and ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    In the next 25 years, South Asia’s food requirements are likely to double, while its natural resource base is likely to shrink. The subcontinent, which carries 21 percent of the world’s population on just 3 percent of its land area, ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    La disponibilidad limitada de tierra adicional para la producción agrí¬cola, junto con el descenso del crecimiento de la producción de los principales cultivos, ha aumentado la preocupación sobre la capaci¬dad de la agricultura para alimentar a ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “This study analyzes work, childcare arrangements, and earnings of mothers in the poor neighborhoods of Guatemala City and Greater Accra, Ghana, two urban areas where formal- and informal-sector work differ in importance. Unlike previous ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This paper examines how market institutions can affect links between urban and rural areas with specific emphasis on goods market integration in the national context.Traditionally, development researchers and practitioners have focused either on ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This paper focuses on dynamics within couples, although the authors recognize that dynamics among extended family members and across generations are of substantial interest. Decisions about resource allocations, control over economic resources, ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “Contrairement aux prévisions communément admises quant à l’aggravation du déclin économique de l’Afrique, une récente étude présente une vision alternative plus positive de l’avenir de ce continent. De nouveaux ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    For many of the world’s poor, public safety-net programs are the only hope for a life free from chronic poverty and undernutrition. But the proper combination of incentives and support can be difficult to achieve. The International Food ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    For many of the world’s poor, public safety-net programs are the only hope for a life free from chronic poverty and undernutrition. But the proper combination of incentives and support can be difficult to achieve. The International Food ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Agricultural production remains the main source of livelihood for rural communities in Sub-Saharan Africa, providing employment to more than 60 percent of the population and contributing about 30 percent of gross domestic product. With likely ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
  • IFPRI Briefs
    In looking toward 2020, one of the most severe problems to be faced is an impending shortage of adequate supplies of fresh water essential for drinking and for growing crops. The Middle East, where a few waterways serve large areas of land ...
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    Using a unique longitudinal data set to follow movements across generations, this study explores the nature of the migration experience for rural dwellers in the Philippines. The paper asks the following questions: (1) Do destinations-more rural ...
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    Each year millions of people in low-income countries uproot themselves from rural homes to take their chances in a new setting. But who are these migrants? Where do they go and why? What becomes of individuals and families when ...
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    2020 Focus 16 Brief 8 Facilitating carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems could provide a significant amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) abatement, which is necessary to limit global temperature increases to only 2 degrees ...
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    What is at stake in the standoff between the United States and Europe over agriculture in the Doha Round of trade talks at the World Trade Organization (WTO)? What impact would an agreement based on greater or lesser levels of ambition have on ...
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    A primary focus of the IFPRI 2020 Vision initiative is to find ways for people to attain food security, that is, sufficient food to lead healthy and productive lives. But what is “sufficient”? And is providing access to food the ...
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    The approach of this study is to examine the effects of household asset ownership patterns on the morbidity status of male and female preschoolers, measured as the number of illness days in the two weeks preceding the household survey.Section 2 ...
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    The brief discusses the growing body of literature [that] suggests that men and women allocate resources under their control in systematically different ways. Studies have examined the effect of women’s income on household expenditure ...
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    “For a number of reasons, progress in improving child feeding practices in the developing world has been remarkably slow. First, complementary feeding practices encompass a number of interrelated behaviors that need to be addressed ...
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    Mycotoxins are produced by fungi, commonly known as mold. These toxins can develop during production, harvesting, or storage of grains, nuts, and other crops. Mycotoxins are among the most potent mutagenic and carcinogenic substances known. They ...
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    “Given the number of undernourished people in the developing world and the increasingly complex risks to food security, policymakers are faced with an enormous agenda. Freeing people from hunger will require more and better-targeted ...
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    En sus primeros dos años (2000-02), el programa de la Red de Protección Social-Ministerio de la Familia (RPS) ayudó a mejorar la nutrición y educación de aproximadamente unas 10.000 familias de las más pobres del país. En su etapa piloto ...
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    By 2020, current food production methods will be unable to meet the food demands of the growing world population. As high-productivity lands become more scarce and food demand increases, people will increase the cultivation of lands that were ...
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    Upon arrival in a new location, migrants collect information from a variety of sources: their own resources, job postings, and informal networks of friends and neighbors, including those who have moved to the destination from the same place of ...
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    Since the late 1970s dramatic economic changes have taken place in the agricultural sector in the highlands of Guatemala. The introduction of new export crops, such as snow peas, broccoli, and miniature vegetables, has led to yet another ...
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    Este conjunto de resúmenes es el resultado del trabajo de varias personas y refleja la colaboración internacional promovida dentro del SCN. Los resúmenes están diseñados para facilitar el diálogo entre los profesionales de la nutrición y del ...
