A combination of new and ongoing forces is driving global food prices. Rising energy prices and subsidized biofuel production, income and population growth, globalization, and urbanization are among the major forces contributing to surging demand—while on the supply side, land and water constraints, underinvestment in rural infrastructure and agricultural innovation, lack of access to inputs, and weather disruptions are impairing productivity growth and the needed production response. According to IMF data, rice and wheat prices soared in late 2007 and early 2008—up 60% and 89% respectively over 2007 levels. Prices are unlikely to drop in the medium term—compared to 2005 levels, the price of maize is likely to be 40% higher in 2016 with wheat prices up by 20% and rice by 14%.
How they are linked, and what can be done
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)