This case study explores the relationships between agroforestry-based soil fertility replenishment (SFR) systems (improved follows and biomass transfer) and poverty reduction in rural western Kenya. It further examines the role that different dissemination aproaches play in the conditioning which segments of society gain access to information to the technlolgies and then uses them. The study made use of many different qualitative data collection methods and samples from both pilot areas where researchers maintained a significant presence and nonpilot areas where farmers learned of the technologies through other channels. Adoption processes were analyzed quantitatively using almost 2,000 households while changes in impact indicators were measured for just over 100 households. Quaalitative methods included case studies for 40 households, where researchers lived in the villages for six months, and focus group discussion involving 16 different groups.