• Project Papers and Notes
    In 2005, agriculture accounted for 14 percent of the Philippines’ gross domestic product (GDP), down from 23 percent in 1982. Despite the decreasing importance of agriculture in the country’s GDP and exports, the sector still represents a ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    En Argentina, la capacidad total en I&D agropecuario aumentó rápidamente una vez que el país salió de la crisis de 1999-2002. Este aumento se debe principalmente al sensible incremento en el volumen total de investigadores del INTA que pasó ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Total public agricultural R&D capacity in Argentina has rapidly increased since the country emerged from the 1999-2002 economic crisis. This increase is mainly due to strong growth in INTA’s researcher totals, which rose from 1,180 FTEs in ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Past investments in agricultural R&D have made a large contribution to Bangladesh’s rapid growth in agricultural output over time. However, fluctuation in annual agricultural R&D spending levels in recent years may deserve attention, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Overarching responsibility for the coordination of public agricultural research in Bangladesh lies with BARC, which is responsible for planning, integration, implementation, and evaluation of research. Like many other low-income countries, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Over the past decade agricultural investments in R&D in Benin have increased as a result of the higher education sector’s enhanced role and the national government’s increased willingness to provide support. Nevertheless, Benin remains ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Botswana’s agricultural R&D capacity and investments rose rapidly during 1995–2007. However, inflationary pressures and a considerable exodus of R&D staff from DAR, the country’s principal public agricultural R&D agency, caused ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Botswana’s national agricultural system differs from systems in many other African countries in several key ways. First, its funding level increased by nearly two-thirds in the 1990s given the 15 percent yearly increase in DAR’s budget, largely ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Muchos países desarrollados y en desarrollo registran niveles de inversión en investigación agropecuaria pública que permanecen estancados o incluso disminuyen. La inversión aumenta solamente en algunos de los países en desarrollo más avanzados y ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Muitos países em desenvolvimento e desenvolvidos estão enfrentando estagnação e até diminuição do investimento público em pesquisa agrícola. Os gastos estão aumentando em apenas alguns dos maiores, e muitas vezes, dos mais avançados países em ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Many developing and developed countries are experiencing stagnant and even declining investment in public agricultural research. Expenditure is increasing in only a few of the larger and often more advanced developing countries. Brazil ranks ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    En 2008, le Burkina Faso investissait 3,9 milliards de francs CFA dans la R&D agricole, soit 19,5 millions de dollars (en prix de 2005); ce total incluait les salaires, les frais de fonctionnement et les coûts de programmes couverts par le ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In 2008, Burkina Faso’s investments in agricultural R&D totaled 3.9 billion CFA francs, or 19.5 million dollars (both in 2005 prices). This amount included the salary, operational, and program costs that were covered through government ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Since the beginning of the 1990s, the total number of agricultural researchers in Burkina Faso has doubled. Agricultural R&D expenditure, however, has been erratic, with increases in spending coinciding largely with the implementation of two ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Les événements politiques de 1993 ont eu un impact néfaste sur la R&D agricole burundaise. L’infrastructure de recherche a été en grande partie détruite ou endommagée, les bailleurs de fonds étrangers ont suspendu leur assistance et les ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The political turmoil that hit Burundi in 1993 wreaked havoc on the country’s agricultural R&D. Much of Burundi’s research infrastructure was damaged or destroyed, donors withdrew, and overall investment and capacity levels plummeted. It was ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Unsurprisingly, investments for agricultural research in Burundi suffered enormously as a result of the civil war. Donor funding halted, government contributions to agricultural research declined, and significant numbers of qualified researchers ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    A pesar de la disminución del volumen total de investigadores del INIA en los últimos años, la capacidad total de investigación agropecuaria de Chile aumentó progresivamente durante el período 1981-2006. En 2006, el país empleaba a casi 700 ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Despite a decrease in the total number of researchers at INIA in recent years, overall agricultural research capacity in Chile rose gradually during 1981–2006. In 2006, the country as a whole employed close to 700 fte scientists involved in ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    After three decades of reform, agricultural R&D in China has made considerable progress. Total public expenditures on agricultural R&D doubled from 2001 to 2008, and private expenditure on agricultural R&D grew at an even faster ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Después de una década de fuerte