South Africa

Social Accounting Matrix (SAM), 1993 and 2000

The South African SAMs identify 39 activities and 39 commodities, which are further disaggregated across the nine provinces. The South African SAMs also disaggregate labour across nine provinces, three population groups, and three skill categories. The population groups include African, White, and Other Races. Finally, households are disaggregated across nine provinces, two area types (rural and urban), three population groups, and five per capita expenditure quintiles.

The SAM construction took place in two stages. In the first stage a macro-SAM was created based on national accounts and other more aggregate data sources. Production was then distributed across provinces. The latter was done using shares and therefore did not imbalance the SAM. At the second stage, the factor and household accounts were disaggregated using information from the household surveys. Since income and expenditures did not reconcile in the surveys it was necessary to balance the household accounts. This was done using cross-entropy estimation. The estimation procedure draws on the prior information contained within the balanced aggregate-household SAM and the detail household information from the surveys.

The South Africa SAMs are built on the framework originally presented in Thurlow and Seventer (2002).


The South Africa 1993 and 2000 SAM was prepared by James Thurlow. Funding for the SAM was provided by IFPRI.

How to cite: 

South Africa: Social Accounting Matrix, 1993 and 2000. 2005. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)(datasets).

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