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discussion paper

Forced gifts: The burden of being a friend

In many developing countries, gift expenses account for a substantial share of total household expenditures. As incomes rise, gift expenses are escalating in several developing countries. We develop a theoretical model to demonstrate how (unequal)…

discussion paper

He says, she says: Exploring patterns of spousal agreement in Bangladesh

Participation in household decisions and control over assets are often used as indicators of bargaining power. Yet spouses do not necessarily provide the same answers to questions about these topics. We examine differences in spouses’ answers to…

discussion paper

The European Union–West Africa Economic Partnership Agreement

Despite recent modifications, the Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) between the European Union (EU) and West African (WA) countries is still being criticized for its potential detrimental effects on WA countries. This paper provides updated…

discussion paper

How do agricultural development projects aim to empower women?: Insights from an analysis of project strategies

Increasing numbers of development agencies and individual projects espouse objectives of women’s empowerment, yet there has been little systematic work on mechanisms by which interventions can enhance women’s empowerment. This gap exists because of…

discussion paper

The returns to empowerment in diversified rural household: Evidence from Niger

Niger is a landlocked Sahelian country, two-thirds of which is in the Sahara Desert. Although only one-eighth of the land considered arable, the overwhelming majority of Niger’s households is involved in rain-fed agriculture largely for subsistence.…

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