Genetically modified crops in Africa

Economic and policy lessons from countries south of the Sahara

José Benjamin Falck-Zepeda, ed., Guillaume P. Gruère, ed., Idah Sithole-Niang, ed.

A variable climate, political instability, and other constraints have limited agricultural development in African countries south of the Sahara. Genetically modified (GM) crops are one tool for enhancing agricultural productivity and food security despite such constraints.

Genetically Modified Crops in Africa: Economic and Policy Lessons from Countries South of the Sahara investigates how this tool might be effectively used by evaluating the benefits, costs, and risks for African countries of adopting GM crops. The authors gather together studies on GM crops’ economic effects and impact on trade, how consumers view such crops, and other issues. They find that GM crops have had, on average, a positive economic effect in the nations where they were used and identify future steps for enhancing GM crop adoption’s positive effects. Promising policy initiatives include making biosafety regulations that do not make GM crop development prohibitively expensive, fostering intraregional trade in GM crops, and providing more and better information about GM crops to consumers who might currently be skeptical of them. These and other findings in Genetically Modified Crops in Africa indicate ways biotechnology can contribute to economic development in Africa south of the Sahara.

Tables, Figures, and Boxes vii
Abbreviations and Acronyms xi
Foreword xiii
Acknowledgments xv
Introduction and Background: José Falck-Zepeda, Guillaume Gruère, and Idah Sithole-Niang 1
Chapter 1 Socioeconomic and Farm-Level Effects of Genetically Modified Crops: The Case of Bt Crops in South Africa Marnus Gouse 25
Chapter 2 Bt Maize and Fumonisin Reduction in South Africa: Potential Health Impacts: Carl E. Pray, John P. Rheeder, Marnus Gouse, Yvette Volkwyn, Liana van der Westhuizen, and Gordon S. Shephard 43
Chapter 3 Genetically Modified Cotton in Uganda: An Ex Ante Evaluation: Daniela Horna, Patricia Zambrano, José Falck-Zepeda, Theresa Sengooba, and Miriam Kyotalimye 61
Chapter 4 Benefits, Costs, and Consumer Perceptions of the Potential Introduction of a Fungus-Resistant Banana in Uganda and Policy Implications: Enoch M. Kikulwe, Ekin Birol, Justus Wesseler, and José Falck-Zepeda 99
Chapter 5 Genetically Modified Organisms, Exports, and Regional Integration in Africa: David Wafula and Guillaume Gruère 149
Chapter 6 Estimates and Implications of the Costs of Compliance with Biosafety Regulations for African Agriculture: José Falck-Zepeda and Patricia Zambrano 159
Chapter 7 Policy, Investment, and Partnerships for Agricultural Biotechnology Research in Africa: Emerging Evidence: David J. Spielman and Patricia Zambrano 183
Chapter 8 Genetically Modified Foods and Crops: Africa’s Choice: Robert Paarlberg 207
Conclusion: Guillaume Gruère, Idah Sithole-Niang, and José Falck-Zepeda 219
Contributors 229
Index 235