crecimiento en los años 1980, la expansión de la capacidad total de investigación agropecuaria de Colombia se estabilizó a mediados de los años 1990. En 2006, el país empleaba a unos 1.000 científicos ETC en ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Political unrest, falling world-market commodity prices, and, most recently, the outbreak of the civil war in September 2002 have compounded the climate of financial uncertainty within the agricultural research system in Côte d’Ivoire. CNRA as ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Au cours des années 90, la recherche agricole en Côte d’Ivoire connut d’importants changements avec le lancement du PNASA, projet en grande partie financé par un prêt de la Banque mondiale et qui aboutit à la création du CNRA. Le coup d’État de ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    During the 1990s, agricultural research in Côte d’Ivoire underwent major changes, following the launch of PNASA II, a project that was largely funded through a World Bank loan and which led to the establishment of CNRA. The December 1999 coup ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agricultural R&D investments in Eritrea have declined rapidly since the turn of the millennium, largely due to the completion of the FAO–led project Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eritrea, funded by the Government of Italy, and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    As the new ASTI data presented in the country brief illustrates, despite the substantial expansion of DARHRD’s research staff and donor funding during the second half of the 1990s, research facilities, staffing levels, and staff qualifications ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agricultural R&D investment and human resource capacity have both grown since the early 1990s in Ethiopia. Agricultural research spending doubled between 1993 and 2000, and then doubled again during 2000–01. The 2008 value of investment at ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agricultural R&D in Ethiopia has received increasing financial support from the government and through two consecutive World Bank loans. Total researcher numbers and total spending almost doubled in the 1990s, but the country’s intensity of ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Au cours de ces dernières décennies, les dépenses consacrées à la recherche agricole au Gabon ont témoigné d’une très grande volatilité. En 2008, le pays investissait 406 millions de francs CFA à la R&D agricole, soit 1,6 million de dollars ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Over the past few decades, Gabon’s agricultural research spending levels have exhibited a highly volatile trend. In 2008, the country invested 406 million CFA francs, or 1.6 million dollars (in PPP 2005 prices), which represents an extremely low ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agriculture in Gabon has traditionally been overshadowed by more economically attractive sectors such as mining and oil, with the result that the country’s agricultural expenditures and researcher numbers have remained exceptionally low compared ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    After a decade of marginal growth in the 1990s, agricultural R&D spending in Ghana has more than doubled since 2002. In 2008, the country spent 352 billion cedis or 95 million dollars on agricultural R&D (both in 2005 constant prices). ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agricultural research expenditures and funding increased marginally in Ghana throughout the 1990s. Like counterparts across much of Africa, agricultural R&D agencies in Ghana remained highly dependent on government and donor funding, with ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    During 2000–08, Guinean agricultural staffing levels remained relatively stable. Agricultural R&D expenditures, however, decreased significantly: in 2008, total investments were around 3.9 billion Guinean francs or 3.2 million PPP dollars (in ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Compared with neighboring countries, agricultural R&D in Guinea is characterized by a low level of highly qualified (masters- and doctoral-level) research staff, by much lower expenditures per researcher, and by a very low ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Au cours de la période 2000–2008, l’effectif total des chercheurs agricoles en Guinée est resté relativement stable. Or le niveau d’investissement en R&D agricole a diminué de beaucoup : en 2008, le pays investissait environ 3,9 milliards de ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    India has substantially increased its public funding of agricultural research since the late 1990s. This trend will likely continue in years to come. The Indian government’s strong commitment to agricultural R&D has been rewarded with high ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    During 1996-2003, total agricultural research staff and expenditures in Jordan rose steadily. In 2003, the country spent close to $13 million (in 2000 prices) on agricultural R&D. Compared to many other countries in West Asia and North ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Public agricultural R&D in Kenya continues to be relatively well-funded and staffed compared with many other African countries. In 2008, the country employed over 1,000 FTE agricultural researchers and spent 4.5 billion Kenyan shillings or ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Kenyan agricultural research is relatively well funded compared with many other African countries. Its intensity of research is well above that of other African countries and close to the average for the developed world. KARI continues to have ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    L’instabilité politique, la chute des cours