Cereals account for 50 percent of the average daily caloric intake in Africa. Wheat and rice are particularly important, accounting for 30 percent and 16 percent of cereal calories consumed, respectively. Cereal production in Africa is substantial, but it is not enough to meet demand; the continent must import about 55 percent of consumed wheat and more than 30 percent of consumed rice (FAO 2012). Understanding where half of the continent’s calories (both vegetal and animal) are grown, and how intensively, is vital to increasing productivity and enhancing food security. Identifying areas where new or improved rice- and wheat-growing technologies could have the most impact can also aid in making the continent less dependent on imports.