The poorest and hungry

Assessments, analyses, and actions: An IFPRI 2020 book

Joachim von Braun, Ruth Vargas Hill, Rajul Pandya-Lorch

Although many millions of people have exited poverty in recent decades, much of the reduction in poverty has benefited people living close to the poverty line rather than those at the very bottom of the income distribution.

This book is not focused on poverty per se but rather is focused on looking particularly at those most deprived in society. It is this focus on the poorest and hungry people that is the major contribution of this volume. Relatively little is known about people living in extreme deprivation. Who are the poorest of the poor and those most afflicted by hunger? Who are those who are left behind or out of poverty and hunger reduction processes? Why is poverty so persistent in some places and among some people? What are the key pathways out of ultra poverty and hunger? Which strategies, policies, and interventions have been successful in eradicating ultra poverty and hunger so far? In addition, the book features essays by leading policymakers and practitioners who share their views on these key issues and thereby contribute to the diversity of perspectives presented.

This edited book seeks to lay out the major issues involved in realizing improvements in the welfare of the world’s poorest people. It is not designed to be read at one sitting; rather it is a “recipe book” for use by policymakers and practitioners as a guide to approaches and options as well as by academics and researchers as an instrument for training and teaching purposes. To enable this material to be accessible to a wide audience, we deliberately asked the authors to refrain from adding references in the text but instead to direct readers interested in fuller discussions and more data to the further readings referenced at the end of each chapter.

  • Table of Contents, Foreword
  • Chapter 1 - The Poorest and the Hungry: A Synthesis of Analyses and Actions
    Joachim von Braun, Ruth Vargas Hill, and Rajul Pandya-Lorch

Part 1 Understanding Ultra Poverty and Hunger: Theory and Measurement

  • Chapter 2 - The Changing Profile of Poverty in the World
    Shaohua Chen and Martin Ravallion
  • Chapter 3 - Counting and Multidimensional Poverty
    Sabina Alkire and James Foster
  • Chapter 4 - Child Malnutrition in India and China: A Comparison
    Peter Svedberg
  • Chapter 5 - The Poorest and Hungry: Looking below the Line
    Akhter U. Ahmed, Ruth Vargas Hill, and Doris M. Wiesmann
  • Chapter 6 - The Poorest and Hungry: Characteristics and Causes
    Akhter U. Ahmed, Ruth Vargas Hill, Lisa C. Smith, and Tim Frankenberger
  • Chapter 7 - Mapping Where the Poor Live
    Todd Benson, Michael Epprecht, and Nicholas Minot
  • Chapter 8 - Poverty Traps: Exploring the Complexity of Causation
    Partha Dasgupta

Part 2 - Fostering Inclusive "Growth+" for the Poorest

  • Chapter 9 - Global Macroeconomic Developments: The Implications for Poverty
    Eugenio Díaz-Bonilla
  • Chapter 10 - Poverty and the Globalization of the Food and Agriculture System
    Joachim von Braun and Tewodaj Mengistu
  • Chapter 11 - Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction: Do Poor Countries Need to Worry about Inequality?
    Martin Ravallion
  • Chapter 12 - Economic Reform to Stimulate Growth and Reduce Poverty: The Latin American Experience
    Alberto Valdés and William Foster
  • Chapter 13 - Determinants of Pro-Poor Growth
    Stephan Klasen
  • Chapter 14 - Determinants of Rural Poverty Reduction and Pro-Poor Economic Growth in China
    Jikun Huang, Qi Zhang, and Scott Rozelle

see: Huang, J., Q. Zhang, and S. Rozelle. 2008. Economic growth, the nature of growth and poverty reduction in rural China. China Economic Journal 1 (1):

  • Chapter 15 - International Migration: Can It Improve Living Standards among Poor and Vulnerable Populations?
    Alan de Brauw
  • Chapter 16 - Land Issues and Poverty Reduction: Requirements for Lasting Peace in Sudan and Afghanistan
    Gunnar M. Sørbø and Arne Strand
  • Chapter 17 - Property Rights for Poverty Reduction
    Ruth Meinzen-Dick, Patricia Kameri-Mbote, and Helen Markelova
  • Chapter 18 - The Political Economy of Designing Programs to Reach the Poorest
    Ehtisham Ahmad
  • Chapter 19 - China's Poverty Alleviation Policy and Management
    Chu Liming, Wen Qiuliang, Lin Zechang, and Fang Yaming
  • Essay 1 - The Macroeconomic Foundations of Inclusive Middle-Class Growth
    Nancy Birdsall