mondiaux des produits agricoles et tout dernièrement, le déclenchement de la guerre civile en septembre 2002 ont créé un climat d’incertitude financière au sein du système de recherche agricole ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    En comparaison avec les pays voisins, la R&D agricole guinéenne se caractérise par un taux faible de personnel de recherche hautement diplômé (niveau maîtrise et doctorat), par des dépenses par chercheur beaucoup moins élevées ainsi que par ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Depuis le début des années 90, le nombre des chercheurs agricoles mauritaniens n’a cessé de croître, bien que l’augmentation des effectifs que l’IMROP a connu au cours de ces dernières années masque la diminution du nombre des chercheurs au CNERV ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Durant la période 1991–2001, deux guerres civiles ont entraîné une diminution considérable des investissements réalisés dans la recherche agricole. Le financement des donateurs a baissé rapidement, de nombreux laboratoires de la DGRST ont été ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Overall, agricultural researcher totals in Laos increased during 1998–2003, while the country’s agricultural R&D expenditures followed a more irregular trend. With the creation of NAFRI in 1999 through the amalgamation of the country’s nine ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Au Burkina Faso, depuis le début des années 90, l’effectif total de chercheurs agricoles a doublé. Les dépenses consacrées à la R&D agricole ont été fluctuantes, marquées par des augmentations coïncidant largement avec la mise en oeuvre de ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Le fait qu’au Burundi les investissements concernant la recherche agricole aient terriblement souffert des effets de la guerre civile ne surprendra personne. Les financements des donateurs ont pris fin, les contributions du gouvernement ont été ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Au Gabon, l’agriculture a été longuement éclipsée par des secteurs économiques plus attractifs tels que l’extraction minière et pétrolière, faisant que les dépenses du pays consacrées à la recherche agricole ainsi que les effectifs de chercheurs ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Même si le nombre total de chercheurs au sein de la R&D agricole a continué à croître (quoique à un taux très faible ces dernières années), les dépenses consacrées à la R&D agricole ont connu à Madagascar une baisse spectaculaire au cours ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Au Mali, à partir du début des années 90, l’effectif des chercheurs agricoles a diminué progressivement, mais les dépenses consacrées à la recherche sont restées stables, essentiellement du fait de la permanence de versements de fonds suffisants ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    L’effectif total de chercheurs agricoles du Niger a augmenté de façon constante jusque vers le milieu des années 90, avant de légèrement baisser. Les dépenses consacrées à la R&D agricole du pays ont évolué très irrégulièrement jusqu’en 1998, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Au Sénégal, les dépenses consacrées à la R&D agricole ont progressivement baissé depuis le milieu des années 80. Trois principales raisons expliquent cette diminution : la nationalisation de la recherche agricole ayant entraîné à grande ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Du fait de la conjugaison de l’augmentation du nombre de chercheurs dans les secteurs de l’enseignement supérieur et des organisations à but non lucratif avec la diminution des effectifs au sein des organismes d’État, le nombre de chercheurs ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Au cours des dernières décennies, la R&D agricole malgache est demeurée largement tributaire de l’aide de divers bailleurs de fonds, y compris la suite de projets financés grâce à des prêts de la Banque mondiale et l’assistance technique de ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Over the past few decades, agricultural R&D in Madagascar has largely been dependent on donor funding, including consecutive projects financed through World Bank loans and in-kind technical support from France in the form of a relatively ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Although the total number of fte researchers in agricultural R&D has continued to grow (albeit at a very low rate in recent years), Madagascar experienced a dramatic decrease in public agricultural R&D spending over the past 30 years. ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    After a period of growth, total spending on agricultural research in Malawi was cut by half between the mid-1980s and 2001 despite two consecutive World Bank–supported projects. Substantial investments were made under NARP to improve ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Although MASTIC reported that agricultural R&D accounted for only 4 percent of Malaysia’s public and private research spending in 2002 (MASTIC 2004), the sector experienced strong growth in terms of human resources and spending from 1981 ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Despite year-to-year fluctuations, agricultural research investment in Malaysia remained roughly constant between 2002 and 2010. Capacity levels did increase, however, primarily reflecting the recruitment of younger, BSc-qualified researchers. ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Au Mali, malgré tous les efforts que les autorités ont faits ces dernières décennies pour promouvoir le développement agricole, la R&D agricole reste largement tributaire de l’aide accordée par des bailleurs de fonds et des banques de ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Although the political authorities have taken great pains to promote agricultural development during the past few decades, Mali’s R&D remains largely dependent on the support provided by donors and development banks, in particular through a ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Since the beginning of the 1990s, agricultural researcher numbers have gradually fallen in Mali, but agricultural spending has remained stable, mainly as a result of the continuously adequate levels of donor funding. During 1991–2001, IER was ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Being a sparsely populated desert country, Mauritania’s total agricultural R&D capacity and investments are understandably significantly lower than those of many West African countries. In 2008, the country employed 74 agricultural R&D ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Since the beginning of the 1990s, Mauritania’s agricultural researcher numbers have steadily increased, though in recent years increasing researcher numbers at IMROP mask decreasing researcher numbers at CNERV and CNRADA. Agricultural research ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    La Mauritanie étant un pays désertique faiblement peuplé, l’on comprend aisément que les investissements totaux réalisés dans la R&D agricole y sont sensiblement inférieurs aux totaux enregistrés dans bien d’autres pays ouest-africains. En ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Historically, agricultural R&D in Mauritius has been funded through national sources. Sugarcane research is financed through a tax on sugar production, while nonsugarcane research is primarily funded by the national government. In 2008, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In contrast to many other countries in Africa the great majority of agricultural R&D in Mauritius has been funded, historically, from national sources. Sugar research, consistent with its dominant role in both agriculture and the economy, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Total public agricultural R&D capacity in Mexico has gradually increased over the past two decades. In 2006, the country as a whole employed more than 4,000 fte agricultural research staff, making it the second largest agricultural R&D ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    La capacidad total de I&D agropecuario público en México ha aumentado paulatinamente durante las dos últimas décadas. En 2006, el volumen total de personal de investigación agropecuaria etc que empleaba el país era superior a 4.000 personas, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Os níveis de capacidade institucional de I&D de Moçambique aumentaram entre 2004 e 2008, sobretudo nas instituições governamentais. Contudo, o desenvolvimento dos dos recursos humanos e formação ainda constituem as maiores necessidades em ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Os níveis de capacidade institucional de I&D de Moçambique aumentaram entre 2004 e 2008, sobretudo nas instituições governamentais. Contudo, o desenvolvimento dos dos recursos humanos e formação ainda constituem as maiores necessidades em ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Since the beginning of the 1980s, agricultural researcher numbers in Morocco have steadily risen. Agricultural R&D spending followed a more erratic trend in response to fluctuations in national government funding and (foreign) donor support, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Mozambique’s agricultural R&D capacity levels increased between 2004 and 2008, particularly at the government agencies; however, human resource capacity and training are still major needs across all agencies. As a group, researchers in ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The number of fte researchers employed in agriculture in Myanmar increased gradually during 1996–2003, but real spending on agricultural R&D declined. In 2003, Myanmar invested just 8 million dollars in 2000 international prices on ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agricultural R&D in Namibia differs from most other African countries in several key ways. The country’s agricultural R&D intensity ratio is nearly four times the African average, its R&D agencies are relatively well-funded by the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The 2002 completion of AREP, a World Bank–financed project, led to a sharp decline in Nepal’s agricultural R&D investment levels. Although spending rebounded somewhat during 2003–09, total agricultural R&D expenditures remain below the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Overall, agricultural researcher numbers in Nepal increased during 1996–2003, while the country’s agricultural R&D expenditures followed a more irregular trend. Nepal’s principal agricultural R&D agency, NARC, was highly dependent on the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Avec un taux qui, en 2008, ne dépassait pas 0,25 % de son PIBA, le Niger se classe parmi les pays africains qui investissent le moins dans la recherche agricole. En effet, en 2008, les dépenses consacrées à la R&D agricole avaient chuté de 80 ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Niger is one of the African countries with the lowest rate of investment in agricultural research: only 0.25 percent of its AgGDP in 2008. The country’s agricultural R&D expenditure in 2008 showed an 80 percent drop compared with the level ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Total agricultural researcher numbers in Niger rose steadily until the mid-1990s, after which they contracted slightly. The country’s agricultural R&D expenditures showed an erratic upward trend until 1998, but fell drastically with the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    After a period of stagnation in the late-1980s and early 1990s, investments in Nigeria’s public agricultural R&D increased substantially around the turn of the millennium. Adjusted