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    About two-thirds of Africans depend on agriculture for their livelihoods. The fate of agricultural production, therefore, directly affects economic growth, social improvement, and trade in Africa. As the region’s population continues to ...
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    Both food for work and free distributiona are reaching poor and vulnerable households ahd have a positive direct impact on weight-for-height. The benefits of the programmes vary depending on the sex of the child, and at times, the sex of ...
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    “This paper explores the possibility of applying.. methods… known as small-area estimation to the study of children’s nutritional status as measured by anthropometry. This research in Tanzania is the first attempt to map ...
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    The population of Latin America is now largely urban. By 1990, 72 percent of the people of the region were living in cities. By 2020, the urban population could reach 83 percent. With increasing urbanization, the region faces problems of poverty, ...
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    According to the International Labour Organization (ILO), the agricultural sector is one of the most hazardous to health worldwide. Agricultural work possesses several characteristics that are risky for health: exposure to the weather, close ...
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    The paper shows how the so-called distributional characteristic of a policy instrument can be additively decomposed into two components; one that captures the targeting efficiency of the instrument, the other its redistributive efficiency. Using ...
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    Given the large amount of funds allocated to food-assisted Maternal and Child Health and Nutrition (MCHN) programmes. it is critical to improve their effectiveness. Operations research holds promise for helping achieve this goal. Effective ...
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    At the moment, a lack of integration and coordination characterizes the relationship between the agriculture and health sectors. Traditionally, agricultural and health policies address specific goals within those sectors. Agricultural policies ...
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    “About 167 million children under five years of age -almost one-third of the developing world’s children -are malnourished. If they survive childhood, many of these children will suffer from poorer cognitive development and lower ...
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    Good health and productive agriculture are both essential in the fight against poverty. In a rapidly changing world, agriculture faces many challenges, both old (natural resource constraints, extreme weather conditions, and agricultural pests) ...
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    “The trend is inescapable: more and more people in the developing world are living in the cities. By 2020, the number of people living in developing countries will grow from 4.9 billion to 6.8 billion. Ninety percent of this increase will ...
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    This brief defines property rights and collective action and discusses the links to sustainability of natural resource management and agricultural systems and to poverty reduction, as well as the implications for policy and practice.
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    Food safety is receiving heightened attention worldwide as the important links between food and health are increasingly recognized. Improving food safety is an essential element of improving food security, which exists when populations have ...
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    Brief prepared for the Annual General Meeting of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, Nairobi, October 29, 2003
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    “In recent years bioenergy… has drawn attention as a sustainable energy source that may help cope with rising energy prices, address environmental concerns about greenhouse gas emissions, and offer new income and employment to farmers ...
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    2020 Focus 6, Brief 1 Women play important roles as producers of food, managers of natural resources, income earners, and caretakers of household food and nutrition security. Giving women the same access to physical and human resources as ...
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    This paper examines the relationship between community participation and the efficacy of interventions designed to reduce poverty. We develop some simple analytics that are used to structure a review of the extant literature and motivate the ...
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    This paper is based on community-level data from 188 villages in rural Madagascar. The survey that was conducted in 1997 made extensive use of long-term recall questions ascertaining changes during the past 10 years in rice yields, wages, ...
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    The potential adverse effects of climate change on Ethiopia’s agricultural sector are a major concern, particularly given the country’s dependence on agricultural production. Securing Ethiopia’s economic and social well-being in ...
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    Earlier 2020 briefs identified annual growth rates for world population of 1.7 percent per year based on United Nations projections and per capita income growth in low- and middle-income economies of 2.9 percent as the major driving forces for ...
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    IFPRI analyzed Peru’s comedores populares (community kitchens) and associated programs to .identify lessons for future urban projects. Under Project Leader, James Garrett, IFPRI’s study reviewed the operational experiences of PRODIA ...
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    IFPRI analyzed Peru’s comedores populares (community kitchens) and associated programs to identify lessons for future urban projects. Under Project Leader, James Garrett, IFPRI’s study reviewed the operational experiences of PRODIA ...
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    Urbanization, trade liberalization, agroindustrialization, and the rise of supermarkets are among the trends providing farmers in poor countries with new opportunities to participate in local and global markets. For farmers to benefit from these ...
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    In the mid-1960s, when projections of global starvation were common, no one questioned the role of mineral fertilizer (plant nutrients, mainly nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium from inorganic sources) in promoting food production in the ...
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    Brief 1 of the Research at a Glance series, “Biotechnology and Genetic Resource Policies”
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    Conservación de recursos genéticos para la agricultura: Cálculo de los costos por Bonwoo Koo, Philip G. Pardey y Brian D.Wright.
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    The population of the developing world has doubled since 1965 and now stands at 4.8 billion. This growth in human numbers has been a principal cause of a rising demand for food, water, and other life-sustaining resources in the past and will ...
