This book is designed for technical personnel and policymakers in national government and international agencies, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), as well as other development practitioners who face the task of addressing gender issues in development projects and policy. Practitioners may ask why they should address gender issues in development. First and foremost, gender equality is a basic human right—with value in and of itself. Second, many disparities in development outcomes arise from gender differences (see Box 1). Third, the task of addressing gender inequality is made even more urgent by the reality of its significant effects on the efficiency and welfare outcomes of project or policy interventions.