Part 3 - Focusing on Social Policies and Insurance

  • Chapter 20 - Growth-Promoting Social Safety Nets
    Harold Alderman and John Hoddinott
  • Chapter 21 - Social Security: What Can Developing Countries Learn from Developed Countries?
    Jean-Jacques Dethier
  • Chapter 22 - Conditional Cash Transfer Programs: A "Magic Bullet" for Reducing Poverty?
    Michelle Adato and John Hoddinott
  • Chapter 23 - How Effective Are Food-for-Education Programs? A Critical Reassessment
    Sarah Adelman, Daniel O. Gilligan, and Kim Lehrer
  • Chapter 24 - How to Effectively Scale Up Interventions and Actions That Address Malnutrition: Three Cases from Helen Keller International
    Kathy Spahn
  • Chapter 25 - Designing Insurance for the Poor
    Stefan Dercon
  • Chapter 26 - Health Care for the World’s Poorest: Is Voluntary (Private) Health Insurance an Option?
    Jacques van der Gaag
  • Chapter 27 - Microfinance Interventions to Enable the Poorest to Improve Their Asset Base
    Fazle Hasan Abed
  • Chapter 28 - Scaling Up Microfinance in India: The Role of the Private Sector
    Sona Varma
  • Chapter 29 - Halving Brazil’s Poverty, 1983–2006
    Francisco H. G. Ferreira and Phillippe G. Leite
  • Chapter 30 - Zero Hunger and Territories of Citizenship: Promoting Food Security in Brazil’s Rural Areas
    José Graziano da Silva
  • Chapter 31 - Poverty, Inequality, and Welfare in a Rapid-Growth Economy: The Chilean Experience
    Dante Contreras
  • Essay 2 - The Fight against Poverty and Hunger in Brazil
    Patrus Ananias de Souza
  • Essay 3 - Reaching the Poorest of the Poor at the Community Level: The Experience of the Philippines
    Domingo F. Panganiban

Part 4 - Including the Excluded

  • Chapter 32 - Addressing Discrimination and Inequality among Groups
    Frances Stewart
  • Chapter 33 - The Dynamics of Poverty: Why Don’t "the Poor" Act Collectively?
    Anirudh Krishna
  • Chapter 34 - Economic Exclusion and Poverty Linkages: A Reflection on Concept, Consequences, and Remedies in an Asian Context
    Sukhadeo Thorat
  • Chapter 35 - Building a More Gender-Just and Equitable Society: Overcoming the Internal Contradictions to Self-Governance
    Neelima Khetan and Ajay Mehta
  • Chapter 36 - Strengthening Women’s Assets and Status: Programs Improving Poor Women’s Lives
    John Ambler, Lauren Pandolfelli, Anna Kramer, and Ruth Meinzen-Dick
  • Chapter 37 - Policies and Effects of Poverty Reduction for People with Disabilities in China
    Zhang Dongmei
  • Essay 4 - Including People with Disabilities in Actions to Reduce Poverty and Hunger
    Charlotte McClain-Nhlapo
  • Essay 5 - How Can Organizations of the Poorest Best Be Fostered?
    Vijay Kumar Thallam
  • Essay 6 - Tackling Social Exclusion: South Asia
    Qazi Kholiquzzaman Ahmad
  • Essay 7 - Policies and Lessons for Reaching Indigenous Peoples in
    Development Programs
    Lennart Båge

Part 5 - Strategies and Policies for Effective Action

  • Chapter 38 - The Millennium Development Goals: How Realistic Are They?
    Michiel Keyzer and Lia van Wesenbeeck
  • Chapter 39 - Choosing Policy Instruments to Reduce Hunger and Poverty: Is It Possible to Overcome the Feasibility Dilemma?
    Regina Birner
  • Chapter 40 - Investment Priorities for Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction
    Shenggen Fan, Joanna Brzeska, and Ghada Shields
  • Chapter 41 - How to Mobilize Public Resources to Support Poverty Reduction
    Shenggen Fan, Anuja Saurkar, and Ghada Shields
  • Chapter 42 - Improving Governance to Eradicate Poverty and Hunger
    Regina Birner
  • Chapter 43 - Social Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Developing Capacity to Reduce Poverty and Hunger
    Suresh Babu and Per Pinstrup-Andersen
  • Chapter 44 - Scaling Up: A Path to Effective Development
    Arntraud Hartmann and Johannes F. Linn
  • Contributors
  • Index
  • Book Covers