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    This next regime of climate change rules must be targeted toward reducing GHGs as cheaply and quickly as possible. Developing countries and their farmers are key to meeting this objective. First, land-use changes and practices in developing ...
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    “This paper presents the poverty analysis of the 1997 98 Malawi Integrated Household Survey. The analysis developed basic needs poverty lines, using consumption-based measures of welfare to classify households and individuals as poor and ...
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    The condition of the world’s natural resource base in the year 2020 largely depends on whether poverty has been eradicated. Poverty and environmental degradation are closely linked, often in a self-perpetuating negative spiral in which ...
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    “Typical living standards surveys can provide a wealth of information about welfare levels, poverty, and other household and individual characteristics. However, these estimates are necessarily at a high level of aggregation, because such ...
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    This report provides an evaluation of the community level effects of PROGRESA using household level data from various rounds of PROGRESA’s evaluation sample (the ENCEL surveys). These surveys, along with ENCASEH 1997, provide a valuable ...
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    Using data that enables us to distinguish between the different components of program participation (i.e., knowledge, application, and acceptance), we investigate the determinants of household behavior and program implementation in a social ...
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    Governments, development agencies, and communities are attempting to improve urban livelihoods and reduce urban poverty and food and nutrition insecurity… Developing more effective urban programs requires considering some key ...
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    “Feeding practices are an important determinant of the nutritional status of infants and children. It is therefore useful to measure and describe infant and child feeding practices in a number of contexts. Such measurements could enable (1) ...
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    Gender norms are an important constraint to increasing agricultural productivity. Inequality in the distribution of resources between men and women is linked with production inefficiency, yet interventions targeting smallholder farmers often fail ...
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    Given that Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence of poverty and malnutrition in the world, the stagnation in per capita grain production there is worrisome. Since 1970, per capita grain production in Sub-Saharan Africa has declined more ...
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    According to the authors, “watersheds define a terrain united by the flow of water, nutrients, pollutants, and sediment. Watersheds also link foresters, farmers, fishers, and urban dwellers in intricate social relationships. Both ...
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    The authors state that “governments and research and development organizations are increasingly interested in understanding and promoting rural agroenterprises as a way to combat rural poverty.” They look at the implications of ...
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    In this brief, we explore the role that social institutions - specifically property rights and collective action - may play in the development of agroforestry…. In the future, property rights and collective action will play increasingly ...
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    During the last half century, a number of individuals and institutions, including the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and IFPRI, have engaged in projections of future food demand, supply, and related variables. In ...
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    The possibility of an emerging cereal gap of serious proportions by the year 2020, is a useful illustration of the kind of constructive dialogue IFPRI hopes to encourage. It responds to several quite recent developments, notably the rapid ...
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    “Flooding is a normal part of the ecology of Bangladesh. The 1998 flood was especially serious because of its depth and duration. At its peak, the flood covered two-thirds of the country, causing severe damage to the rice crop and ...
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    For poor countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, poverty reduction usually requires a combination of well-distributed economic growth and increased investment in human capital, especially among the poor. Two key areas for such investment are education ...
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    Public-private partnerships (PPPs) in agricultural research and development are increasingly viewed as an effective means of conducting advanced research, developing new technologies, and deploying new products for the benefit of small-scale, ...
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    The role of school quality in determining educational outcomes has received much research attention in the United States. However, in developing countries, where a significant part of the school age population never attends school, policymakers ...
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    L‘envolée des prix alimentaires au cours des deux dernières années a suscité de vives inquiétudes par rapport à la situation alimentaire et nutritionnelle des pauvres dans les pays en développement, par rapport à l’inflation ou encore, dans ...
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    Poverty maps are easily used, easily understood, and objectively verifiable. Using them for politically sensitive decisions, such as where to locate food assistance projects, is likely more acceptable than basing such decisions on obscure and ...
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    “This paper uses recently available South African school census data from 1996 and 2000 to assess variations in educational quality across former population groups of public schools and dynamic changes in post-apartheid South Africa. The ...
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    The diversity of urban areas presents substantial challenges to the validity of information from rapid assessments, yet CARE’s experiences in Bangladesh and Tanzania suggest a number of ways that rapid assessment procedures can be ...
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    According to the authors, “Cassava serves as a staple food for 200 million Africans, second only to maize in its calorie contribution. In response to a series of devastating attacks by cassava diseases and pests over the past several ...
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    “The principal objective of food aid, besides responding to needs created by conflict, and other disasters, should be to provide an insurance function for those events for which existing insurance mechanisms function poorly” — ...
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    How rapidly will child undernutrition respond to income growth? This study explores that question using household survey data from 12 countries. In addition, data on the undernutrition rates since the 1970s available from a cross-section of ...
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    2020 Focus 16 Brief 3 Rice is grown on more than 140 million hectares worldwide and is the most heavily consumed staple food on earth. Ninety percent of the world’s rice is produced and consumed in Asia, and 90 percent of rice land is—at ...
