Berber Kramer is an applied microeconomist in the Markets, Trade and Institutions Division of the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). Her research analyzes how to improve smallholder farmers’ ability to manage risk and smooth consumption, using both field experiments and existing panel data. Kramer has studied the impact and take-up of health insurance, as well as the effects of liquidity constraints and time inconsistency on household savings and health-seeking behavior. Her current projects focus on how new technologies can help improve the quality of agricultural insurance products, and how agricultural value chains can be leveraged to improve health and women’s empowerment. Kramer has led research projects in Nigeria, Kenya, Tanzania, Bangladesh and India.