for inflation, investments doubled from 12 million naira in ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In the three decades to 2000, agricultural research in Nigeria was characterized by institutional instability, declining funding availability, and general uncertainty. After a few years of growth in the early 1970s, total spending fell by ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agricultural R&D investment in Pakistan increased during 2000–09, albeit at an irregular pace. Pakistan has one of the largest agricultural research systems among developing countries, employing over 3,500 FTE researchers. However, based on a ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Total fte agricultural researcher numbers in PNG rose steadily until 2001 and thereafter contracted as a result of restructuring and retrenchment of less productive staff. The country’s agricultural R&D expenditures followed a more erratic ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    En 2006, Paraguay empleaba solamente a 128 investigadores ETC e invertía $13 millones (en precios PPP de 2005) en investigación agropecuaria. En comparación con sus vecinos de MERCOSUR, las inversiones y la capacidad de investigación agropecuaria ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In 2006, Paraguay employed just 128 fte researchers and spent $13 million (in 2005 PPP prices) on agricultural research. The country compares very unfavorably to its MERCOSUR neighbors when it comes to agricultural research capacity and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    As in most developing countries worldwide, the private sector in Senegal is relatively underrepresented in the conduct of agricultural R&D. In 2008, private companies represented just 14 percent of the country’s total agricultural R&D ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The civil wars that shook Congo in the 1990s caused agricultural research investments to plummet. However, with the return of peace and the modest inflow of donor funding, agricultural R&D spending levels picked up again, albeit slightly. In ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Les guerres des années 90 ont eu pour conséquence une diminution considérable des investissements réalisés dans la recherche agricole au Congo, mais depuis le tournant du millénaire, après le retour de la paix et avec la reprise de certains ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Rwandan agricultural research agencies have been restored since the first half of the 1990s, but challenges still remain. Agricultural research capacity grew modestly between 2005 and 2009, from 100 to 116 FTEs. This growth mainly occurred in the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agricultural research and development (R&D) in Senegal has historically been spearheaded by the public sector. In 2008 the private sector accounted for just 14 percent of the country’s total agricultural R&D investments. The reasons for ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Au cours des dernières décennies, la R&D agricole du Sénégal a été en grande partie tributaire de l’aide accordée par ses bailleurs de fonds, notamment sous la forme des projets successifs dirigés par la Banque mondiale. L’affaiblissement du ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Over the past few decades, agricultural R&D in Senegal has relied heavily on donor funding, including consecutive projects led by the World Bank. Reduced support by donors and the Senegalese government has led to a gradual drop in the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agricultural R&D expenditures in Senegal have fallen gradually since the mid-1980s. The cause of this decline is threefold: nationalization of agricultural research resulted in large numbers of expatriate researchers being replaced with less ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    The 1991–2002 civil war that ravaged Sierra Leone virtually destroyed the country’s agricultural R&D infrastructure. When hostilities ended, Sierra Leone began the long and painful process of re-establishing its agricultural R&D system, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agricultural research and development (R&D) in Sierra Leone virtually ceased in the 1990s due to the ravages of civil war. Several researchers were killed by rebels, research facilities and equipment were destroyed or severely damaged, and ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In 2008, South Africa’s public agricultural research agencies spent 1 billion rand or 272 million PPP dollars on agricultural R&D (both in 2005 constant prices) and employed 784 FTE research staff. From a regional perspective, South Africa ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Public-sector financing remains the dominant source of funding, but—as in many countries—public funding has come under severe pressure in recent years. In the past five years, contributions to agricultural research funding by producer ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    During the first decade of the new millennium, Sri Lanka’s worsening security situation forced the national government to allocate an increasing share of public resources to national security. This was at the expense of other public investments, ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    During 1981-2003, the number of agricultural researchers in Sri Lanka increased steadily. Agricultural R&D spending also rose throughout this period, albeit more erratically. In 2003, total expenditures amounted to $60 million (in 2000 ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Large-scale oil production and ensuing economic growth led to widespread neglect of Sudan’s agricultural sector for much of the 1990s and early 2000s. This, in combination with a donor embargo on development assistance