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    Faced with limited resources and the need to feed 90 million more people every year, governments and donors want to know whether they should invest in regions with inherent potential to be highly productive, or in less-favored areas where large ...
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    Advocates of reforms in land rights and land markets frequently posit two important hypotheses: (1) African countries must grant land titles to farmers because titles increase land tenure security and facilitate access to input, land, and ...
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    The current global agreement governing food aid-the Food Aid Convention (FAC)-will expire in 2007. It has come under heavy criticism as has the diffuse set of broader food aid governance institutions that has emerged in the last 50 years. These ...
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    HIV/AIDS is changing the entire development landscape in Sub-Saharan Africa. Can and should food assistance be used to combat HIV/AIDS? The answer to both questions is an unequivocal “yes.” As people struggle to cope with HIV/AIDS, food usually ...
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    Agricultural research and development (R&D) is big business. Worldwide investments in public-sector agricultural R&D totaled about US$17 billion in 1990. But “business as usual” may not be sustainable. As governments trim ...
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    The sharp increase in food prices over the past couple of years has raised serious concerns about the food and nutrition situation of poor people in developing countries, about inflation, and-in some countries-about civil unrest. Real prices are ...
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    Grain traders in 1995 may have wondered if they were about to relive the world food crisis of the early 1970s. Prices for wheat, rice, and maize shot up during the year, grain stocks continued a three-year fall, fertilizer prices increased, and ...
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    Agricultural production remains the main source of livelihood for rural communities in Sub-Saharan Africa, providing employment to more than 60 percent of the population and contributing about 30 percent of gross domestic product. With likely ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Agricultural production remains the main source of livelihood for rural communities in Sub-Saharan Africa, providing employment to more than 60 percent of the population and contributing about 30 percent of gross domestic product. With likely ...
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    “…The assessment of past trends, future prospects, and policy options reported here stems from the tradition of joint studies of roots and tubers in developing countries by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research ...
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    This paper explores the dynamic relationship between the rural and urban sectors and the consequent impact on poverty in China and India, both of which followed aggressive urban industrialization paths in the mid-twentieth century. The bulk of ...
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    Urban food and nutrition security depends on strong links between urban and rural areas. But policymakers and urban planners often ignore this interdependence. There are two broad, often overlapping, categories of rural-urban linkages. ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Russia’s food economy is undergoing a fundamental transition. Rapid changes and adjustments are still taking place in the market and pricing systems, in the subsidies to output and input markets and the credit market, and in the process of ...
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    “While many community-driven development (CDD) initiatives may be successful, their impact is often limited by their small scale. Building on past and ongoing work on CDD, this study addresses the fundamental question: how can CDD ...
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    This paper discusses enabling and constraining factors related to the scaling-up of the Scaling Up HIV/AIDS Interventions Through Expanded Partnerships (STEPs) initiative, supported by Save the Children U.S.A.(SC), to combat HIV/AIDS in Malawi. ...
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    “This paper discusses the factors that enabled and constrained the scaling up of a multisectoral poverty alleviation program called Kudumbashree, initiated by the government of Kerala (GOK), India, in 1998 to eradicate poverty by 2008. It ...
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    This paper assesses how the Programa Nacional de Educacion, Salud, y Alimentacion (PROGRESA) program has affected the school enrollment of Mexican youth in the first 15 months of its operation. PROGRESA provides poor mothers in poor rural ...
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    Much of the technology development for bioenergy to date has been geared toward competing with cheap fossil fuels. Bioenergy technologies have focused on reducing the cost per unit of energy produced, often exclusively by exploiting very cheap ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Brief 8 of the Research at a Glance series, “Biotechnology and Genetic Resource Policies: What is a Genebank Worth?”
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    On January 1, 2008, Economic Partnerships Agreements (EPAs), currently being negotiated between the European Union (EU) and nearly 80 African, Caribbean, and Pacific (ACP) countries, are expected to replace the Cotonou Agreement, which has ...
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    En la actualidad, la población de América Latina es urbana en su mayoría. Ya en 1990, 72% de la población de la región vivía en las ciudades (figura 1). En el año 2020, la población urbana podría llegar a 83%. Con el mayor grado de urbanización, ...
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    This brief summarizes the book, Agricultural R&D in the Developing World: Too Little, Too Late?, edited by Philip G. Pardey, Julian M. Alston, and Roley R. Piggott. The authors of the brief look at topics such as: International spillovers of ...
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    The author describes a successful case study as follows: “Dairy production in Kenya has grown at 2.8 percent per year over the past two decades, resulting in per capita production levels double those found anywhere else on the continent. ...
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    South African households live in an environment characterized by risks, and many face a significant probability of experiencing economic losses that threaten their daily subsistence. Using household panel data that include directly solicited ...
