Governments, businesses, and civil society groups increasingly realize the important need of supporting food systems to produce and supply diverse, nutritious, and safe foods for healthy lives. Flagship 1 responds to concerns about global diet trends and demands from countries on how to transform sustainable and systemic food system transformations for healthier diets to address unabated problems of undernutrition, micronutrient deficiencies, and overnutrition. This flagship takes a holistic perspective of food systems, including production, distribution, waste disposal, and food consumption. The systems approach aims to understand the interactions between different parts and act upon how together they are effecting change, rather than improving specific components in isolation. This is necessary because a food system is multidimensional. It includes sociocultural, economic, environmental, and political aspects, with many actors (food producers, food-chain actors, and consumers) managing multiple, linked agri-food value chains within dynamic food environments.