from 1997, caused ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Strengthening Sudan’s agricultural research system is a key component in addressing the country’s increasing food insecurity and poverty. Nevertheless, public agricultural R&D spending has decreased over the past 30 years because of declining ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Overall, agricultural research staff and expenditures in Syria increased in 2003 compared to the 1998 level. Nonetheless, research intensity levels in Syria are still lower than in other countries in West Asia and North Africa. In 2002, the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agricultural R&D expenditures in Tanzania rose significantly in 2008 after many years of relatively low investment. That year, investment reached 31 billion Tanzanian shillings or 78 million PPP dollars (both in 2005 constant prices) compared ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agricultural research in Tanzania follows the regional pattern of high dependency on donor funding. Yet even with the high donor support, agricultural research investments per researcher and as a share of AgGDP remain very low, in part because ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Public agricultural R&D investments in The Gambia have followed an erratic pattern since the turn of the millennium, largely due to significant yearly fluctuations in government and donor support. In 2008, the country invested close to 20 ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Total agricultural researcher numbers in The Gambia rose by nearly 50 percent during 1991–2001. This was mainly due to the establishment of NARI in 1993, and the associated recruitment of additional staff to fulfill the institute’s broader ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    En 2008, le Togo investissait 2,1 milliards de francs CFA dans la R&D agricole, soit 8,9 millions de dollars (en prix de 2005); ce total incluait les salaires, les frais de fonctionnement, les coûts de programmes, ainsi que les frais ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In 2008, Togo’s investments in agricultural R&D totaled 2.1 billion CFA francs, or 8.9 million dollars (both in 2005 constant prices), which included all salaries, operating costs, and capital investments. During the past decade, funding for ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    With rising numbers of researchers in the higher-education and nonprofit sectors and falling numbers in the government sector, total agricultural researcher numbers in Togo remained relatively unchanged throughout the 1990s. Agricultural research ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Tunisia’s agricultural research system underwent important reforms over the past decade, facilitated by the national government’s commitment to the agricultural sector and important World Bank-support agricultural research and extension ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Public agricultural R&D investment in Uganda grew substantially during 2000–08. Initially, growth stemmed from increased donor funding, mainly through the World Bank loan–funded project ARTP II; more recently, government support increased ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Following the PMA framework NARO will need to narrow its mandate on noncommercial crops with the private sector becoming responsible for research on commercial crops. Until now, however, the producer organizations have not been very willing to ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    En 2006, Uruguay empleaba en torno a 400 investigadores ETC e invertía 848 millones de pesos uruguayos (en precios actuales) en investigación agropecuaria. La estructura de financiamiento del INIA es peculiar para América Latina pues el instituto ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In 2006, Uruguay employed roughly 400 fte researchers and spent 848 million Uruguayan pesos (in current prices) on agricultural research. INIA’s funding structure is unique in Latin America in that it receives the proceeds of a commodity tax ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Agricultural researcher totals in Vietnam increased steadily during 1991–2003, reaching nearly 3,000 fte’s in 2003. The country’s agricultural R&D expenditures almost tripled throughout 1996–2002 as a result of an increased commitment by the ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Female farmers play a vital role in African agriculture, accounting for 60 to 80 percent of the agricultural workforce. However, agricultural research and higher education are disproportionately led by men. There is an urgent need for a greater ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Long-term trends indicate a serious decline in investment in agricultural R&D in Zambia. Public agricultural R&D spending fell to an historical low of 18 billion kwacha or 7 million PPP dollars in 2005 (both in 2005 constant prices), ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    Zambia’s agricultural research sector has undergone significant reform in recent years in attempts to increase effectiveness, cut costs, build capacity, attract new sources of funding—especially from the private sector—and ultimately reach out to ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    In the past, Zimbabwe earned a reputation in Africa for its long-established national agricultural research system and high-quality academic institutions. After 2000, however, economic decline constrained the government’s ability to provide ...
  • Project Papers and Notes
    عاطقلل ريبك لامهإ ىلا عساو قاطن ىلع طفنلا جاتنإ يلت يذلا يداصتقلإا ومنلا ىدأ رظح بناج ىلإ اذه يلاحلا نرقلا لئاوأو تانيعستلا مظعم يف نادوسلا يف يعارزلا يف ببست امم ،1997 ذنم ةيومنتلا تادعاسملل ةصصخم تناك يتلا ةيليومتلا حنملا .ةرتفلا كلت للاخ ريبك ...