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    “This paper empirically identifies social learning and neighborhood effects in schooling investments in a new technology regime. The estimates of learning-investment rule from farm household panel data at the onset of the Green Revolution ...
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    Urban-rural comparisons of childhood undernutrition suggest that urban populations are better-off than rural populations. However, these comparisons could mask the large differentials that exist among socioeconomic groups in urban areas. Data ...
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    Global population in the year 2020 will be a third higher than in 1995, but demand for food and fiber will rise by an even higher proportion, as incomes grow, diets diversify, and urbanization accelerates. However this demand is met, population ...
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    Rural poverty in India and China has declined substantially in recent decades. This welcome development has come about largely because governments in both countries have invested in agricultural research, education, infrastructure, and other ...
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    Der steile Anstieg der Nahrungsmittelpreise in den letzten beiden Jahren gibt Anlass zu grosser Sorge in Bezug auf die Ernährungssituation der Armen in den Entwicklungsländern, die Inflation und -in einigen Länderndie dadurch ausgelösten Unruhen. ...
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    Meeting the food needs of the world’s growing population while reducing poverty and protecting the environment is a major global challenge. Private- and public-sector organizations must decide how to spend limited agricultural research funds in ...
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    This brief describes two case studies as follows: “Sub-Saharan Africa, with the highest fertility rate in the world, faces increasing demographic pressure on its natural resource base…. Old strategies for coping with these new ...
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    Brief 10 of the Research at a Glance series, “Biotechnology and Genetic Resource Policies: What is a Genebank Worth?”
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    Among the capacity-strengthening challenges the region faces are inadequate in-country capacity, institutional weaknesses, lack of multidisciplinary approaches to problem solving, expatriates’ limited incountry experience, poor governance, ...
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    The current decline in per capita food production in Africa signals an urgent need to revitalize agricultural research. Accomplishing such a task will require addressing many issues, including demand-led approaches, accountability, building of ...
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    Capacity development is essential to participatory initiatives, especially given the recent trend toward decentralized governance in many developing countries. Communities need both the wherewithal to carry out development activities themselves, ...
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    A major premise of this paper is that the failure-or limited achievements-of many large-scale nutrition programs is very often a function of insufficient sustainable capacities within communities and organizations responsible for implementing ...
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    This brief reviews how citizens, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), government agencies, and others can strengthen collective action. The authors discuss ways of facilitating collective action, of redesigning institutions and incentives and ...
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    Who are the landed poor?” That is the question asked at the beginning of this brief. The author describes the different “faces” of the landed poor and then take up the issue of strengthening the property rights of these ...
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    Helping to reduce vulnerability poses a new set of challenges for public policy. The most immediate challenge is to determine the appropriate role for public action — if there should be a role at all. A starting point is the ways that ...
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    This paper presents an overview of changing food consumption patterns in Taiwan and China. It finds that consumption of meat quadrupled in Taiwan between the periods 1959-61 and 1989-91, while per capita rice consumption declined by one-half. In ...
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    “This paper explores the global prevalence of an emerging phenomenon: the coexistence of a stunted child and an overweight mother in the same household. It also tests whether this phenomenon is associated with a country’s level of ...
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    Farming is a threat to the natural environment in rich as well as poor countries, but the human stakes are now much higher in the developing world, where food needs are acute and growing rapidly. Roughly 700 million people in developing countries ...
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    As population density increases and agriculture intensifies in Africa in the future, policymakers, development practitioners, and farmers may find useful lessons in the experiences of the East African highlands. The highlands of Ethiopia, Kenya, ...
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    Starting in the mid-1990s, Africa embarked upon its longest period of sustained, positive per capita income growth since the 1960s. This growth recovery has made a dent in poverty and holds out hope that a number of African countries may reach ...
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    2020 Focus 16 Brief 9 There is very significant cost-effective greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential in agriculture. The mitigation potential at a range of future carbon prices is similar to the potential in the industry, energy, ...
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    Si l’objectif de réduction de la faim a fait l’objet d’un regain d’attention prometteur en 2004 et en 2005, le monde reste en butte aux problèmes familiers et de grande ampleur que sont la faim et la malnutrition ...
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    “…There are sharply divergent views as to how much narrowly targeted interventions actually benefit the poor. These result from differing assessments of three issues: whether better targeting outcomes are likely to be achieved, ...
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    Since the transition to democracy, South African public works programs are to involve community participation, and be targeted to the poor and women. This paper examines the targeting performance of seven programs in Western Cape Province, and ...
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    The objective of this report is to conduct a re-evaluation of the targeting methods used by PROGRESA in light of the revisions adopted by the PROGRESA administration regarding how households are selected as eligible for PROGRESA benefits. Soon ...
