Africa has long needed to significantly and sustainably intensify its smallholder agriculture. But achieving large-scale, sustainable increases in productivity is a complex process. Less-than-ideal growing conditions, limited suitable space for expansion, and a lack of infrastructure and support services may limit farmers’ prospects and give them few incentives to invest. The Atlas of African Agriculture Research & Development helps illustrate how African farmers, and those who strive to serve them, simultaneously face large and diverse challenges as well as opportunities for boosting productivity. The atlas presents a broad range of geospatial data resources that can provide insights into the obstacles and opportunities facing poor farm households in Africa.