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    This article examines the degree to which child malnutrition, infectious disease, and mortality, as well as poverty, overcrowding, substandard housing, and lack of access to basic services, tend to concentrate in particularly disadvantaged ...
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    With high food prices threatening the food security of millions of vulnerable households around the world, hunger and malnutrition are back in the headlines. The world is making only slow progress in reducing food insecurity, according to ...
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    According to the authors, “Both national and international economic environments have changed substantially in the past decade and a half. As they look to the future, African policymakers will have to apply the lessons of the past in a very ...
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    Life in urban areas presents special challenges for maternal child care practices. Data from a representative survey of households with children less than 3 years of age in Accra were used to test a number of hypothesized constraints to child ...
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    2020 Focus 16 Brief 13 An open and flexible global trading environment plays a constructive role in both climate change mitigation and adaptation. A new international climate change regime and global trade rules should ideally be ...
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    This paper proposes and implements a methodology for a detailed, comparative analysis of the level and structure of costs for three similar poverty alleviation programs in Latin America: the Programa Nacional de Educación, Salud y Alimentación ...
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    Brief 12 of the Research at a Glance series, “Biotechnology and Genetic Resource Policies: What Is a Genebank Worth?*
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    Egyptian labor market is moving from a period of high overall unemployment to one where unemployment is increasingly concentrated among specific groups whose access to the private-sector labor market is limited. Educated young women are more ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The benefits least-developed countries (LDCs) can draw from a multilateral trade reform as designed by the modalities made public in May 2008 are negligible, and some countries will even face adverse effects. World Trade Organization (WTO) ...
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    “The topic of family farms has been gaining prominence in the academic, policy, and donor communities in recent years. Small farms dominate the agricultural landscape in the developing world, providing the largest source of employment and ...
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    The Government of Bangladesh launched the innovative Food for Education (FFE) program in 1993. The FFE program provides a free monthly ration of rice or wheat to poor families if their children attend primary school. The goals of this program are ...
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    The supplies of fish in the world’s vast oceans once seemed inexhaustible. Not any more. In the past three decades, production and consumption of fish have risen so dramatically that the world’s wild fisheries may fall victim to their own ...
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    Urban Challenges to Food and Nutrition Security
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    Urban agriculture-agriculture located within or on the fringe of a town or city-may be one way to bolster city food supplies while also increasing the incomes of the poor. Urban agriculture uses resources, products, and services found in and ...
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    “This case study explores the relationships between agroforestry-based soil fertility replenishment (SFR) systems (improved fallows and biomass transfer) and poverty reduction in rural western Kenya. It further examines the role that ...
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    Studies have shown that malnourished children in developing countries score lower on tests of cognitive function and fail to acquire fine motor skills at the normal rate. Do the effects of nourishment-good or bad-in early childhood linger into ...
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    Over the coming decades, global change will have an impact on food and water security in significant and highly uncertain ways, and there are strong indications that developing countries will bear the brunt of the adverse consequences, ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This study documents how poor small-scale farmers in lowland tropical Mexico use improved maize germplasm and how this contributes to their well-being. It does this by assessing both the direct adoption of improved varieties and examining the ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This paper as exemplified by the Millennium Declaration of the United Nations, the reduction of poverty and hunger are now seen as central objectives of international development. Yet the modalities for attaining these goals are contested. ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    2020 Focus 16 Brief 10 Even with abundant evidence of the urgent need for action on climate change mitigation, there are still those who consider mitigation strategies a burden. In the agricultural sector, climate change mitigation calls for ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    2020 Focus 16 Brief 11 Climate change will certainly affect agriculture, but agriculture can also be harnessed to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A key element in supporting agriculture’s role is information. The costs of adapting ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Brief 9 of the Research at a Glance series, “Biotechnology and Genetic Resource Policies: What is a Genebank Worth?”
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    In recent years, trade in Africa has assumed greater importance as a means of alleviating poverty, especially since the initiation of the Doha Round for development. At the same time, skepticism regarding the effectiveness of foreign aid has ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This paper assembles empirical evidence on the nonfarm sector and analyzes policies for affecting future rural development. It reviews trends in trade and services, cottage industries, and small industries, among others. It examines linkages ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The nutritional transition currently occurring in Asia is one facet of a more general demographic/nutritional/epidemiological transition that accompanies development and urbanization, marked by a shift away from relatively monotonous diets of ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Egypt has a large food subsidy program that has created a relatively effective social safety net, but it has also drained budgetary resources and proved to be poorly targeted toward the poor. Discussions about reforming the system to improve its ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    In times of economic turmoil, countries might decide to increase current tariff rates to protect domestic industries or raise revenues in order to finance domestic programs. Using the highest applied or bound rate imposed by countries from 1995 ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    2020 Focus 16 Brief 5 Of the five principal global carbon pools, the ocean pool is the largest at 38.4 trillion metric tons (mt) in the surface layer, followed by the fossil fuels (4.13 trillion mt), soils (2.5 trillion mt to a depth of one ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    AIDS is a human tragedy and a major health problem. The scale of the disease is so large that it now raises questions about the impact of AIDS on the future development path of many of the world’s poorest developing countries. Through its ...
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    In this policy brief we argue that the agroecological approach to food production offers more hope of combating hunger in a sustainable fashion than does the more conventional “green revolution” strategy. While agroecological ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    World population was about 2.5 billion in 1950; by 1988 it had doubled. Despite this unprecedented population explosion, global food supply kept pace with the additional demand for food. A technological revolution after World War II in the ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    On December 1-3, 2003, the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), Capacity Building International, Germany (InWent), the Technical Center for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA), and the International Food Policy Research ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The right to food has always been recognized as a valid and fundamental right of the individual. In the absence of food, other political and economic rights and freedoms are meaningless. Global food supplies have for many years been more ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This brief reviews the extensive evidence on agricultural market reforms in Sub-Saharan Africa and summarizes the impact reforms have had on market performance, agricultural production, use of modern inputs, and poverty. It offers eight ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Tropical forests are disappearing rapidly—with potentially high social costs in biodiversity loss and carbon emissions. While agriculture is critical to the long-term solution of sustainable livelihood and food security in the humid ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Many governments in developing countries attempt to foster agricultural development and innovation by setting up funding facilities, extension programs, and research centers and by subsidizing private-sector and farm activities through fiscal ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    2020 Focus 16 Brief 7 Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soils are responsible for about 3 percent of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, which cause climate change, and contribute approximately one-third of non-CO2 agricultural GHG emissions. ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    In a context of liberalized financial systems, microfinance allows millions of households, usually excluded from classical financial services, to begin or reinforce their own activities and become microentrepreneurs. Yet, in spite of the success ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The calorie-income demand elasticity is an important parameter in the development literature and in the policy arena. Yet, there is very little evidence on the extent to which it can be considered as an unchanging parameter or a time-shifting ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The fishing industry’s aggressive and expanding search for fish from the sea reached a turning point in 1990. After many years of increasing production, the global marine and inland catch from natural stocks declined from the 1989 peak of ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This report describes the methods and results of an operations research undertaken to assess the effectiveness of World Vision (WV)’s food assisted maternal and child health and nutrition (MCHN) program in the Central Plateau region of ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    While 2004 and 2005 were promising in terms of renewed attention to reducing hunger, the world still faces the large and familiar problems of widespread hunger and malnutrition. In addition, it is becoming clearer that hidden hunger due to ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    By 2030, three-fifths of the world’s population will live in urban areas… And poverty in the poorest countries appears to have become more urbanized. An urban world with growing inequality bodes ill for the health of urban dwellers. ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    After seven years of arduous negotiations under the auspices of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations was concluded in late 1993. The United States approved the agreement in late ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Wealthy countries’ agricultural subsidies have also created unfair competition. African farmers not only have limited access to rich-country agricultural markets, but they also face unfair competition in their own domestic markets from ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Este informe se basa en el libro Transforming the Rural Asian Economy: The Unfinished Revolution, por Mark W. Rosegrant & Peter Hazell (Oxford University Press for the Asian Development Bank, 2001). El libro fue financiado por el Banco ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Developing Asia as a whole has taken remarkable strides since the food crises of the 1960s. Improvements in food security, poverty reduction, and per capita income initiated by the Green Revolution have been substantial and lasting. Although life ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Food safety is affected by the decisions of producers, processors, distributors, food service operators, and consumers, as well as by government regulations. In developed countries, the demand for higher levels of food safety has led to the ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This paper explores the relationship between group membership and trust. Specifically, the authors examine (1) the importance of trust in the decision to join groups, (2) the subsequent ability of groups to generate trust, and (3) the influence ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    As of June 2006, a final agreement has eluded the parties to the Doha Development Round trade negotiations. There was little finality to the December 2005 Hong Kong Ministerial conference negotiations, even though members agreed to eliminate ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The author tells us that “Collective action occurs when more than one individual is required to contribute to an effort in order to achieve an outcome. People living in rural areas and using natural resources engage in collective action on ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Climate change is expected to have serious environmental, economic, and social impacts on South Africa. In particular, rural farmers, whose livelihoods depend on the use of natural resources, are likely to bear the brunt of adverse impacts. The ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The authors describe property rights as “overlapping ‘bundles’ of rights”, which can be grouped as “use rights” and “control or decisionmaking rights”. The authors then explain the concept of legal ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    La mondialisation est une arme à double tranchant. Elle élargit l’accès à l’information, aux technologies, aux intrants et aux marchés. En intégrant leur économie au marché mondial, les pays parviennent à tirer parti de l’avantage concurrentiel ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The priorities that U.S. agriculture has for the upcoming “millennium round” trade negotiations are shaped by domestic political and economic concerns, including the widely held belief in U.S. farm and commodity organizations that the Uruguay ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    With half the world’s population living in cities and towns, many poor urban dwellers face problems gaining access to adequate supplies of nutritionally balanced food. For many urban populations, an important source of food is urban and ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Urbanization is increasingly accompanied by globalization through trade and financial liberalization, both of which reinforce the importance of cities and economies of scale. Urban labor markets in 2020 are likely to become even more competitive ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “As the urban population in all developing regions grows over the next 20 years, governments and families will face unique challenges in their efforts to ensure the well-being of millions of children. They will have to take into account ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “Increasing urbanization in the developing world has brought a remarkably rapid shift toward a high incidence of obesity and noncommunicable diseases such as diabetes and coronary problems, at a time when large segments of the population ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    IFPRI examined the effectiveness of community-based targeting following three recent emergencies: the 1998 floods in Bangladesh; the 2002 drought in Ethiopia; and the 2001-02 failed maize harvest in Malawi.
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Data from many countries show that the concentration of poverty and malnutrition is shifting from rural to urban areas. Although many rural people move to the cities seeking to improve their well-being, they often remain mired in poverty and ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Dans les pays en développement, 200 millions d’enfants âgés de moins de cinq ans souffrent de malnutrition. La plupart de ces enfants vivent dans une misère noire, n’ont jamais angé à leur faim depuis leur naissance, et ne termineront ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    With likely long-term changes in rainfall patterns and shifting temperature zones, climate change is expected to increase the frequency of climate-related shocks, such as floods and droughts in Sub-Saharan Africa. For farm households, an increase ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The world’s farmers will likely need to produce enough food to feed 8 billion people by 2025, and to do so they must have enough water to raise their crops. Yet farmers are already competing with industry, domestic water users, and the ...
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  • IFPRI Briefs
    Despite achieving a significant cost reduction over the past two decades, the absolute cost of food subsidies in Egypt is still high relative to the benefits received by the poor. There is scope for better targeting food subsidies, in particular ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Poverty maps are easily used, easily understood, and objectively verifiable. Using them for politically sensitive decisions, such as where to locate food assistance projects, is likely more acceptable than basing such decisions on obscure and ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Many developing countries are in transition from a state-dominated to a more marketoriented economy. Because agriculture is of primary importance in most developing countries, the state is usually heavily involved in both input and output markets ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The food price crisis of 2007-08 had several causes-rising demand for food, the change in the food equation through biofuels, climate change, high oil prices-but there is substantial evidence that the crisis was made worse by the malfunctioning ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “While ample evidence documents that urban children generally have better nutritional status than their rural counterparts, recent research suggests that urban malnutrition is on the rise. The environment, choices, and opportunities of ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    “We examine the spatial determinants of the prevalence of poverty for small spatially defined populations in rural Malawi. Poverty prevalence was estimated using a small-area poverty estimation technique. A theoretical approach based on the ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The 1995 Beijing Platform for Action set goals for empowering women in developing nations. Over the five years since the Beijing +5 review assessed progress toward these goals, the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) has ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This brief examines the key roles that women play in ensuring food security and makes three recommendations of ways to strengthen the food security through policies and programs that enhance women’s abilities and resources to fulfill ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    This paper examines how differences in the bargaining power of husband and wife affect the distribution of consumption expenditures in rural Bangladeshi households. Two alternative measures of assets are used: current assets and the value of ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Based on a survey of 60 villages in Western Ghana, where cocoa is the dominant crop, this study explores evolutionary changes in land tenure institutions on women’s land rights and the efficiency of tree resource management….With ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    The world’s population, today numbering some 5.5 billion people, may approach 12 billion by the end of the next century. By the year 2020, 26 years from today, it will most likely have increased by about 2.5 billion to a total of 8 billion ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    World production of cereals increased from 1966 to 1990, representing an average annual growth rate of 3.9 percent during the period. Although the developed market economies (DME) produced the bulk of world cereals, their share decreased from 54 ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Future directions of food supply and demand will be determined by the interaction of various market forces (such as prices, population, and income) as they will be affected by decisions and policies of farmers, national governments, and ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Fertilizers have played an important role in increased crop production, especially in cereal yields, and will continue to be a cornerstone of the science-based agriculture required to feed the expanding world population. Fertilizers replenish the ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    La comunidad mundial y las instituciones internacionales han dado una alta prioridad al desarrollo y el alivio de la pobreza. Los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio, establecidos por Naciones Unidas para el 2015, hacen un llamado para reducir en ...
  • IFPRI Briefs
    Poverty maps are easily used, easily understood, and objectively verifiable. Using them for politically sensitive decisions, such as where to locate food assistance projects, is likely more acceptable than basing such decisions on obscure and ...